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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Panama — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Panama is 450,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Panama is 12.91 2 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Panama ranked at No. 663

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Panama ranked at No. 262

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Panama is reported to be

2009: 126,9084
2006: 65,4365 6
2005: 96,6142
2001: 96,6144

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Panama is

2009: 3.787
2006: 1.995
2005: 3.067
2001: 3.27

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Panama are reported to have 29,0008 9 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Panama are reported to have 15,5008 10 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Panama, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2002: 26911

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Panama, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2002: 8.967

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 65412 13
2011: 75912 14
2010: 75912 14 15 16
2009: 818
2008: 654
2007: 444
2006: 371
2005: 364
2004: 308
2003: 338
2002: 380
2001: 306
2000: 299
1999: 28514
1998: 281
1997: 315
1996: 248
1995: 377

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 17.212 13
2011: 20.312 14
2010: 20.612 14 15 16
2009: 22.6
2008: 18.4
2007: 12.7
2006: 10.8
2005: 10.8
2004: 9.3
2003: 10.4
2002: 12.0
2001: 9.8
2000: 9.8
1999: 9.814
1998: 9.9
1997: 11.3
1996: 9.1
1995: 14.1

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Panama, annual firearm homicides total

2012: 48412
2011: 577
2010: 58412 14 17
2009: 671
2008: 517
2007: 289
2006: 252
2005: 215
2004: 18514
2002: 22211

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 13.797
2011: 16.67
2010: 17.127 14 17 16
2009: 19.97
2008: 15.62
2007: 8.87
2006: 7.86
2005: 6.81
2004: 5.814
2003: 6.4716
2002: 7.1211

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Panama, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 74%12 13
2011: 76%12
2010: 77%
2009: 82%
2008: 79%
2007: 65%
2006: 68%
2005: 59%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual suicides by any means total

2009: 19018
2008: 201
2007: 191
2006: 20718 19
2005: 19618
2004: 232
2003: 231
2002: 19618 11
2001: 19518
2000: 171

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 5.518
2008: 5.9
2007: 5.7
2006: 6.318 19
2005: 6.1
2004: 7.3
2003: 7.4
2002: 6.418 11
2001: 6.518
2000: 5.8

Gun Suicides

In Panama, annual firearm suicides total

2002: 3111

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Panama, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2002: 0.9911

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Panama, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2002: 211

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Panama, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2002: 0.0611

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Panama, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2002: 1411

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Panama, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2002: 0.4511

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Panama, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence20 21 22 23 24 but not conducted in practice25

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Panama, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law26 27 28 29 30

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Panama is reported by Customs to be US$195,49131 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Panama, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law32 33 27 34 26 35 28 36 29 30

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Panama is reported by Customs to be US$2,246,24331 (2011)

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Panama, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law37 38

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Panama do not include28 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Panama is categorised as restrictive39

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Panama includes the Firearms Act No. 57 of 201140 and its regulation (to be adopted)28

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Panama are regulated by the Ministry of Public Security, through the Institutional Directorate on Public Security Affairs (DIASP)41 26

Right to Possess Firearms

In Panama, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law42

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Panama, civilians are not allowed to possess weapons of war,40 43 automatic firearms, long guns with shortened barrels, home-made firearms, and armour-piercing, explosive, or expanding ammunition44

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Panama, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited44 13

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Panama, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence45

Regulation of Handguns

In Panama, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence45 13

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Panama, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law45 44 13

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Panama, only licensed gun owners46 47 48 49 50 45 26 51 52 13 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Panama are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example personal protection,47 hunting, and sports shooting45

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Panama is 18 years53 and 21 years for carrying54 and self-defence55

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Panama must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental, and addiction53 55 13 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Panama stipulates53 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Panama, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required55 54 26 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Panama, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every ten years (for possession)56 and four years (for carrying)57

Licensing Records

In Panama, authorities maintain a record26 58 59 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Panama, the law requires60 58 59 61 62 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Panama, licensed firearm dealers are required63 64 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Panama, licensed gun makers are required22 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Panama, State agencies are required58 65 66 67 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Panama, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted68 69 51

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Panama, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful70 35 26 71 72 64

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Panama is obliged71 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Panama include26 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Panama include65 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Panama include73 47 74 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Panama, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law58 34 36 62

Firearm Tracing

In Panama, state authorities carry out75 58 59 60 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Panama, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are75 60 58 55 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Panama, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law49 43 76 54 57 50 77 13

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Panama, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit78 76 54 57

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Panama, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm79 is a fine80 81 82

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Panama are known to have83 26 84 85 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

In Panama, the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be 1,73086 (2012) and 55087 (2014)

Firearms Collected and Seized

ChartIn Panama, firearms voluntarily surrendered for destruction, collected or seized in routine policing are reported to number

2013: 1,77088
2012: 1,95588 89
2011: 3,011
2010: 1,93688
2006-08: 7,08390
2004: 1,57691
2002: 1,83592
2001: 1,704

Small Arms Destroyed

In Panama, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 98690 (2006-2008)86

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Panama, it is state policy66 93 94 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Central American Integration System

As a member of the Central American Integration System (SICA), Panama is party to the 2007 Central American Programme on Small Arms Control and the Code of Conduct of Central American States on the Transfer of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Material95

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Panama adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified96 97 by Panama

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200798 by Panama.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified99 by Panama

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified100 by Panama

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Panama committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects101

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Panama against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 32102 103 104 105 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Panama has submitted one or more national reports106 107 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Panama, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated108 107

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Panama, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated108 107

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Panama submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent108

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated107 by Panama to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Panama has not declared109 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Panama has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945110

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list111 Panama as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Panama, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Panama ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Country Analyses: Panama.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q10419)Full Citation

5.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Legally Registered Civilian Firearms.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9208)Full Citation

6.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Civilian Firearms Legally Registered.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5679)Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Panama.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,2 July. (Q4278)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘State Firearms Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8973)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

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UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Panama.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10175)Full Citation

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Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Panama.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9436)Full Citation

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UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Panama.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6343)Full Citation

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OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

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OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

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OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide Committed by Firearms 2000-2010.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9210)Full Citation

18.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Suicide 2000-2009.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9206)Full Citation

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20.

Panama.2011.‘Repair Facilities (Establecimientos de reparación).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10408)Full Citation

21.

Panama.2011.‘Security Measures (Medidas de seguridad).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10409)Full Citation

22.

Panama.2011.‘Repair Requirements (Requisitos para la reparación).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10410)Full Citation

23.

Panama.2011.‘Prohibited Modifications (Prohibición de modificación).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10411)Full Citation

24.

Panama.2011.‘Grounds for Denial of the Request - Repair Shops (Causales de denegación de la solicitud).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10412)Full Citation

25.

Panama.2012.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Panama on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Panama to the United Nations,28 March. (Q10484)Full Citation

26.

Panama.2011.‘Functions of DIASP (Funciones de la DIASP).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10379)Full Citation

27.

Panama.2011.‘Import Licence and Prohibited Re-export (Licencia de importación y prohibición de exportación).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10403)Full Citation

28.

Panama.2014.‘International Transfers (Transferencias internacionales).’ National Report of Panama on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Panama to the United Nations,3 November. (Q10477)Full Citation

29.

Panama.2014.‘Record Keeping (Registro).’ National Report of Panama on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Panama to the United Nations,3 November. (Q10479)Full Citation

30.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

31.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

32.

Panama.2015.‘Ban on Firearm Imports Extended.’ Resolution No. 087/DIASP/15 (Resuelto No. 087/DIASP/15).Panama:Official Gazette of the Republic of Panama,5 June. (Q10525)Full Citation

33.

CentralAmericaData.com. 2015. ‘Ban on Arms Imports Maintained.’ 9 July. (N381) Full Citation

34.

Panama.2011.‘General Requirements (Requisitos generales).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10404)Full Citation

35.

Panama.2011.‘Advertising Restrictions (Restricción de publicidad).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10375)Full Citation

36.

Panama.2014.‘Marking at Import (Marcaje de importación).’ National Report of Panama on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Panama to the United Nations,3 November. (Q10478)Full Citation

37.

Panama.2011.‘Special Licence for Brokering (Licencia especial para actividades de intermediación).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10405)Full Citation

38.

Panama.2014.‘Brokering (Intermediación).’ National Report of Panama on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Panama to the United Nations,3 November. (Q10480)Full Citation

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Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

40.

Panama.2011.‘Object (Objectivo).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10370)Full Citation

41.

Panama.2011.‘Authority in Charge of the Implementation (Autoridad responsable de la aplicación).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10371)Full Citation

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Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

43.

Panama.2011.‘Additional Prohibitions (Prohibiciones adicionales ).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10376)Full Citation

44.

Panama.2011.‘Prohibited Firearms and Ammunition (Armas de fuego y municiones prohibidas).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10373)Full Citation

45.

Panama.2011.‘Classification of Firearms (Clasificación de las armas).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10377)Full Citation

46.

Panama.2011.‘Possession (Tenencia).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10390)Full Citation

47.

Panama.2011.‘Certificate of Possession (Certificado de tenencia).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10391)Full Citation

48.

Panama.2011.‘Firearm Possession Certificate (Certificado de tenencia de arma de fuego).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10394)Full Citation

49.

Panama.2011.‘Possession and Carrying (Tenencia y porte).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10372)Full Citation

50.

Panama.2011.‘Authorisation Granted by Licences (Autorización por licencia).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10399)Full Citation

51.

Panama.2011.‘Firearm Transfer (Cesión del arma de fuego).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10401)Full Citation

52.

Panama.2011.‘Reloading Ammunition (Recarga de municiones).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10402)Full Citation

53.

Panama.2011.‘Ban on Carrying and Possession (Prohibición de porte y tenencia).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10374)Full Citation

54.

Panama.2011.‘Requirements - Carry (Requisitos - Porte).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10397)Full Citation

55.

Panama.2011.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10392)Full Citation

56.

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