Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Switch Language

South Africa — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in South Africa is 5,950,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in South Africa is 12.71 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In South Africa, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 102,4543

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In South Africa, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 361,9053

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 1,956,8833 handguns in civilian possession in South Africa

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, South Africa ranked at No. 174

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, South Africa ranked at No. 501

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in South Africa is reported to be 1,800,0003

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in South Africa is 4.045

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in South Africa is reported to be 3,737,6764

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in South Africa is 7.875

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in South Africa there are estimated to be 500,000 to 4,000,0006

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in South Africa there are estimated to be 8.425 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of South Africa are reported to have 350,6367 2 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in South Africa are reported to have 250,0008 9 2 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In South Africa, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2008: 3,35710

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In South Africa, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2008: 6.885

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 15,60911 12
2010: 15,94011 13
2009: 16,834
2008: 18,148
2007: 18,487
2006: 19,202
2005: 18,528
2004: 18,793
2003: 19,824
2002: 21,553
2001: 21,405
2000: 21,758
1999: 22,604
1998: 25,127
1997: 24,486
1996: 25,470
1995: 26,877
1994: 26,83214

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 30.911 12 15
2010: 31.811 13 15
2009: 33.8
2008: 36.811 13 15 16
2007: 37.9
2006: 39.7
2005: 38.8
2004: 39.8
2003: 42.5
2002: 46.811 13 16
2001: 47.2
2000: 48.6
1999: 51.2
1998: 57.7
1997: 57.1
1996: 60.4
1995: 64.9

Gun Homicides

ChartIn South Africa, annual firearm homicides total

2007: 8,31911
2006: 9,063
2005: 8,597
2004: 9,021
2003: 9,714
2002: 10,130
2001: 10,274
2000: 10,727
1999: 11,212
1998: 12,413
1997: 11,166
1996: 11,258
1995: 11,154
1994: 11,13414

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2007: 17.011 17
2006: 18.811 18 17
2005: 18.011 17
2004: 19.1
2003: 20.8
2002: 22.011
2001: 22.6
2000: 24.0
1999: 25.4
1998: 28.5
1997: 26.0
1996: 26.7
1995: 26.9
1994: 28.8014

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, annual suicides by any means total

2008: 3,12510
1999: 5,04719

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2008: 6.415
1999: 11.2119

Gun Suicides

ChartIn South Africa, annual firearm suicides total

2008: 42210
1999: 1,71619

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.875
1999: 3.8119

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In South Africa, annual unintentional shooting deaths total 1999: 15619

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In South Africa, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is 1999: 0.3519

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In South Africa, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total 1999: 15619

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In South Africa, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is 1999: 0.3519

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In South Africa, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence20 21 22 23

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, South Africa is ranked 'medium'24

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In South Africa, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law25 26 27 28

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from South Africa is reported by Customs to be US$20,034,75829 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, South Africa is categorized as 'mid-level'30

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In South Africa, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law25 26 27 28

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to South Africa is reported by Customs to be US$23,643,43729 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in South Africa is high31 32 33 34 35 3

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In South Africa, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law36 37

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in South Africa include26 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, South Africa was ranked at No. 5138

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in South Africa is categorised as restrictive39

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in South Africa includes the Firearms Control Act 2000,40 and the Firearms Control regulations 200441

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in South Africa are regulated by the National Commissioner Registrar of Firearms42

Right to Possess Firearms

In South Africa, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law43

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In South Africa, civilians are not allowed to possess semi-automatic firearms without special endorsement, automatic firearms and specifically modified firearms44

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In South Africa, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited45

Regulation of Handguns

In South Africa, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence46

Gun Ownership and Possession

In South Africa, only licensed gun owners (with competency certificate)47 48 49 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in South Africa are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security50 51 52 53 54 55

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in South Africa is 21 years, with some exceptions that may include the fact that the applicant conducts a business, is gainfully employed, a dedicated hunter, a dedicated sports person or a private collector56 54

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in South Africa must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental, medical, domestic violence, addiction, employment, and previous firearm licence57 58 59 60 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In South Africa, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required61

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in South Africa stipulates57 58 59 60 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In South Africa, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required57 48 62 63 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In South Africa gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every two to ten years64

Licensing Records

In South Africa, authorities maintain a record65 66 67 68 27 69 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in South Africa are permitted to possess 1 firearm per firearm licence70

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in South Africa are permitted to possess up to 2,400 primers or 200 cartridges per firearm, for all those other than dedicated hunters or sports-shooters71 72

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In South Africa, the law requires65 73 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In South Africa, licensed firearm dealers are required65 74 75 76 27 73 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In South Africa, licensed gun makers are required65 73 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In South Africa, State agencies are required65 77 78 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In South Africa, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited79

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In South Africa, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful79 80

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In South Africa, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 4 months for civilian competency certificates and 30 days for individual security officer certificates81

Regulation of Gun Shows

In South Africa, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated82 83 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in South Africa include84 85 86 87 88 89 90 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in South Africa include84 85 20 91 21 92 93 88 89 90 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in South Africa include94 95 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in South Africa include84 21 96 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In South Africa, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law97 98 99 21

Firearm Tracing

In South Africa, state authorities carry out100 98 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Marking of Firearms and Ammunition

In South Africa, state authorities employ101 ballistic fingerprinting technology to trace guns and ammunition

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In South Africa, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited102

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In South Africa, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed without a permit102

Gun Free Zones

In South Africa, private guns are prohibited in educational institutions, churches, community centres, health facilities, NGOs, taverns, banks, corporate buildings, government buildings and some public spaces such as sport stadiums103 104

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In South Africa, the maximum penalty for illicit firearm possession is up to 15 years prison47

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in South Africa are known to have105 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In South Africa, the number of firearms and/or rounds of ammunition voluntarily surrendered for destruction in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 62,404105 (2005)

Small Arms Destroyed

In South Africa, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 244,719105

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In South Africa, it is state policy106 107 108 109 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, South Africa adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 2006110

Southern African Development Community

As a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), South Africa signed the SADC Declaration Concerning Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials in March 2001. This laid the ground for the August, 2001 adoption of the legally binding SADC Protocol on Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials111

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006112 by South Africa.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified113 by South Africa

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified114 by South Africa

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, South Africa committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects115

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, South Africa has submitted one or more national reports116 117 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In South Africa, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated118 117

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In South Africa, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated118 117

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of South Africa submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent117

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated117 by South Africa to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided117 to South Africa by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, South Africa has not declared119 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, South Africa has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945120

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists121 South Africa as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in South Africa, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where South Africa ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Abrahams, Naeemah, Rachel Jewkes and Shanaaz Mathews.2010.‘Firearm-Related Crime - Firearm Ownership.’ Guns and Gender-based Violence in South Africa.Cape Town:South African Medical Journal (SAMJ),1 September. (Q6635)Full Citation

3.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

GunPolicy.org.2011.‘Calculated Rates – South Africa.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,17 March. (Q4276)Full Citation

6.

Keegan, Margaret.2005.‘The Proliferation of Firearms in South Africa, 1994-2004.’ Gun Free South Africa.Johannesburg:Gun Free South Africa,30 April. (Q2068)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 1 - Estimated Law Enforcement Firearms in 20 Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q6544)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 2 - Examples of Police Firearms Per Officer in Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q6545)Full Citation

10.

Hilton, Donson.2009.‘External Causes of Death - Violence - Suicide.’ A Profile of Fatal Injuries in South Africa 2008 - 10th Annual Report for South Africa Based on the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS).Johannesburg:South African Medical Research Council (MRC), University of South Africa (UNISA), Crime, Violence and Injury Lead Progamme (CVILP),1 November. (Q6637)Full Citation

11.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - South Africa.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6388)Full Citation

12.

Gould, Chandré, Johan Burger and Gareth Newham.2012.‘Violent Crime.’ South African Police Service Crime Statistics.Pretoria:Institute for Security Studies,3 December. (Q6697)Full Citation

13.

UNODC.2012.‘Intentional Homicide, Count and Rate per 100,000 Population (1995-2011) - South Africa.’ Homicide Statistics 2012.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q6684)Full Citation

14.

Kirsten, Adèle, Jacklyn Cock, Lephophotho Mashike and Knowledge Raji Matshedisho.2006.‘Gun-free Zones in South Africa's Fothane, Diepkloof, and Khayelitsha.’ Islands of Safety in a Sea of Guns.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 March. (Q2070)Full Citation

15.

South Africa.2012.‘Murder: Crime Ratio per 100 000 of the Population in the Republic of South Africa 2003-2012.’ Crime Statistics Overview 2011/2012.Pretoria:South African Police Service,1 September. (Q6696)Full Citation

16.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Sub-Saharan Africa, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3812)Full Citation

17.

South Africa.2012.‘Firearms/Ammunition: Crime Ratio in the Republic of South Africa 2003-2012.’ Crime Statistics Overview 2011/2012.Pretoria:South African Police Service,1 September. (Q6694)Full Citation

18.

Abrahams, Naeemah, Rachel Jewkes and Shanaaz Mathews.2010.‘Firearm-Related Crime - Firearm Ownership.’ Guns and Gender-based Violence in South Africa.Cape Town:South African Medical Journal (SAMJ),1 September. (Q6634)Full Citation

19.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

20.

South Africa.2004.‘Additional Particulars to be Provided with an Application for a Dealer, Manufacturer and Gunsmith's Licence.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5258)Full Citation

21.

South Africa.2004.‘Conditions in Respect of a Manufacturer's Licence.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5265)Full Citation

22.

South Africa.2011.‘Prohibition of Unlicensed Manufacture of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6701)Full Citation

23.

South Africa.2011.‘Prohibition of Certain Work – Gunsmiths.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6702)Full Citation

24.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

25.

South Africa.2011.‘Prohibition of Import, Export or Carriage In-transit of Firearms and Ammunition without Permit.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6703)Full Citation

26.

South Africa.2004.‘Application Regarding In-Transit Permit.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5269)Full Citation

27.

South Africa.2004.‘Establishment of Central Importers' and Exporters' Database.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5271)Full Citation

28.

South Africa.2011.‘Establishment of Central Importers and Exporters Database.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6704)Full Citation

29.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

30.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

31.

Mthembu-Salter, Gregory and Guy Lamb.2008.‘Firearms Diversion from the South African National Defence Force.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 January. (Q6705)Full Citation

32.

Mthembu-Salter, Gregory and Guy Lamb.2008.‘Firearms Diversion from Security Companies.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 January. (Q6706)Full Citation

33.

Abrahams, Naeemah, Rachel Jewkes and Shanaaz Mathews.2010.‘Legal v. Illegal Guns.’ Guns and Gender-based Violence in South Africa.Cape Town:South African Medical Journal (SAMJ),1 September. (Q6636)Full Citation

34.

Seedat, Mohamed, Ashley Van Niekerk, Rachel Jewkes, Shahnaaz Suffla and Kopano Ratele.2009.‘Social Dynamics of Violence - Firearms.’ Health in South Africa 5 - Violence and Injuries in South Africa: Prioritising an Agenda for Prevention.Cape Town:Lancet,19 September. (Q6689)Full Citation

35.

Mthembu-Salter, Gregory and Guy Lamb.2008.‘The Meaning of Loss: Firearms Diversion in South Africa. Table 6.4.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 January. (Q6699)Full Citation

36.

Small Arms Survey.2004.‘Targeting the Middlemen: Controlling brokering activities.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q2077)Full Citation

37.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q128)Full Citation

38.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

39.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

40.

South Africa.2000.‘Purpose of Act.’ Firearms Control Act.Johannesburg:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1383)Full Citation

41.

South Africa.2004.‘Firearm Regulations.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5247)Full Citation

42.

South Africa.2011.‘Registrar of Firearms.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6691)Full Citation

43.

South Africa.2011.‘General Prohibition in Respect of Firearms and Muzzle Loading Firearms.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6695)Full Citation

44.

South Africa.2011.‘Prohibited Firearms.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6692)Full Citation

45.

South Africa.2000.‘Prohibited Firearms.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1418)Full Citation

46.

South Africa.2011.‘Licence to Possess Firearm for Occasional Hunting and Sports-shooting.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6693)Full Citation

47.

South Africa.2000.‘General Prohibition in Respect of Firearms.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1417)Full Citation

48.

South Africa.2008.‘Legal Instruments.’ National Report of South Africa on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1641)Full Citation

49.

South Africa.2000.‘Competency Certificates, Licences, Permits and Authorisations.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1419)Full Citation

50.

South Africa.2000.‘Licence to Possess Firearm for Occasional Hunting and Sports-shooting.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1423)Full Citation

51.

South Africa.2011.‘Licence to Possess Firearm in Private Collection.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6690)Full Citation

52.

South Africa.2000.‘Licence to Possess Firearm for Self-defence.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1422)Full Citation

53.

South Africa.2000.‘Licence to Possess Firearm for Business Purposes.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1425)Full Citation

54.

South Africa.2004.‘Conditions Regarding the Possession of Ammunition in a Private Collection.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5254)Full Citation

55.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5394)Full Citation

56.

South Africa.2000.‘Application for Competency Certificate – Age.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1421)Full Citation

57.

South Africa.2000.‘Application for Competency Certificate.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1420)Full Citation

58.

South Africa.2000.‘Declaration by Registrar of Person as Unfit to Possess Firearm.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1432)Full Citation

59.

South Africa.2004.‘Specific Provisions Regarding Competency Certificates.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5250)Full Citation

60.

South Africa.2004.‘Specific Provisions Regarding Competency Certificates.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5251)Full Citation

61.

South Africa.2004.‘General Provisions Regarding Applications Required in Terms of the Act.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5249)Full Citation

62.

South Africa.2005.‘Minimum Unit Standards for Competency Training.’ National Report of South Africa on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).Pretoria:Permanent Mission of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations,11 July. (Q1717)Full Citation

63.

South Africa.2004.‘Specific Provisions Regarding Competency Certificates.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5252)Full Citation

64.

South Africa.2011.‘Period of Validity of Licence or Permit.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6707)Full Citation

65.

South Africa.2000.‘Central Firearms Register.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1435)Full Citation

66.

South Africa.2004.‘The Central Firearms Database.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5257)Full Citation

67.

South Africa.2004.‘Establishment of Centralised Dealer's Database.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5264)Full Citation

68.

South Africa.2004.‘Registers in Respect of a Manufacturer.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5268)Full Citation

69.

South Africa.2004.‘Information That the Central Database Must Contain.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5279)Full Citation

70.

South Africa.2000.‘Separate Licence in Respect of Each Firearm.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q4357)Full Citation

71.

South Africa.2000.‘Restrictions on Possession of Ammunition.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q4358)Full Citation

72.

South Africa.2004.‘Application for Authorisation to Possess More Than 2400 Primers and to Possess More Than 200 Cartridges.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5273)Full Citation

73.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5380)Full Citation

74.

South Africa.2004.‘Registers in Respect of a Dealer.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5261)Full Citation

75.

South Africa.2004.‘Registers in Respect of a Dealer.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5262)Full Citation

76.

South Africa.2004.‘Registers in Respect of a Dealer.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5263)Full Citation

77.

South Africa.2004.‘Registers to be Kept by Official Institution.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5274)Full Citation

78.

South Africa.2004.‘Particulars That Register Must Contain.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5275)Full Citation

79.

South Africa.2011.‘Prohibition of Unlicensed Trading in Firearms, Muzzle Loading Firearms or Ammunition.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6700)Full Citation

80.

Karp, Aaron.2008.‘The Meaning of Loss: Firearms diversion in South Africa.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,14 July. (Q2071)Full Citation

81.

Zelda Venter. 2011. ‘4 Months … Then You Should Get Your Gun.’ Pretoria News (South Africa). 19 April. (N215) Full Citation

82.

South Africa.2000.‘Temporary Authorisation to Display Firearms and Ammunition on Premises Other Than Those Specified in Manufacturer's Licence.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q4359)Full Citation

83.

South Africa.2004.‘Application for Temporary Authorisation to Trade in Firearms and Ammunition on Premises other than those Specified in Dealer's Licence.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5260)Full Citation

84.

South Africa.2000.‘Storage and Transport of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1430)Full Citation

85.

South Africa.2005.‘Standards for Safekeeping of Firearms.’ National Report of South Africa on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations,11 July. (Q1646)Full Citation

86.

South Africa.2004.‘Safety Measures for the Display of Firearms in a Private Collection.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5253)Full Citation

87.

South Africa.2004.‘Safety Measures for the Display of Ammunition in a Private Collection.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5255)Full Citation

88.

South Africa.2004.‘Safes and Safe Custody.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5276)Full Citation

89.

Hughes, Ed and Karina Lynge.2010.‘Trading, Manufacture and Conversion of Weapons.’ Community Safety and Small Arms in Somaliland.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies and the Danish Demining Group,9 March. (Q5277)Full Citation

90.

South Africa.2004.‘Safes and Safe Custody.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5278)Full Citation

91.

South Africa.2004.‘Conditions in Respect of a Dealer's Licence.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5259)Full Citation

92.

South Africa.2004.‘Registers in Respect of a Manufacturer.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5266)Full Citation

93.

South Africa.2004.‘Registers in Respect of a Manufacturer.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5267)Full Citation

94.

South Africa.2008.‘Legal Instruments – Stockpile Management.’ National Report of South Africa on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1644)Full Citation

95.

South Africa.2003.‘Management of State Owned Firearms.’ National Report of South Africa on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of South Africa to the United Nations,2 June. (Q1664)Full Citation

96.

South Africa.2004.‘Packaging of Firearms and Ammunition During Transportation.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5270)Full Citation

97.

South Africa.2000.‘Identification Marks on Firearms.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1426)Full Citation

98.

South Africa.2008.‘Legal Instruments – Marking and Record Keeping.’ National Report of South Africa on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1643)Full Citation

99.

South Africa.2004.‘Identification Marks on Firearms.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5256)Full Citation

100.

South Africa.2005.‘Tracing of Illegal Firearms.’ National Report of South Africa on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations,11 July. (Q1645)Full Citation

101.

South Africa.2000.‘Ballistic Testing.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1433)Full Citation

102.

South Africa.2000.‘Carrying of Firearm in Public Place.’ Firearms Control Act 2000.Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q1431)Full Citation

103.

Kirsten, Adèle, Jacklyn Cock, Lephophotho Mashike and Knowledge Raji Matshedisho.2006.‘Gun-free Zones in South Africa's Fothane, Diepkloof, and Khayelitsha.’ Islands of Safety in a Sea of Guns.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 March. (Q2069)Full Citation

104.

South Africa.2004.‘Firearm Free Zones.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5282)Full Citation

105.

South Africa.2005.‘Amnesty Offered by the South African Authorities.’ National Report of South Africa on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations,11 July. (Q1647)Full Citation

106.

South Africa.2008.‘Legal Instruments – Destruction.’ National Report of South Africa on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Republic of South Africa to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1642)Full Citation

107.

South Africa.2004.‘Disposal of Firearms or Ammunition Surrendered in Compliance with Amnesty.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5280)Full Citation

108.

South Africa.2004.‘Destruction of Firearms.’ Firearms Control Regulations, 2004.Pretoria:Department of Safety and Security,26 March. (Q5281)Full Citation

109.

South Africa.2011.‘No Compensation Payable where Firearms or Ammunition Are Destroyed by State.’ Firearms Control Act 2000 (Act current to 22 February 2013 and last amended in 2011).Cape Town:Parliament of the Republic of South Africa,1 January. (Q6698)Full Citation

110.

African Union / UNODA.2005.‘Windhoek Common Position.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York:African Union / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 December. (Q3216)Full Citation

111.

SADC / UNODA.2001.‘Protocol on Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York:Southern African Development Community Secretariat / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 August. (Q3217)Full Citation

112.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

113.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

114.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

115.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

116.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

117.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) – Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

118.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

119.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

120.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

121.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation