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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Peru — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Peru is 750,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Peru is 2.51 3 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Peru, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 20,0004

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Peru, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 70,0004

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Peru, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 130,0004

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 585

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 333

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Peru is reported to be 180,0004

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Peru is 0.706

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Peru is reported to be

2011: 288,3627
2010: 280,171
2007: 290,5498
2005: 270,0419 10 11 3

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Peru is

2011: 0.996
2010: 0.97
2007: 1.04
2005: 0.979 6

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Peru there are estimated to be 500,0002

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Peru there are estimated to be 1.826 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Peru are reported to have 360,00012 2 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Peru are reported to have 170,00012 13 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Peru, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2010: 1,26914
2007: 53215
2000: 46716

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 4.414
2007: 1.906
2000: 1.81

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Peru, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 2,01317
2012: 1,96817 18 19
2011: 1,61717 18 20
2010: 2,70918 20
2009: 2,96918 21 20 22
2008: 3,332
2007: 2,934
2006: 3,141
2005: 3,057
2004: 1,526
2003: 1,316
2002: 1,136
2001: 1,294
2000: 1,302
1999: 66221
1998: 1,354
1997: 1,036
1996: 1,067
1995: 1,310

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 6.6117
2012: 6.5317 18 19
2011: 5.4317 18 20
2010: 9.318 20
2009: 10.318 21 20 22
2008: 11.6
2007: 10.4
2006: 11.2
2005: 11.0
2004: 5.6
2003: 4.9
2002: 4.2
2001: 4.9
2000: 5.0
1999: 2.621
1998: 5.4
1997: 4.2
1996: 4.4
1995: 5.5

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Peru, annual firearm homicides total

2013: 1,26017
2012: 1,120
2011: 898
2010: 47314
2009: 53418 21 23
2008: 533
2007: 58718 21
2006: 534
2005: 611
2004: 54621
2002: 44224
2001: 438
2000: 16116

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 4.226
2012: 3.79
2011: 3.07
2010: 1.614
2009: 1.866 21 22
2008: 1.88
2007: 2.09
2006: 1.92
2005: 2.23
2004: 2.021 22
2002: 1.6524
2001: 1.66
2000: 0.5916

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Peru, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 63%17
2012: 57%17
2011: 56%17
2009: 18%18
2008: 16%
2007: 20%
2006: 17%
2005: 20%
2004: 35.8%21
19:

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Peru, annual suicides by any means total

2008: 43525
2007: 741
2006: 423
2005: 334
2004: 385
2003: 407
2002: 449
2001: 396
2000: 36425 26

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2008: 1.525
2007: 2.6
2006: 1.5
2005: 1.2
2004: 1.4
2003: 1.5
2002: 1.7
2001: 1.5
2000: 1.425 26

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Peru, annual firearm suicides total

2010: 24314
2009: 1923
2008: 28
2007: 1215
2000: 2916

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.814
2009: 0.076
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.04
2000: 0.1116

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Peru, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2010: 55314
2007: 26115
2000: 24416

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2010: 1.916
2007: 0.93
2000: 0.9016

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Peru, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2007: 8715
2000: 3316

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2007: 0.316
2000: 0.1216

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

In Peru, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries is

2008: 25423

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.906

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Peru, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence,27 28 29 30 31 but is not conducted in practice32

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Peru was ranked 'small'33

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law34 28 31 35 36

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Peru is reported by Customs to be US$7,401,51137 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law34 28 38 31 36

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Peru is reported by Customs to be US$10,607,65537 (2011)39 40 41 42

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Peru is low4

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Peru, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law43

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Peru do not include35 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Peru scored

2016: 5.7544

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Peru is categorised as restrictive45

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Peru includes the Act on Firearms No. 30299 of 201546 47 and its Regulation48

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Peru are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior and the National Authority for the Control of Security Services, Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives for Civilian Use (SUCAMEC)49 50

Right to Possess Firearms

In Peru, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law51 52

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Peru, civilians are not allowed to possess firearms for military and police use, which include automatic firearms53 54 31

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Peru, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited53 19

Regulation of Handguns

In Peru, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence55 56 57 58 19

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Peru, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law55 56 57 58 19

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Peru, only licensed gun owners59 60 61 62 54 30 19 31 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Peru are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example personal defence,63 security and surveillance, sports and recreational shooting, hunting and collection59 60

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Peru is the legal age63

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Peru must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health,63 59 62 19 and addiction64 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Peru, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required65

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Peru, licensing authorities are not required65 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Peru stipulates63 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Peru, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required63 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Peru, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years59

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Peru are permitted to possess 2 firearms for personal defence. Firearms for hunting, sports, security, surveillance, and collection are not subject to any limitation66

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Peru are permitted to possess 600 cartridges per handgun (for personal defence)67

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Peru, the law requires68 61 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Peru, licensed firearm dealers are required68 27 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Peru, State agencies are required68 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Peru, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted28

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Peru, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful27 28 29 67 30 31

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Peru, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined65

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Peru, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated65 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Peru do not include65 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Peru do not include65 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Peru include69 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Peru, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law70 31 71

Firearm Tracing

In Peru, state authorities carry out72 30 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Peru, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are72 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Peru, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law19 30 59

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Peru, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed without a permit, with some restrictions4

Gun Free Zones

In Peru, private guns are prohibited in public events, shows and amusement areas31

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Peru, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm73 is 15 years in prison29 74 62 31 75 76 77 64

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Peru are known to have78 79 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Peru, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2013: 2,35280
2012: 1,416
2011: 2,70280 81
2010: 3,820
2009: 3,13382 83
2008: 3,766
2006: 2,0298

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Peru, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2011: 2,06784
2010: 3,168
2007: 7,77185
2006: 2,4828
2002: 2,50079 8

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Peru, it is not state policy86 87 88 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Andean Community

As a member of the Andean Community, Peru

adopted Decision 552: The Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in June, 200389

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Peru adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified90 91 by Peru

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists92 Peru as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200793 by Peru.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified94 by Peru

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified95 by Peru

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Peru committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects96

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Peru against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 4797 98 99 100 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Peru has submitted one or more national reports101 102 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Peru, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated103 102

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Peru, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated103 102

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Peru submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent103 102

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated102 by Peru to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Peru has declared104 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Peru has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945105

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list106 Peru as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Peru, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Peru ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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