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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Spain — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Spain is 4,500,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Spain is 10.41 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Spain, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 272,9462

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Spain, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 2,059,7632

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Spain, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 223,3272

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Spain ranked at No. 183

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Spain ranked at No. 611

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Spain, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2004/05: 12.0%4
1989: 12.7%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Spain, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

2005: 7%5

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Spain, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

2005: 81%5

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Spain, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2004/05: 0.5%4 5
1989: 2.0%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Spain is reported to be 2,500,0002

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Spain is 6.216

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Spain is reported to be 3,051,5881

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Spain is 6.986

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Spain are reported to have 1,800,0007 8 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Spain are reported to have 149,8479 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 28910 11 12 13
2013: 308
2012: 26410 11 12 13 14
2011: 25710 11 12 13
2010: 28815
2009: 32210 11 12 13
2008: 307
2007: 267
2006: 293
2005: 278
2004: 310
2003: 350
2002: 324
2001: 30810 11 12
2000: 33110 11 12 13
1999: 28010 11 12 16
1998: 35210 11 12
1997: 380

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.616
2013: 0.65
2012: 0.566 14
2011: 0.556
2010: 0.6315
2009: 0.706
2008: 0.67
2007: 0.59
2006: 0.66
2005: 0.64
2004: 0.72
2003: 0.83
2002: 0.78
2001: 0.75
2000: 0.82
1999: 0.70
1998: 0.88
1997: 0.95

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Spain, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 36417
2011: 38717 18 19
2010: 39017 18
2009: 399
2008: 426
2007: 482
2006: 47617 18 20
2005: 518
2004: 52017 18
2003: 587
2002: 564
2001: 577
2000: 55317 18 21
1999: 48618 21
1998: 522
1997: 46318 22
1996: 397
1995: 411

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.817
2011: 0.817 18 19
2010: 0.817 18
2009: 0.9
2008: 0.9
2007: 1.1
2006: 1.117 18 20
2005: 1.2
2004: 1.217 18
2003: 1.4
2002: 1.4
2001: 1.4
2000: 1.417 18 21
1999: 1.218 21
1998: 1.3
1997: 1.218 22
1996: 1.0
1995: 1.0
1993: 0.9523

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Spain, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 6810
2013: 58
2012: 6310 17 14
2011: 5710 17
2010: 67
2009: 7810 17 18
2008: 80
2007: 57
2006: 82
2005: 74
2004: 8610
2003: 115
2002: 103
2001: 104
2000: 10510 18
1999: 68
1998: 85
1997: 10510
1996: 14822
1995: 107

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1510
2013: 0.12
2012: 0.2310 6 14
2011: 0.1210 6
2010: 0.15
2009: 0.1710 6 18
2008: 0.18
2007: 0.13
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.17
2004: 0.210
2003: 0.27
2002: 0.25
2001: 0.26
2000: 0.2610 18
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.22
1997: 0.2710
1996: 0.3822
1995: 0.27
1993: 0.2124

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Spain, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 14%17
2011: 14%17 19
2010: 18%17
2009: 23%
2008: 16%
2007: 14%
2006: 13%
2005: 12%
2000: 19.6%18
1999: 18.1%
1998: 19.8%

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Spain, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 2210
2013: 19
2012: 13
2011: 12
2010: 14
2009: 9
2008: 3
2007: 4
2006: 8
2005: 7
2004: 16
2003: 12
2002: 21
2001: 16
2000: 14
1999: 3

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0510
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.01

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Spain, annual long gun homicides total

2014: 1210
2013: 15
2012: 17
2011: 8
2010: 14
2009: 10
2008: 5
2007: 6
2006: 12
2005: 7
2004: 8
2003: 13
2002: 14
2001: 14
2000: 18
1999: 7

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0310
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.02

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Spain, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 3410
2013: 24
2012: 33
2011: 37
2010: 39
2009: 59
2008: 72
2007: 47
2006: 62
2005: 60
2004: 62
2003: 90
2002: 68
2001: 74
2000: 73
1999: 58

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0710
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.16
2007: 0.10
2006: 0.14
2005: 0.14
2004: 0.15
2003: 0.21
2002: 0.16
2001: 0.18
2000: 0.18
1999: 0.15

Suicides (any method)

In Spain, annual suicides by any means total

1998: 3,26116

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1998: 7.9416
1993: 7.7725

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Spain, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 20711
2013: 218
2012: 17611 14
2011: 17611
2010: 193
2009: 205
2008: 194
2007: 170
2006: 181
2005: 170
2004: 188
2003: 203
2002: 192
2001: 169
2000: 187
1999: 178
1998: 224
1997: 221

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.4511
2013: 0.47
2012: 0.3811 14
2011: 0.3811
2010: 0.42
2009: 0.45
2008: 0.43
2007: 0.38
2006: 0.41
2005: 0.39
2004: 0.44
2003: 0.48
2002: 0.46
2001: 0.42
2000: 0.47
1999: 0.45
1998: 0.57
1997: 0.56
1993: 0.4326

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Spain, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 2911
2013: 26
2012: 20
2011: 18
2010: 24
2009: 18
2008: 24
2007: 20
2006: 18
2005: 15
2004: 27
2003: 30
2002: 23
2001: 24
2000: 21
1999: 12

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0611
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.05
1999: 0.03

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Spain, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 4311
2013: 45 2012
2011: 38
2010: 32
2009: 58
2008: 50
2007: 40
2006: 61
2005: 53
2004: 59
2003: 57
2002: 53
2001: 56
2000: 63
1999: 33
:

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0911
2013: 0.10
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.07
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.11
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.14
2005: 0.12
2004: 0.14
2003: 0.14
2002: 0.13
2001: 0.14
2000: 0.16
1999: 0.08

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Spain, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 13511
2013: 147
2012: 119
2011: 120
2010: 137
2009: 129
2008: 120
2007: 110
2006: 102
2005: 102
2004: 102
2003: 116
2002: 116
2001: 89
2000: 103
1999: 133

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2911
2013: 0.32
2012: 0.25
2011: 0.26
2010: 0.30
2009: 0.28
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.25
2006: 0.23
2005: 0.24
2004: 0.24
2003: 0.28
2002: 0.28
2001: 0.22
2000: 0.26
1999: 0.34

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 1212
2013: 27
2012: 2312 14
2011: 2312
2010: 25
2009: 33
2008: 28
2007: 39
2006: 23
2005: 33
2004: 31
2003: 31
2002: 26
2001: 35
2000: 37
1999: 34
1998: 43
1997: 54

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0312
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.0512 6
2011: 0.0512
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.08
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.09
1999: 0.09
1998: 0.11
1997: 0.14
1993: 0.2527

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2007: 112
2005: 2
2002: 4
2001: 2
2000: 4

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2007: 0.0012
2005: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2013: 812
2012: 9
2011: 3
2010: 7
2009: 4
2008: 8
2007: 10
2006: 3
2005: 5
2004: 7
2003: 5
2002: 6
2001: 6
2000: 12
1999: 5

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0212
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.01

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2014: 1212
2013: 19
2012: 14
2011: 20
2010: 18
2009: 29
2008: 20
2007: 28
2006: 20
2005: 26
2004: 24
2003: 26
2002: 16
2001: 27
2000: 21
1999: 29

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0312
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.06
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.07
2000: 0.05
1999: 0.07

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 213
2013: 5
2012: 213 14
2011: 113
2010: 3
2009: 6
2008: 5
2007: 1
2006: 7
2005: 1
2004: 5
2003: 1
2002: 3
2000: 2
1999: 016

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0013
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.0013 6
2011: 0.0013
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.0016
1993: 0.0028

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 113
2010: 1
2004: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0013
2010: 0.00
2004: 0.00

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2005: 113
2004: 1
2002: 2

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2005: 0.0013
2004: 0.00
2002: 0.00

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 213
2013: 5
2012: 2
2010: 2
2009: 6
2008: 5
2007: 1
2006: 7
2004: 3
2003: 1
2002: 1
2000: 2

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0013
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.02
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2000: 0.01

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Spain, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence2

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Spain was ranked 'medium'29

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Spain, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law30 31 32 33 34

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Spain is reported by Customs to be US$51,457,40335 (2011)36 37 38 39 40

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Spain was categorized as 'major'41 42 43 40 44

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Spain, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law30 31 32 33

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Spain is reported by Customs to be US$50,589,00735 (2011)45 46 47 48 49

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Spain is moderate2

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Spain, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law50 51

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Spain scored

2016: 15.2552
2014: 16.2553
2013: 16.0054
2012: 15.7555
2011: 16.5056
2010: 16.5057
2009: 15.0058
2008: 13.7559
2007: 13.2560
2006: 12.5061
2005: 12.2562
2004: 8.7563

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Spain is categorised as restrictive64

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Spain includes the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,65 66 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200367 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms68

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Spain are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior through the General Directorate of the Civil Guard,69 and the European Commission66

Right to Possess Firearms

In Spain, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law70 71

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Spain, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition72 73

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Spain, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited72 73 19

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Spain, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation74 75 73

Regulation of Handguns

In Spain, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation72 74 75 73 19

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Spain, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law74 75 73 19

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Spain, only licensed gun owners76 77 72 74 19 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Spain are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security78

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Spain is 18 years, with exceptions76 78

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Spain must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, physical and domestic violence76 78 19 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Spain stipulates2 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Spain, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required2 for a firearm licence

Licensing Records

In Spain, authorities maintain a record2 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Spain are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm79

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Spain, the law requires69 80 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Spain, licensed firearm dealers are required81 80 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Spain, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful82 75

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Spain include76 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Spain include2 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Spain, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law83 84 85

Firearm Tracing

In Spain, state authorities carry out83 86 85 80 87 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Spain, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law19

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Spain, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit2

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Spain is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament88 89

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Spain is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Spain has submitted one or more national reports90 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200791 by Spain.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified92 by Spain

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified93 by Spain

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Spain committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects94

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Spain against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 6895 96 97 98 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Spain has submitted one or more national reports99 100 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Spain, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated101 100

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Spain, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated101

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Spain submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent100

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated100 by Spain to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Spain has declared102 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Spain has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1955103

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists104 Spain as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Spain, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Spain ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11817)Full Citation

5.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Percentage of Types of Firearm Possessed [by Households] in European Countries, 2004-2005.’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q12045)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Spain.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,25 July. (Q4281)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Table 4: Twenty Largest Military Small Arms Inventories.’ Armed Actors - Data Sources and the Estimation of Military-Owned Small Arms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 September. (Q8186)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

10.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 July. (Q6100)Full Citation

11.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 July. (Q6167)Full Citation

12.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 July. (Q6205)Full Citation

13.

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