Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Nigeria — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Nigeria is 2,000,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Nigeria is 1.51 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Nigeria, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 1,000,0002

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Nigeria ranked at No. 343

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Nigeria ranked at No. 1331

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Nigeria there are estimated to be 1,000,0002 to 350,000,0004

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Nigeria there are estimated to be 0.71 to 188.12 5 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Nigeria are reported to have 179,5506 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Nigeria are reported to have 360,0007 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Nigeria, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 1,8978
2012: 33,8179
2008: 1,95610 11
2007: 1,981
2006: 2,000
2005: 2,074
2004: 2,550
2003: 2,136
2002: 2,117
2001: 2,120
2000: 1,255
1999: 1,645
1998: 1,670
1997: 1,730
1996: 1,561
1995: 1,585
1994: 1,62910

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Nigeria, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 1.168
2012: 20.09
2008: 1.311 12
2007: 1.3
2006: 1.4
2005: 1.5
2004: 1.9
2003: 1.6
2002: 1.6
2001: 1.7
2000: 1.0
1999: 1.4
1998: 1.4
1997: 1.5
1996: 1.4
1995: 1.4
1994: 1.525

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Nigeria, annual suicides by any means total

2008: 14113
2007: 154
2006: 199
2005: 128
2004: 131
2003: 191
2002: 152
2001: 241
2000: 146
1999: 323
1998: 313
1997: 272
1996: 238
1995: 229
1994: 200

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Nigeria, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.095
2007: 0.10
2006: 0.14
2005: 0.09
2004: 0.09
2003: 0.14
2002: 0.12
2001: 0.19
2000: 0.12
1999: 0.27
1998: 0.26
1997: 0.24
1996: 0.21
1995: 0.21
1994: 0.19

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Nigeria, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence14 15 16 17

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Nigeria, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law18 19 20

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Nigeria is reported by Customs to be US$21121 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Nigeria, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law22 18 23 19 20

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Nigeria is reported by Customs to be US$12,91221 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Nigeria is moderate24

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Nigeria, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law25

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Nigeria include26 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Nigeria is categorised as permissive27

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Nigeria includes the Firearms Act28 and Firearms Regulations29

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Nigeria are regulated by the President30

Right to Possess Firearms

In Nigeria, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law31 32 33

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Nigeria, civilians are not allowed to possess machine-guns, military rifles and handguns34 35

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Nigeria, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited34 35 8

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Nigeria, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited36 37

Regulation of Handguns

In Nigeria, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited34 35 8

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Nigeria, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law8

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Nigeria, only licensed gun owners36 35 8 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Nigeria are not required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm38 39

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Nigeria is 17 years33

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Nigeria must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and addiction33 8 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Nigeria, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required38 39

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Nigeria does not stipulate38 39 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Nigeria, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required38 39 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Nigeria, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every one year40

Licensing Records

In Nigeria, authorities maintain a record41 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Nigeria are permitted to possess only that which is prescribed in their licence or permit42

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Nigeria, the law requires41 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Nigeria, licensed firearm dealers are required43 44 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Nigeria, licensed gun makers are required16 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Nigeria, State agencies are required45 46 47 48 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Nigeria, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited49

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Nigeria, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful49 50

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Nigeria, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined38 39

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Nigeria, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated38 39 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Nigeria include51 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Nigeria include52 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Nigeria include46 16 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Nigeria, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law16 53 54 45 55

Firearm Tracing

In Nigeria, state authorities carry out56 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Nigeria, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit38 39 8

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Nigeria, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited34 35 8

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Nigeria, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm57 is five years in prison58 17 59

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Nigeria are known to have60 61 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Nigeria, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015: 2,70362

Small Arms Destroyed

In Nigeria, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 1,90260 (2002/2003) and 1,46661 (2004)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Nigeria, it is state policy60 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Nigeria adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200663 64

Economic Community of West African States

In June 2006, as a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Nigeria adopted the ECOWAS Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition and other Related Materials. This stipulates strict controls on the transfer, manufacture, possession and security of small arms and light weapons65

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists66 Nigeria as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200667 by Nigeria.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified68 by Nigeria

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified69 by Nigeria

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Nigeria committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects70

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Nigeria against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 14971 72 73 74 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Nigeria has submitted one or more national reports75 76 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Nigeria, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated77 76

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Nigeria, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated77 76

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Nigeria submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent78

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated76 by Nigeria to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided76 to Nigeria by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Nigeria has not declared79 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Nigeria has been a Member State of the United Nations since 196080

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list81 Nigeria as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Nigeria, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Nigeria ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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