Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Switch Language

Peru — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Peru is 1,120,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Peru is 18.82 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Peru, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 20,0003

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Peru, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 70,0003

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 130,0003 handguns in civilian possession in Peru

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 584

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Peru ranked at No. 332

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Peru is reported to be 180,0003

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Peru is 0.705

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Peru is reported to be 236,3386

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Peru is 0.895

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Peru there are estimated to be 500,0001

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Peru are reported to have 216,0001 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Peru are reported to have 170,0007 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Peru, annual homicides by any means total

2009: 2,9698 9
2008: 3,332
2007: 2,943
2006: 3,141
2005: 3,057
2004: 1,526
2003: 1,316
2002: 1,136
2001: 1,294
2000: 1,302
1999: 6629
1998: 1,354
1997: 1,036
1996: 1,067
1995: 1,310

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 10.188 9
2008: 11.56
2007: 10.36
2006: 11.15
2005: 10.98
2004: 5.55
2003: 4.85
2002: 4.25
2001: 4.90
2000: 5.01
1999: 2.69
1998: 5.4
1997: 4.2
1996: 4.4
1995: 5.5

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Peru, annual firearm homicides total

2009: 7579
2008: 520
2007: 586
2006: 528
2005: 614
2004: 546
2002: 44210
2001: 438
2000: 16111

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Peru, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 2.69 8
2008: 1.8
2007: 2.1
2006: 1.9
2005: 2.2
2004: 2.0
2002: 1.6510
2001: 1.66
2000: 0.5911

Suicides (any method)

In Peru, annual suicides by any means total 2000: 22812

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Peru, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.9012

Gun Suicides

In Peru, annual firearm suicides total 2000: 2911

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.1111

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Peru, annual unintentional shooting deaths total 2000: 24411

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.9011

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Peru, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total 2000: 3311

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Peru, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.1211

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Peru, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence3

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Peru is ranked 'small'13

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law14

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Peru is reported by Customs to be US$7,401,51115 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Peru, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law14

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Peru is reported by Customs to be US$10,607,65515 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Peru is low3

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Peru is categorised as restrictive16

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Peru includes the Law 25054 (20 January 1989) and the Supreme Decree 007-98-IN (5 October 1998)17

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Peru are regulated by the Department for the Control of Security Services, Arms, Ammunition and Explosives for Civilian Use (DICSCAMEC)17

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Regulation of Handguns

In Peru, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence3

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Peru, only licensed gun owners3 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Peru are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security3

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Peru must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental and domestic violence3 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Peru stipulates3 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Peru, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required3 for a firearm licence

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Peru, the law requires17 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Peru, State agencies are required17 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Peru do not include3 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Peru do not include3 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Peru, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is not required by law18

Firearm Tracing

In Peru, state authorities carry out19 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Peru, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed without a permit, with some restrictions3

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Peru are known to have20 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In Peru, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 2,50020 (2002)

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Andean Community

As a member of the Andean Community, Peru adopted Decision 552: The Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in June, 200321

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Peru adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified22 23 by Peru

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200724 by Peru.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified25 by Peru

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified26 by Peru

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Peru committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects27

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Peru has submitted one or more national reports28 29 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Peru, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated30 29

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Peru, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated30 29

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Peru submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is not apparent30 29

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated29 by Peru to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Peru has declared31 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Peru has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194532

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list33 Peru as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Peru, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Peru ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Estimated Total Small Arms, Firearms, and Surpluses in Peru, Rounded.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5311)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

GunPolicy.org.2011.‘Calculated Rates – Peru.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,17 March. (Q4231)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Country Summaries – Peru.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5312)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 2 - Examples of Police Firearms Per Officer in Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q6545)Full Citation

8.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

9.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Peru.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6336)Full Citation

10.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

11.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

12.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Suicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5680)Full Citation

13.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

14.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

15.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

16.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

17.

Peru.2010.‘Registration (Registros).’ National Report of Peru on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4763)Full Citation

18.

Peru.2010.‘Marking (Marcaje).’ National Report of Peru on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4764)Full Citation

19.

Peru.2010.‘Tracing (Rastreo).’ National Report of Peru on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4765)Full Citation

20.

Godnick, William and Helena Vasquez.2003.‘Weapons Destruction Events facilitated – UN-LiREC.’ Small Arms Control in Latin America: Monitoring the Implementation of Small Arms Control Projects (MISAC).London:International Alert, Security and Peacebuilding Programme,1 March. (Q5565)Full Citation

21.

UNODA.2003.‘Decision 552: Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its Aspects.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York:Andean Community / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,11 April. (Q3220)Full Citation

22.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

23.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

24.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

25.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

26.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

27.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

28.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

29.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) – Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

30.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

31.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

32.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

33.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation