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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Pakistan — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Pakistan is

2017: 43,917,0001
2007: 18,000,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Pakistan is

2017: 22.301
2007: 11.62

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Pakistan ranked at No. 63

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Pakistan ranked at No. 572

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Pakistan is reported to be

2014: 352,8434
2002: 7,000,0005

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Pakistan is

2014: 0.186
2002: 4.37

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Pakistan is reported to be

2017: 6,000,0001

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Pakistan there are estimated to be

2017: 37,917,0001

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Pakistan are reported to have 2,315,4807 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Pakistan are reported to have 944,0008 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Pakistan, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 13,8469
2011: 13,8609 10
2010: 13,208
2009: 12,491
2008: 12,05911 9 10
2007: 10,556
2006: 10,048
2005: 9,631
2004: 9,719
2003: 9,346
2002: 9,396
2001: 9,528
2000: 8,906
1999: 9,33211 10
1998: 10,246
1997: 9,304
1996: 9,062

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Pakistan, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 7.8112
2011: 7.98
2010: 7.77
2009: 7.3
2008: 7.29 10 13
2007: 6.4
2006: 6.2
2005: 6.1
2004: 6.3
2003: 6.1
2002: 6.3
2001: 6.5
2000: 6.2
1999: 6.610 13
1998: 7.4
1997: 6.9
1996: 6.9

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

In Pakistan, annual male homicides by any means total

2010: 10,13114

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

In Pakistan, annual female homicides by any means total

2010: 3,07714

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Pakistan, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence15 16 17 18

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Pakistan was ranked 'medium'19

Home-made Guns

In Pakistan, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be high20

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Pakistan, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law21 22 23 16 24 18 25

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Pakistan is reported by Customs to be US$2,373,49126 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Pakistan was categorized as 'major'27 28

Firearm Imports

In Pakistan, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law21 22 23 16 24 18

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Pakistan is reported by Customs to be US$15,035,52226 (2011)29 30 31 32 33

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Pakistan, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law34

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Pakistan include24 21 35 25 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Pakistan scored

2016: 8.2536
2014: 9.0037
2013: 9.0038
2012: 9.5039
2011: 9.7540
2010: 8.5041
2009: 10.0042
2008: 9.2543
2007: 9.2544
2006: 7.7545
2005: 8.7546
2004: 0.0047

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Pakistan is categorised as permissive48

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Pakistan includes the Pakistan Arms Ordinance of 1965,49 amended in 1991 and 2001, the Arms Rules of 1924, the Illicit Arms Act of 1991, the Penal Code of 1860 and the Arms Policy of 201216

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Pakistan are regulated by the Government,50 51 the Prime Minister, the Ministry of Defence Production16 and the Police23

Right to Possess Firearms

In Pakistan, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law52 53 54

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Pakistan, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited, with only narrow exceptions23 16 55

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Pakistan, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited23

Regulation of Handguns

In Pakistan, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence23

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Pakistan, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law23

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Pakistan, only licensed gun owners56 57 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Pakistan are not required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm54

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Pakistan, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required54

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Pakistan does not stipulate54 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Pakistan, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required54 for a firearm licence

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Pakistan are permitted to possess any number of firearms54

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Pakistan are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition54

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Pakistan, the law requires58 35 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Pakistan, licensed firearm dealers are required50 23 59 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Pakistan, licensed gun makers are required15 59 35 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Pakistan, State agencies are required60 61 35 62 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Pakistan, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited unless registered by the magistrate of the district or a police officer63

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Pakistan, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful63 23

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Pakistan, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined54

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Pakistan, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated54 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Pakistan do not include54 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Pakistan do not include54 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Pakistan include60 62 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Pakistan include64 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Pakistan, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law65 35 61 66 23

Firearm Tracing

In Pakistan, state authorities carry out67 61 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Pakistan, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not54 recorded in a register

Gun Free Zones

In Pakistan, private guns are prohibited in educational institutions, hostels or boarding and lodging houses, fairs, gatherings or processions of a political, religious, ceremonial or sectarian character, and on the premises of Courts of law or public offices68

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Pakistan, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm69 is seven years in prison70

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Pakistan are known to have71 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Pakistan, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 89,00071 (2010)

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

In Pakistan, the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be 20,00071 (2010)

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Pakistan, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2014: 9,65272
2011: 123,78773 15

Small Arms Destroyed

In Pakistan, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 641,10771

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Pakistan, it is not state policy60 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists74 Pakistan as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed75 by Pakistan.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed76 by Pakistan

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed77 by Pakistan

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Pakistan committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects78

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Pakistan against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 7079 80 81 82 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Pakistan has submitted one or more national reports83 84 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Pakistan, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated85 84

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Pakistan, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated85

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Pakistan submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent84

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated84 by Pakistan to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Pakistan has not declared86 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Pakistan has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194787

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list88 Pakistan as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Pakistan, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Pakistan ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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