Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Peru — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Peru is 750,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Peru is 2.51 3 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Peru, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 20,0004

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Peru, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 70,0004

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 130,0004 handguns in civilian possession in Peru

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 585

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 333

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Peru is reported to be 180,0004

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Peru is 0.706

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Peru is reported to be 236,3387 5 to 270,0418 9

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Peru is 0.978 6

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Peru there are estimated to be 500,0002

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Peru there are estimated to be 1.826 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Peru are reported to have 360,00010 2 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Peru are reported to have 170,00010 11 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Peru, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2000: 46712

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2000: 1.816

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Peru, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 1,96813
2011: 7,08614
2010: 5,473
2009: 2,96915 14 16
2008: 3,332
2007: 2,943
2006: 3,141
2005: 3,057
2004: 1,526
2003: 781
2002: 718
2001: 787
2000: 828
1999: 66215
1998: 1,354
1997: 1,036
1996: 1,067
1995: 1,310

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 6.513
2011: 24.114
2010: 18.6
2009: 10.315 14 16
2008: 11.7
2007: 10.4
2006: 11.3
2005: 11.1
2004: 5.6
2003: 4.9
2002: 4.3
2001: 4.9
2000: 5.0
1999: 2.615
1998: 5.4
1997: 4.2
1996: 4.4
1995: 5.5

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Peru, annual firearm homicides total

2009: 75715 17
2008: 520
2007: 58615
2006: 528
2005: 614
2004: 546
2002: 44218
2001: 438
2000: 16112

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 2.615 16
2008: 1.8
2007: 2.1
2006: 1.9
2005: 2.2
2004: 2.0
2002: 1.6518
2001: 1.66
2000: 0.5912

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun (WHO)

The World Health Organisation estimates the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm in Peru to be 2012: 57%13

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Peru, annual suicides by any means total

2008: 43519
2007: 741
2006: 423
2005: 334
2004: 385
2003: 407
2002: 449
2001: 396
2000: 36419 20

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2008: 1.519
2007: 2.6
2006: 1.5
2005: 1.2
2004: 1.4
2003: 1.5
2002: 1.7
2001: 1.5
2000: 1.419 20

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Peru, annual firearm suicides total

2009: 1917
2008: 28
2000: 2912

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.076
2008: 0.10
2000: 0.1112

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Peru, annual unintentional shooting deaths total 2000: 24412

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.9012

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Peru, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total 2000: 3312

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.1212

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

In Peru, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries is 2008: 25417

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury per 100,000 population is 2008: 0.906

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Peru, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence21 22 23 24 25

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Peru is ranked 'small'26

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law27 22 25 28

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Peru is reported by Customs to be US$7,401,51129 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law27 22 30 25 28

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Peru is reported by Customs to be US$10,607,65529 (2011)31

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Peru is low4

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Peru is categorised as restrictive32

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Peru includes the Act on Firearms No. 30299 of 201533 34 and its Regulation35

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Peru are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior and the National Authority for the Control of Security Services, Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives for Civilian Use (SUCAMEC)36 37

Right to Possess Firearms

In Peru, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law38

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Peru, civilians are not allowed to possess firearms for military and police use, which include automatic firearms39 40 25

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Peru, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited39 13

Regulation of Handguns

In Peru, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence41 42 43 44 13

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Peru, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law41 42 43 44 13

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Peru, only licensed gun owners45 46 47 48 40 24 13 25 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Peru are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example: personal defence,49 security and surveillance, sports and recreational shooting, hunting and collection45 46

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Peru is the legal age49

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Peru must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental49 45 48 13 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Peru stipulates49 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Peru, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required49 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Peru, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years45

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Peru are permitted to possess 2 firearms for personal defence. Firearms for hunting, sports, security, surveillance, and collection are not subject to any limitation50

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Peru are permitted to possess 600 cartridges per handgun (for personal defence)51

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Peru, the law requires52 47 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Peru, State agencies are required52 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Peru, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted22

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Peru, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful21 22 23 51 24 25

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Peru do not include4 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Peru include53 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Peru, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law54 25 55

Firearm Tracing

In Peru, state authorities carry out56 24 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Peru, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are56 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Peru, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law13

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Peru, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed without a permit, with some restrictions4

Gun Free Zones

In Peru, private guns are prohibited in public events, shows and amusement areas25

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Peru, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm57 is 15 years prison23 58 48 25 59 60 61

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Peru are known to have62 63 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Collected and Seized

ChartIn Peru, firearms voluntarily surrendered for destruction, collected or seized in routine policing are reported to number

2009: 3,13364 65
2008: 3,766

Small Arms Destroyed

In Peru, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 2,50063 (2002)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Peru, it is not state policy66 67 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Andean Community

As a member of the Andean Community, Peru adopted Decision 552: The Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in June, 200368

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Peru adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified69 70 by Peru

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200771 by Peru.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified72 by Peru

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified73 by Peru

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Peru committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects74

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Peru against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 4775 76 77 78 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Peru has submitted one or more national reports79 80 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Peru, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated81 80

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Peru, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated81 80

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Peru submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is not apparent81 80

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated80 by Peru to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Peru has declared82 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Peru has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194583

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list84 Peru as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Peru, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Peru ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Estimated Total Small Arms, Firearms, and Surpluses in Peru, Rounded.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5311)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

4.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Peru.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,16 March. (Q4231)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Country Summaries - Peru.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5312)Full Citation

8.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Legally Registered Civilian Firearms.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9208)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Country Analyses: Peru.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q9438)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘State Firearms Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8973)Full Citation

11.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 2 - Examples of Police Firearms Per Officer in Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q6545)Full Citation

12.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

13.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Peru.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9374)Full Citation

14.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Peru.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6336)Full Citation

16.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

17.

Peru.2010.‘The Impact of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Country (Impacto de las Armas Pequeñas y Ligeras en el País).’ National Report of Peru on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations,1 June. (Q5749)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

19.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Suicide 2000-2009.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9206)Full Citation

20.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Suicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5680)Full Citation

21.

Peru.2015.‘Authorisation for the Manufacture, Trade, Distribution, Transfer, Custody and Storage (Autorización para Fabricación, Comercio, Distribución, Transferencias, Custodia y Almacenamiento).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9355)Full Citation

22.

Peru.2015.‘Authorisations (Autorizaciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9356)Full Citation

23.

Peru.2015.‘Modification of Article 279 of the Criminal Code (Modificación del Artículo 279 del Código Penal).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9343)Full Citation

24.

Peru.2015.‘Definitions (Definiciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9371)Full Citation

25.

Peru.2015.‘Prohibitions (Prohibiciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9373)Full Citation

26.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

27.

Peru.2015.‘Import and Export (Importación y Exportación).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9354)Full Citation

28.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

29.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

30.

Peru.2015.‘Storage of Firearms (Almacenamiento de las Armas de Fuego).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9352)Full Citation

31.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

32.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

33.

Peru.2015.‘Object and Purposes of the Act; Scope of Application (Objeto y Fines de la Ley; Ámbito de Aplicación).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9341)Full Citation

34.

Peru.2015.‘Derogating Rule (Norma Derogatoria) [Repeal Provision].’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9342)Full Citation

35.

SUCAMEC.2015.‘Creation of a Multi-sectoral Commission in Charge of the Elaboration of the Regulation on the New Act on Firearms, Explosives and Firework Products for Civil Use.’ Superintendencia Nacional de Control de Servicios de Seguridad, Armas, Municiones y Explosivos de Uso Civil (SUCAMEC).Magdalena del Mar:SUCAMEC,6 February. (Q9426)Full Citation

36.

Peru.2015.‘Competencies (Competencias).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9369)Full Citation

37.

Peru.2015.‘Regulatory Role of the State (Función Regulatoria del Estado).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9372)Full Citation

38.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

39.

Peru.2015.‘Arms and Ammunition for Military and Police Use (Armas y Municiones de Uso Militar y Policial).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9344)Full Citation

40.

Peru.2015.‘Firearms for Particular Use of the Members of the Armed Forces and Peru National Police (Armas de Uso Particular de los Miembros de las Fuerzas Armadas y la Policía Nacional del Perú).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9357)Full Citation

41.

Peru.2015.‘Firearms for Personal Defence (Armas de Fuego para Defensa Personal).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9365)Full Citation

42.

Peru.2015.‘Hunting Firearms (Armas para Caza).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9363)Full Citation

43.

Peru.2015.‘Firearms for Sports and Recreational Shooting (Armas de Fuego para Deporte y Tiro Recreativo).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9364)Full Citation

44.

Peru.2015.‘Firearms for Security and Surveillance (Armas de Fuego de Seguridad y Vigilancia).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9366)Full Citation

45.

Peru.2015.‘Licence for the Use of Firearms (Licencia de Uso de Armas de Fuego).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9359)Full Citation

46.

Peru.2015.‘Classification of Firearms (Clasificación de Armas de Fuego).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9367)Full Citation

47.

Peru.2015.‘Issuing a Firearm Ownership Certificate (Otorgamiento de Tarjeta de Propiedad de Arma de Fuego).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9358)Full Citation

48.

Peru.2015.‘Deposits of Firearms (Depósito de las Armas de Fuego).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9351)Full Citation

49.

Peru.2015.‘Requirements to Obtain and Renew Licences and Authorisations (Condiciones para la Obtención y Renovación de Licencias y Autorizaciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9370)Full Citation

50.

Peru.2015.‘Number of Firearms Permitted per Person (Número de Armas de Fuego Permitidas por Usuario).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9361)Full Citation

51.

Peru.2015.‘Purchase of Ammunition (Adquisición de Municiones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9360)Full Citation

52.

Peru.2015.‘National Register of Information Management (Registro Nacional de Gestión de Información).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9368)Full Citation

53.

Peru.2015.‘Transfer and Custody of Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Traslado y Custodia de Armas de Fuego, Municiones y Materiales Relacionados).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9353)Full Citation

54.

Peru.2015.‘Firearm Marking (Marcación de Armas).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9347)Full Citation

55.

Peru.2010.‘Marking (Marcaje).’ National Report of Peru on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4764)Full Citation

56.

Peru.2015.‘Register of the Ballistic Identification System (Registro en el Sistema de Identificación Balística).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9346)Full Citation

57.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

58.

Peru.2015.‘Confiscation and Seizure (Incautación y Decomiso).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9350)Full Citation

59.

Peru.2015.‘Power to Impose Penalties (Potestad Sancionadora).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9423)Full Citation

60.

Peru.2015.‘Offences (Infracciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9424)Full Citation

61.

Peru.2015.‘Penalties (Sanciones).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9425)Full Citation

62.

Peru.2015.‘Regulation and Voluntary Surrender of Firearms (Regularización y Entrega Voluntaria de Armas).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9345)Full Citation

63.

Godnick, William and Helena Vasquez.2003.‘Weapons Destruction Events facilitated - UN-LiREC.’ Small Arms Control in Latin America: Monitoring the Implementation of Small Arms Control Projects (MISAC).London:International Alert, Security and Peacebuilding Programme,1 March. (Q5565)Full Citation

64.

Peru.2010.‘Institutions that Carried Out the Seizure and Recovery of Weapons and Ammunition (Instituciones que Realizaron la Incautación y Recuperación de Armas y Municiones).’ National Report of Peru on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations,1 June. (Q5748)Full Citation

65.

Peru.2010.‘Seizure of Weapons (Incautación de Armas).’ National Report of Peru on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations,1 June. (Q9439)Full Citation

66.

Peru.2015.‘Seized or Confiscated Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Armas, Municiones y Materiales Relacionados Incautados o Decomisados).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9348)Full Citation

67.

Peru.2015.‘Seizure of Weapons for the Exclusive Use of the Armed Forces and Peru National Police (Entrega de Armas de Uso Exclusivo de las Fuerzas Armadas y la Policía Nacional del Perú).’ Act on Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Firework Products and Related Materials for Civil Use, No. 30299.Lima:Congress of the Republic of Peru,22 January. (Q9349)Full Citation

68.

UNODA.2003.‘Decision 552: Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its Aspects.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York:Andean Community / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,11 April. (Q3220)Full Citation

69.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

70.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

71.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

72.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

73.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

74.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

75.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

76.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

77.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

78.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

79.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

80.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

81.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

82.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

83.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

84.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation