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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Peru — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Peru is 750,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Peru is 2.51 3 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Peru, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 20,0004

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Peru, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 70,0004

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 130,0004 handguns in civilian possession in Peru

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 585

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 333

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Peru is reported to be 180,0004

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Peru is 0.706

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Peru is reported to be 236,3387 5 to 270,0418

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Peru is 0.978 6

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Peru there are estimated to be 500,0002

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Peru there are estimated to be 1.826 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Peru are reported to have 360,0009 2 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Peru are reported to have 170,0009 10 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Peru, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2000: 46711

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2000: 1.816

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Peru, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 1,96812
2011: 7,08613
2010: 5,473
2009: 2,96914 13 15
2008: 3,332
2007: 2,943
2006: 3,141
2005: 3,057
2004: 1,526
2003: 781
2002: 718
2001: 787
2000: 828
1999: 66214
1998: 1,354
1997: 1,036
1996: 1,067
1995: 1,310

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 6.512
2011: 24.113
2010: 18.6
2009: 10.314 13 15
2008: 11.7
2007: 10.4
2006: 11.3
2005: 11.1
2004: 5.6
2003: 4.9
2002: 4.3
2001: 4.9
2000: 5.0
1999: 2.614
1998: 5.4
1997: 4.2
1996: 4.4
1995: 5.5

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Peru, annual firearm homicides total

2009: 75714
2008: 520
2007: 586
2006: 528
2005: 614
2004: 546
2002: 44216
2001: 438
2000: 16111

Gun Homicides (WHO)

The World Health Organisation estimates that in Peru, annual firearm homicides totalled 57% in 201212

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 2.614 15
2008: 1.8
2007: 2.1
2006: 1.9
2005: 2.2
2004: 2.0
2002: 1.6516
2001: 1.66
2000: 0.5911

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Peru, annual suicides by any means total

2008: 43517
2007: 741
2006: 423
2005: 334
2004: 385
2003: 407
2002: 449
2001: 396
2000: 36417 18

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2008: 1.517
2007: 2.6
2006: 1.5
2005: 1.2
2004: 1.4
2003: 1.5
2002: 1.7
2001: 1.5
2000: 1.417 18

Gun Suicides

In Peru, annual firearm suicides total 2000: 2911

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.1111

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Peru, annual unintentional shooting deaths total 2000: 24411

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.9011

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Peru, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total 2000: 3311

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.1211

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Peru, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence19 20 21 22

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Peru is ranked 'small'23

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law24 20 25

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Peru is reported by Customs to be US$7,401,51126 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law24 20 27 25

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Peru is reported by Customs to be US$10,607,65526 (2011)28

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Peru is low4

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Peru is categorised as restrictive29

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Peru includes the Act on Firearms No. 30299 of 201530 31

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Peru are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior and the National Authority for the Control of Security Services, Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives for Civilian Use (SUCAMEC)32 33

Right to Possess Firearms

In Peru, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law34

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Peru, civilians are not allowed to possess firearms for military and police use, which include automatic firearms35 36

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Peru, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited35

Regulation of Handguns

In Peru, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence37 38 39 40

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Peru, only licensed gun owners41 42 43 44 36 22 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Peru are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example: personal defence,45 security and surveillance, sports and recreational shooting, hunting and collection41 42

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Peru is the legal age45

Mandatory Background Check

In Peru, a background check is required for civilian possession of firearms12

Gun Licence Background Check

An applicant for a firearm licence in Peru must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental45 41 44 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Peru stipulates45 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Peru, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required45 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Peru gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years41

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Peru are permitted to possess 2 firearms for personal defence. Firearms for hunting, sports, security, surveillance, and collection are not subject to any limitation46

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Peru are permitted to possess 600 cartridges per handgun (for personal defence)47

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Peru, the law requires48 43 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Peru, State agencies are required48 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Peru, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted20

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Peru, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful19 20 21 47 22

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Peru do not include4 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Peru include49 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Peru, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law50 51

Firearm Tracing

In Peru, state authorities carry out52 22 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Peru, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are52 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Peru, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed without a permit, with some restrictions4 12

Gun Free Zones

In Peru, private guns are prohibited in public events, shows and amusement areas53

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Peru, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm54 is 15 years prison21 55 44 53

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Peru are known to have56 57 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In Peru, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 2,50057 (2002)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Peru, it is not state policy58 59 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Andean Community

As a member of the Andean Community, Peru adopted Decision 552: The Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in June, 200360

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Peru adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified61 62 by Peru

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200763 by Peru.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified64 by Peru

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified65 by Peru

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Peru committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects66

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Peru against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 4767 68 69 70 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Peru has submitted one or more national reports71 72 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Peru, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated73 72

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Peru, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated73 72

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Peru submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is not apparent73 72

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated72 by Peru to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Peru has declared74 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Peru has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194575

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list76 Peru as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Peru, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Peru ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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19.

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20.

Peru.2015.‘Authorisations (Autorizaciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9356)Full Citation

21.

Peru.2015.‘Modification of Article 279 of the Criminal Code (Modificación del Artículo 279 del Código Penal).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9343)Full Citation

22.

Peru.2015.‘Definitions (Definiciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9371)Full Citation

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24.

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Peru.2015.‘Object and Purposes of the Act; Scope of Application (Objeto y Fines de la Ley; Ámbito de Aplicación).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9341)Full Citation

31.

Peru.2015.‘Derogating Rule (Norma Derogatoria) [Repeal Provision].’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9342)Full Citation

32.

Peru.2015.‘Competencies (Competencias).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9369)Full Citation

33.

Peru.2015.‘Regulatory Role of the State (Función Regulatoria del Estado).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9372)Full Citation

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35.

Peru.2015.‘Arms and Ammunition for Military and Police Use (Armas y Municiones de Uso Militar y Policial).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9344)Full Citation

36.

Peru.2015.‘Firearms for Particular Use of the Members of the Armed Forces and Peru National Police (Armas de Uso Particular de los Miembros de las Fuerzas Armadas y la Policía Nacional del Perú).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9357)Full Citation

37.

Peru.2015.‘Firearms for Personal Defence (Armas de Fuego para Defensa Personal).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9365)Full Citation

38.

Peru.2015.‘Hunting Firearms (Armas para Caza).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9363)Full Citation

39.

Peru.2015.‘Firearms for Sports and Recreational Shooting (Armas de Fuego para Deporte y Tiro Recreativo).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9364)Full Citation

40.

Peru.2015.‘Firearms for Security and Surveillance (Armas de Fuego de Seguridad y Vigilancia).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9366)Full Citation

41.

Peru.2015.‘Licence for the Use of Firearms (Licencia de Uso de Armas de Fuego).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9359)Full Citation

42.

Peru.2015.‘Classification of Firearms (Clasificación de Armas de Fuego).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9367)Full Citation

43.

Peru.2015.‘Issuing a Firearm Ownership Certificate (Otorgamiento de Tarjeta de Propiedad de Arma de Fuego).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9358)Full Citation

44.

Peru.2015.‘Deposits of Firearms (Depósito de las Armas de Fuego).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9351)Full Citation

45.

Peru.2015.‘Requirements to Obtain and Renew Licences and Authorisations (Condiciones para la Obtención y Renovación de Licencias y Autorizaciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9370)Full Citation

46.

Peru.2015.‘Number of Firearms Permitted per Person (Número de Armas de Fuego Permitidas por Usuario).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9361)Full Citation

47.

Peru.2015.‘Purchase of Ammunition (Adquisición de Municiones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9360)Full Citation

48.

Peru.2015.‘National Register of Information Management (Registro Nacional de Gestión de Información).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9368)Full Citation

49.

Peru.2015.‘Transfer and Custody of Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Traslado y Custodia de Armas de Fuego, Municiones y Materiales Relacionados).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9353)Full Citation

50.

Peru.2015.‘Firearm Marking (Marcación de Armas).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9347)Full Citation

51.

Peru.2010.‘Marking (Marcaje).’ National Report of Peru on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4764)Full Citation

52.

Peru.2015.‘Register of the Ballistic Identification System (Registro en el Sistema de Identificación Balística).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9346)Full Citation

53.

Peru.2015.‘Prohibitions (Prohibiciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9373)Full Citation

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Peru.2015.‘Confiscation and Seizure (Incautación y Decomiso).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9350)Full Citation

56.

Peru.2015.‘Regulation and Voluntary Surrender of Firearms (Regularización y Entrega Voluntaria de Armas).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9345)Full Citation

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Peru.2015.‘Seized or Confiscated Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Armas, Municiones y Materiales Relacionados Incautados o Decomisados).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9348)Full Citation

59.

Peru.2015.‘Seizure of Weapons for the Exclusive Use of the Armed Forces and Peru National Police (Entrega de Armas de Uso Exclusivo de las Fuerzas Armadas y la Policía Nacional del Perú).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9349)Full Citation

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