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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Peru — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Peru is 750,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Peru is 2.51 3 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Peru, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 20,0004

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Peru, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 70,0004

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Peru, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 130,0004

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 585

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 333

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Peru is reported to be

2016: 242,0006
1999: 180,0004

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Peru is

2016: 0.797
1999: 0.70

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Peru is reported to be

2016: 380,0006
2011: 288,3628
2010: 280,171
2007: 290,5499
2005: 270,04110 11 12 3

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Peru is

2016: 1.247
2011: 0.99
2010: 0.97
2007: 1.04
2005: 0.9710 7

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Peru there are estimated to be 500,0002

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Peru there are estimated to be 1.827 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Peru are reported to have 360,00013 2 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Peru are reported to have 170,00013 14 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Peru, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2010: 1,26915
2007: 53216
2000: 46717

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 4.415
2007: 1.907
2000: 1.81

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Peru, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 2,01318
2012: 1,96818 19 20
2011: 1,61718 19 21
2010: 2,70919 21
2009: 2,96919 22 21 23
2008: 3,332
2007: 2,934
2006: 3,141
2005: 3,057
2004: 1,526
2003: 1,316
2002: 1,136
2001: 1,294
2000: 1,302
1999: 66222
1998: 1,354
1997: 1,036
1996: 1,067
1995: 1,310

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 6.6118
2012: 6.5318 19 20
2011: 5.4318 19 21
2010: 9.319 21
2009: 10.319 22 21 23
2008: 11.6
2007: 10.4
2006: 11.2
2005: 11.0
2004: 5.6
2003: 4.9
2002: 4.2
2001: 4.9
2000: 5.0
1999: 2.622
1998: 5.4
1997: 4.2
1996: 4.4
1995: 5.5

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Peru, annual firearm homicides total

2013: 1,26018
2012: 1,120
2011: 898
2010: 47315
2009: 53419 22 24
2008: 533
2007: 58719 22
2006: 534
2005: 611
2004: 54622
2002: 44225
2001: 438
2000: 16117

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 4.227
2012: 3.79
2011: 3.07
2010: 1.615
2009: 1.867 22 23
2008: 1.88
2007: 2.09
2006: 1.92
2005: 2.23
2004: 2.022 23
2002: 1.6525
2001: 1.66
2000: 0.5917

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Peru, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 63%18
2012: 57%18
2011: 56%18
2009: 18%19
2008: 16%
2007: 20%
2006: 17%
2005: 20%
2004: 35.8%22
20:

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Peru, annual suicides by any means total

2008: 43526
2007: 741
2006: 423
2005: 334
2004: 385
2003: 407
2002: 449
2001: 396
2000: 36426 27

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2008: 1.526
2007: 2.6
2006: 1.5
2005: 1.2
2004: 1.4
2003: 1.5
2002: 1.7
2001: 1.5
2000: 1.426 27

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Peru, annual firearm suicides total

2010: 24315
2009: 1924
2008: 28
2007: 1216
2000: 2917

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.815
2009: 0.077
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.04
2000: 0.1117

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Peru, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2010: 55315
2007: 26116
2000: 24417

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2010: 1.917
2007: 0.93
2000: 0.9017

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Peru, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2007: 8716
2000: 3317

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2007: 0.317
2000: 0.1217

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

In Peru, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries is

2008: 25424

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.907

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Peru, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence,28 29 30 31 32 but is not conducted in practice33

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Peru was ranked 'small'34

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law35 29 32 36 37 38

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Peru is reported by Customs to be US$7,401,51139 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law35 29 40 32 36 37 38

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Peru is reported by Customs to be US$10,607,65539 (2011)41 42 43 44

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Peru is low4

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Peru, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law45

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Peru include46 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Peru scored

2016: 5.7547

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Peru is categorised as restrictive48

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Peru includes the Act on Firearms No. 30299 of 201549 50 and its Regulation51

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Peru are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior and the National Authority for the Control of Security Services, Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives for Civilian Use (SUCAMEC)52 53

Right to Possess Firearms

In Peru, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law54 55

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Peru, civilians are not allowed to possess firearms for military and police use, which include automatic firearms56 57 32

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Peru, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited56 20

Regulation of Handguns

In Peru, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence58 59 60 61 20

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Peru, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law58 59 60 61 20

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Peru, only licensed gun owners62 63 64 65 57 31 20 32 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Peru are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example personal defence,66 security and surveillance, sports and recreational shooting, hunting and collection62 63

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Peru is the legal age66

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Peru must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health,66 62 65 20 and addiction67 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Peru, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required68

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Peru, licensing authorities are not required68 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Peru stipulates66 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Peru, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required66 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Peru, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years62

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Peru are permitted to possess 2 firearms for personal defence. Firearms for hunting, sports, security, surveillance, and collection are not subject to any limitation69

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Peru are permitted to possess 600 cartridges per handgun (for personal defence)70

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Peru, the law requires71 64 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Peru, licensed firearm dealers are required71 28 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Peru, State agencies are required71 72 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Peru, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted29

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Peru, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful28 29 30 70 31 32

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Peru, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined68

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Peru, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated68 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Peru do not include68 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Peru do not include68 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Peru include72 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Peru include73 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Peru, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law74 32 75

Firearm Tracing

In Peru, state authorities carry out76 31 77 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Peru, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are76 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Peru, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law20 31 62

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Peru, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed without a permit, with some restrictions4

Gun Free Zones

In Peru, private guns are prohibited in public events, shows and amusement areas32

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Peru, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm78 is 15 years in prison30 79 65 32 80 81 82 67

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Peru are known to have83 84 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Peru, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015/16: 6,79685
2013: 2,35286
2012: 1,416
2011: 2,70286 87
2010: 3,820
2009: 3,13388 89
2008: 3,766
2006: 2,0299

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Peru, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2011: 2,06790
2010: 3,168
2007: 7,77191
2006: 2,4829
2002: 2,50084 9

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Peru, it is not state policy92 93 94 95 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Andean Community

As a member of the Andean Community, Peru

adopted Decision 552: The Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in June, 200396

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Peru adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified97 98 by Peru

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists99 Peru as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2007100 by Peru.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified101 by Peru

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified102 by Peru

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Peru committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects103

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Peru against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 47104 105 106 107 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Peru has submitted one or more national reports108 109 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Peru, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated110 109

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Peru, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated110 109

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Peru submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent110 109

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated109 by Peru to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Peru has declared111 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Peru has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945112

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list113 Peru as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Peru, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Peru ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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