Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Spain — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Spain is 4,500,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Spain is 10.41 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Spain, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 272,9462

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Spain, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 2,059,7632

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Spain, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 223,3272

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Spain ranked at No. 183

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Spain ranked at No. 611

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Spain, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2004/05: 12.0%4
1989: 12.7%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Spain, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2004/05: 0.5%4
1989: 2.0%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Spain is reported to be 2,500,0002

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Spain is 6.215

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Spain is reported to be 3,051,5881

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Spain is 6.985

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Spain are reported to have 1,800,0006 7 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Spain are reported to have 149,8478 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 2579 10 11 12
2010: 28813
2009: 3229 10 11 12
2008: 307
2007: 267
2006: 293
2005: 278
2004: 310
2003: 350
2002: 324
2001: 3089 10 11
2000: 3319 10 11 12
1999: 2809 10 11 14
1998: 3529 10 11
1997: 380

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.555
2010: 0.6313
2009: 0.705
2008: 0.67
2007: 0.59
2006: 0.66
2005: 0.64
2004: 0.72
2003: 0.83
2002: 0.78
2001: 0.75
2000: 0.82
1999: 0.70
1998: 0.88
1997: 0.95

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Spain, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 36415
2011: 38715 16 17
2010: 39015 16
2009: 399
2008: 426
2007: 482
2006: 47615 16 18
2005: 518
2004: 52015 16
2003: 587
2002: 564
2001: 577
2000: 55315 16 19
1999: 48616 19
1998: 522
1997: 46316 20
1996: 397
1995: 411

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.815
2011: 0.815 16 17
2010: 0.815 16
2009: 0.9
2008: 0.9
2007: 1.1
2006: 1.115 16 18
2005: 1.2
2004: 1.215 16
2003: 1.4
2002: 1.4
2001: 1.4
2000: 1.415 16 19
1999: 1.216 19
1998: 1.3
1997: 1.216 20
1996: 1.0
1995: 1.0
1993: 0.9521

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Spain, annual firearm homicides total

2012: 5115
2011: 579 15
2010: 67
2009: 789 15 16
2008: 80
2007: 57
2006: 82
2005: 74
2004: 869
2003: 115
2002: 103
2001: 104
2000: 1059 16
1999: 68
1998: 85
1997: 1059
1996: 14820
1995: 107

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.115
2011: 0.129 5
2010: 0.15
2009: 0.179 5 16
2008: 0.18
2007: 0.13
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.17
2004: 0.29
2003: 0.27
2002: 0.25
2001: 0.26
2000: 0.269 16
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.22
1997: 0.279
1996: 0.3820
1995: 0.27
1993: 0.2122

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Spain, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 14%15
2011: 14%15 17
2010: 18%15
2009: 23%
2008: 16%
2007: 14%
2006: 13%
2005: 12%
2000: 19.6%16
1999: 18.1%
1998: 19.8%

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Spain, annual handgun homicides total

2011: 129
2010: 14
2009: 9
2008: 3
2007: 4
2006: 8
2005: 7
2004: 16
2003: 12
2002: 21
2001: 16
2000: 14
1999: 3

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.039
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.01

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Spain, annual long gun homicides total

2011: 89
2010: 14
2009: 10
2008: 5
2007: 6
2006: 12
2005: 7
2004: 8
2003: 13
2002: 14
2001: 14
2000: 18
1999: 7

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.029
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.02

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Spain, annual gun homicides (other) total

2011: 379
2010: 39
2009: 59
2008: 72
2007: 47
2006: 62
2005: 60
2004: 62
2003: 90
2002: 68
2001: 74
2000: 73
1999: 58

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.089
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.16
2007: 0.10
2006: 0.14
2005: 0.14
2004: 0.15
2003: 0.21
2002: 0.16
2001: 0.18
2000: 0.18
1999: 0.15

Suicides (any method)

In Spain, annual suicides by any means total

1998: 3,26114

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1998: 7.9414
1993: 7.7723

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Spain, annual firearm suicides total

2011: 17610
2010: 193
2009: 205
2008: 194
2007: 170
2006: 181
2005: 170
2004: 188
2003: 203
2002: 192
2001: 169
2000: 187
1999: 178
1998: 224
1997: 221

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.3810
2010: 0.42
2009: 0.45
2008: 0.43
2007: 0.38
2006: 0.41
2005: 0.39
2004: 0.44
2003: 0.48
2002: 0.46
2001: 0.42
2000: 0.47
1999: 0.45
1998: 0.57
1997: 0.56
1993: 0.4324

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Spain, annual handgun suicides total

2011: 1810
2010: 24
2009: 18
2008: 24
2007: 20
2006: 18
2005: 15
2004: 27
2003: 30
2002: 23
2001: 24
2000: 21
1999: 12

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0410
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.05
1999: 0.03

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Spain, the number of long gun suicides is

2011: 3810
2010: 32
2009: 58
2008: 50
2007: 40
2006: 61
2005: 53
2004: 59
2003: 57
2002: 53
2001: 56
2000: 63
1999: 33

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0810
2010: 0.07
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.11
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.14
2005: 0.12
2004: 0.14
2003: 0.14
2002: 0.13
2001: 0.14
2000: 0.16
1999: 0.08

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Spain, annual gun suicides (other) total

2011: 12010
2010: 137
2009: 129
2008: 120
2007: 110
2006: 102
2005: 102
2004: 102
2003: 116
2002: 116
2001: 89
2000: 103
1999: 133

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.2610
2010: 0.30
2009: 0.28
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.25
2006: 0.23
2005: 0.24
2004: 0.24
2003: 0.28
2002: 0.28
2001: 0.22
2000: 0.26
1999: 0.34

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2012: 2325
2011: 2311
2010: 25
2009: 33
2008: 28
2007: 39
2006: 23
2005: 33
2004: 31
2003: 31
2002: 26
2001: 35
2000: 37
1999: 34
1998: 43
1997: 54

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0511
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.08
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.09
1999: 0.09
1998: 0.11
1997: 0.14
1993: 0.2526

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2007: 111
2005: 2
2002: 4
2001: 2
2000: 4

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2007: 0.0011
2005: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2011: 311
2010: 7
2009: 4
2008: 8
2007: 10
2006: 3
2005: 5
2004: 7
2003: 5
2002: 6
2001: 6
2000: 12
1999: 5

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0111
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.01

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2011: 2011
2010: 18
2009: 29
2008: 20
2007: 28
2006: 20
2005: 26
2004: 24
2003: 26
2002: 16
2001: 27
2000: 21
1999: 29

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0411
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.06
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.07
2000: 0.05
1999: 0.07

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 112
2010: 3
2009: 6
2008: 5
2007: 1
2006: 7
2005: 1
2004: 5
2003: 1
2002: 3
2000: 2
1999: 014

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0012
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.0014
1993: 0.0027

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 112
2010: 1
2004: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0012
2010: 0.00
2004: 0.00

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2005: 112
2004: 1
2002: 2

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2005: 0.0012
2004: 0.00
2002: 0.00

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 212
2009: 6
2008: 5
2007: 1
2006: 7
2004: 3
2003: 1
2002: 1
2000: 2

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0012
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.02
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2000: 0.01

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Spain, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence2

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Spain was ranked 'medium'28

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Spain, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law29 30 31 32 33

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Spain is reported by Customs to be US$51,457,40334 (2011)35 36 37 38 39

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Spain was categorized as 'major'40 41 42 39 43

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Spain, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law29 30 31 32

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Spain is reported by Customs to be US$50,589,00734 (2011)44 45 46 47 48

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Spain is moderate2

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Spain, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law49 50

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Spain scored

2014: 16.2551
2013: 16.0052
2012: 15.7553
2011: 16.5054
2010: 16.5055
2009: 15.0056
2008: 13.7557
2007: 13.2558
2006: 12.5059
2005: 12.2560
2004: 8.7561

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Spain is categorised as restrictive62

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Spain includes the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,63 64 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200365 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms66

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Spain are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior through the General Directorate of the Civil Guard,67 and the European Commission64

Right to Possess Firearms

In Spain, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law68 69

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Spain, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition70 71

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Spain, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited70 71 17

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Spain, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation72 73 71

Regulation of Handguns

In Spain, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation70 72 73 71 17

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Spain, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law72 73 71 17

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Spain, only licensed gun owners74 70 72 17 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Spain are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security75

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Spain is 18 years75

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Spain must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and domestic violence75 17 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Spain stipulates2 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Spain, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required2 for a firearm licence

Licensing Records

In Spain, authorities maintain a record2 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Spain are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm76

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Spain, the law requires67 77 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Spain, licensed firearm dealers are required78 77 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Spain, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful79 73

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Spain include2 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Spain include2 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Spain, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law80 81 82

Firearm Tracing

In Spain, state authorities carry out80 83 82 77 84 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Spain, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law17

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Spain, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit2

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Spain is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament85 86

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Spain is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Spain has submitted one or more national reports87 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200788 by Spain.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified89 by Spain

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified90 by Spain

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Spain committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects91

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Spain against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 6892 93 94 95 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Spain has submitted one or more national reports96 97 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Spain, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated98 97

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Spain, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated98

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Spain submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent97

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated97 by Spain to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Spain has declared99 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Spain has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1955100

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists101 Spain as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Spain, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Spain ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11817)Full Citation

5.

GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Spain.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,20 June. (Q4281)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Table 4: Twenty Largest Military Small Arms Inventories.’ Armed Actors - Data Sources and the Estimation of Military-Owned Small Arms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 September. (Q8186)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

9.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,23 June. (Q6100)Full Citation

10.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,23 June. (Q6167)Full Citation

11.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,23 June. (Q6205)Full Citation

12.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,23 June. (Q6465)Full Citation

13.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

14.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Spain.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10336)Full Citation

16.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Spain.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6254)Full Citation

17.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Spain.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9460)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

19.

UNODC.2004.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (1998-2000).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 March. (Q91)Full Citation

20.

UNODC.2001.‘Spain: Total Recorded Intentional Homicides (Completed) and Total Recorded Intentional Homicides Committed With a Firearm.’ Sixth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, covering the period 1995-1997.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,27 June. (Q1315)Full Citation

21.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

22.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

23.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

24.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

25.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

26.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

27.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

28.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

29.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

30.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

31.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

32.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

33.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

34.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

35.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

36.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

37.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

38.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

39.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

40.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

41.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Major Exporters and Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11036)Full Citation

42.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

43.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

44.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Imports per Top Importer and for All Importers, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11072)Full Citation

45.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

46.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

47.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

48.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

49.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

50.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

51.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

52.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

53.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

54.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

55.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

56.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

57.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

58.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

59.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

60.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

61.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

62.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

63.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

64.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

65.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

66.

UNGA.1969.‘Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks.’ Convention for the Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks on Small Arms of July 1, 1969.Brussels:United Nations General Assembly,1 July. (Q5999)Full Citation

67.

Spain.2008.‘Records.’ National Report of Spain on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q4761)Full Citation

68.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

69.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

70.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

71.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

72.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

73.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

74.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

75.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

76.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

77.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

78.

Spain.2008.‘Requirements for Arms Dealers.’ National Report of Spain on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q4520)Full Citation

79.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

80.

Spain.2008.‘National Marking System.’ National Report of Spain on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q4760)Full Citation

81.

Spain.2008.‘Marking of State Arms.’ National Report of Spain on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q4762)Full Citation

82.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation

83.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q323)Full Citation

84.

Karp, Aaron, Nicholas Marsh and Giorgio Ravagli.2015.‘Summary of Reported International Requests for Tracing of Firearms, 2010-2013.’ UNODC Study on Firearms 2015.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),3 July. (Q10546)Full Citation

85.

European Parliament.2007.‘Roll-call Vote: EU Firearms Directive.’ Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons.Brussels:VoteWatch.eu,29 November. (Q1346)Full Citation

86.

EU Parliament.2007.‘Draft Legislative Resolution on the EU Parliament Firearms Directive 2007.’ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.Brussels:European Parliament,12 July. (Q1970)Full Citation

87.

Saferworld.2010.‘EU Arms Transfer Reporting Database.’ Saferworld European Union Arms Transfer Reporting Database.London:Saferworld,9 December. (Q3364)Full Citation

88.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

89.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

90.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

91.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

92.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

93.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

94.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

95.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

96.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

97.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

98.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

99.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

100.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

101.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation