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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

New Zealand — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in New Zealand is 925,0001 to 1,200,0002. In the absence of registration for most firearms, only an approximation is possible

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in New Zealand is estimated to be 22.61 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In New Zealand, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 460,0003. In the absence of registration for most rifles, only an approximation is possible

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In New Zealand, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 300,0003. In the absence of registration for most shotguns, only an approximation is possible

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 36,0004 registered handguns in civilian possession in New Zealand

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, New Zealand ranked at No. 545

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, New Zealand ranked at No. 221

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in New Zealand is reported to be

2013: 237,6846
2010: 223,0004

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in New Zealand is

2013: 5.457
2010: 5.24

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in New Zealand is reported to be 43,8004. Of these, approximately 36,000 are privately owned pistols and revolvers, and 7,800 are military-style semi-automatic weapons (MSSAs)4

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in New Zealand is 1.037

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of New Zealand are reported to have 41,7378 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In New Zealand, police officers on routine patrol do not carry a firearm9

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in New Zealand are reported to have 1,80010 11 to 2,00012 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn New Zealand, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2010: 5113
2009: 71
2008: 56
2007: 55
2006: 58
2005: 55
2004: 48
2003: 55
2002: 60
2001: 60
2000: 52
1999: 54
1998: 84
1997: 70
1996: 66
1995: 80
1994: 92
1993: 92
1992: 122
1991: 106
1990: 108
1989: 90
1988: 140

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 1.2013
2009: 1.60
2008: 1.30
2007: 1.30
2006: 1.40
2005: 1.30
2004: 1.20
2003: 1.40
2002: 1.50
2001: 1.50
2000: 1.30
1999: 1.40
1998: 2.20
1997: 1.90
1996: 1.80
1995: 2.20
1994: 2.50
1993: 2.60
1992: 3.50
1991: 3.00
1990: 3.10
1989: 2.60
1988: 4.10

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn New Zealand, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 8314
2012: 6814 15
2011: 8314 15 16
2010: 5517 15 16 14 18
2009: 8517 15 16 14
2008: 53
2007: 57
2006: 66
2005: 72
2004: 49
2003: 58
2002: 70
2001: 53
2000: 56
1999: 5117 16 14
1998: 57
1997: 69
1996: 69
1995: 47
1994: 7017 14
1993: 5117
1992: 82
1991: 66
1990: 78
1989: 72
1988: 58

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 1.907
2012: 1.577 15
2011: 0.915 16
2010: 1.3017 15 16 18
2009: 2.0017 15 16
2008: 1.2017 19 15 16
2007: 1.30
2006: 1.60
2005: 1.70
2004: 1.20
2003: 1.40
2002: 1.80
2001: 1.40
2000: 1.50
1999: 1.3017 19 16
1998: 1.50
1997: 1.80
1996: 1.80
1995: 1.30
1994: 1.9017
1993: 1.40
1992: 2.30
1991: 1.90
1990: 2.30
1989: 2.10
1988: 1.70

Gun Homicides

ChartIn New Zealand, annual firearm homicides total

2013: 820
2012: 315 20
2011: 3
2010: 721 15 20
2009: 12
2008: 721 15 16 20
2007: 5
2006: 8
2005: 8
2004: 621 20
2003: 6
2002: 921 16 20
2001: 7
2000: 8
1999: 6
1998: 4
1997: 11
1996: 9
1995: 8
1994: 1721 20
1993: 621
1992: 15
1991: 11
1990: 24
1989: 18
1988: 18

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.187
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.2021 7
2009: 0.30
2008: 0.2021 7 16
2007: 0.10
2006: 0.20
2005: 0.20
2004: 0.1021
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.2021 16
2001: 0.20
2000: 0.20
1999: 0.20
1997: 0.30
1996: 0.20
1995: 0.20
1994: 0.5021
1993: 0.20
1992: 0.40
1991: 0.30
1990: 0.70
1989: 0.50
1988: 0.50

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn New Zealand, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 7%15
2011: 8%
2010: 16%15 18
2009: 16%15
2008: 14%
2007: 13%
2006: 18%
2005: 15%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn New Zealand, annual suicides by any means total

2011: 47822
2010: 53623 22
2009: 512
2008: 518
2007: 496
2006: 527
2005: 515
2004: 495
2003: 521
2002: 467
2001: 508
2000: 458
1999: 515
1998: 577
1997: 561
1996: 540
1995: 543
1994: 512
1993: 443
1992: 493
1991: 474
1990: 455
1989: 465
1988: 484

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 10.622
2010: 12.3023 22
2009: 11.90
2008: 12.10
2007: 11.70
2006: 12.60
2005: 12.50
2004: 12.10
2003: 12.90
2002: 11.80
2001: 13.10
2000: 11.90
1999: 13.40
1998: 15.10
1997: 14.80
1996: 14.50
1995: 14.80
1994: 14.10
1993: 12.40
1992: 14.00
1991: 13.60
1990: 13.20
1989: 13.60
1988: 14.30

Gun Suicides

ChartIn New Zealand, annual firearm suicides total

2011: 3624
2010: 4225 24
2009: 53
2008: 42
2007: 48
2006: 48
2005: 44
2004: 39
2003: 41
2002: 49
2001: 51
2000: 36
1999: 46
1998: 72
1997: 56
1996: 4725
1995: 64
1994: 71
1993: 73
1992: 91
1991: 84
1990: 72
1989: 64
1988: 102

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.847
2010: 1.0025
2009: 1.20
2008: 1.00
2007: 1.10
2006: 1.10
2005: 1.10
2004: 1.00
2003: 1.00
2002: 1.20
2001: 1.30
2000: 0.90
1999: 1.20
1998: 1.90
1997: 1.50
1996: 1.30
1995: 1.70
1994: 2.00
1993: 2.00
1992: 2.60
1991: 2.40
1990: 2.10
1989: 1.90
1988: 3.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn New Zealand, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2010: 226
2009: 4
2008: 5
2007: 1
2006: 2
2005: 2
2004: 2
2003: 7
2002: 2
2001: 2
2000: 4
1999: 1
1998: 626 27
1997: 0
1996: 6
1995: 4
1994: 4
1993: 3
1992: 10
1991: 8
1990: 8
1989: 6
1988: 18

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.057
2009: 0.09
2008: 0.1026
2007: 0.027
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.05
2003: 0.2026
2002: 0.057
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.11
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.2026
1997: 0.007
1996: 0.2026
1995: 0.117
1994: 0.11
1993: 0.08
1992: 0.3026
1991: 0.20
1990: 0.20
1989: 0.20
1988: 0.50

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn New Zealand, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 028
2009: 2
2008: 2
2007: 1
2006: 0
2005: 1
2004: 1
2003: 1
2002: 0
2001: 0
2000: 4
1999: 1
1998: 2
1997: 3
1996: 4
1995: 4
1994: 0
1993: 10
1992: 6
1991: 3
1990: 4
1989: 2
1988: 2

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.007
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.11
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.05
1997: 0.08
1996: 0.11
1995: 0.11
1994: 0.00
1993: 0.328
1992: 0.2
1991: 0.097
1990: 0.12
1989: 0.06
1988: 0.06

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries is

2012: 5929
2011: 61
2010: 80
2009: 77
2008: 92
2007: 69
2006: 77
2005: 60
2004: 62
2003: 88
2002: 65
2001: 59
2000: 54
1999: 45
1998: 51
1997: 59
1996: 64
1995: 56
1994: 60
1993: 70
1992: 72
1991: 91
1990: 92
1989: 89
1988: 97

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury per 100,000 population is

2012: 1.3029
2011: 1.40
2010: 1.80
2009: 1.80
2008: 2.20
2007: 1.60
2006: 1.80
2005: 1.50
2004: 1.50
2003: 2.20
2002: 1.60
2001: 1.50
2000: 1.40
1999: 1.20
1998: 1.30
1997: 1.60
1996: 1.70
1995: 1.50
1994: 1.70
1993: 2.00
1992: 2.00
1991: 2.60
1990: 2.70
1989: 2.60
1988: 2.90

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In New Zealand, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence30

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, New Zealand was ranked 'small'31 30

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In New Zealand, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law32 33

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from New Zealand is reported by Customs to be US$3,556,66434 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, New Zealand was categorized as 'minor'35

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In New Zealand, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to New Zealand is reported by Customs to be US$3,807,60334 (2011)43

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in New Zealand is low44 45 46 47

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In New Zealand, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law48

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in New Zealand include32 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in New Zealand is categorised as restrictive49

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in New Zealand includes the Arms Act 1983,50 the Arms Amendment Act 1992,51 the Arms Regulations 1992,52 and the Customs Export Prohibition Order32

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in New Zealand are regulated by the Commissioner of Police53 10

Right to Possess Firearms

In New Zealand, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law54 55 56

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In New Zealand, civilians are not allowed to possess handguns, military-style semi-automatic weapons or fully automatic firearms without a permit to purchase and a relevant firearm licence endorsement57 58 59 60 61 62 63

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In New Zealand, private possession of fully automatic weapons is restricted to police-approved licensed gun owners with a ‘collector' licence endorsement.57 59 60 18 Each automatic or restricted weapon must be registered to its owner, and disabled when not in use64

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In New Zealand, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is restricted to police-approved licensed gun owners with a Military-Style Semi Automatic (MSSA) licence endorsement.65 58 57 60 61 62 Each MSSA must be registered to its owner and securely stored when not in use64

Regulation of Handguns

In New Zealand, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is restricted to police-approved licensed gun owners with a ‘pistol’ licence endorsement.59 58 57 66 61 62 18 Each handgun must be registered to its owner and securely stored64

Law Regulates Long Guns

In New Zealand, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law18

Gun Ownership and Possession

In New Zealand, only licensed gun owners61 67 57 68 69 70 62 59 18 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in New Zealand are not legally required to establish a genuine reason to possess a standard hunting or sports shooting firearm, but specific reasoning is required for special licence endorsements for pistols, restricted firearms, and Military Style Semi-Automatic weapons, including sports shooting, hunting, and collection.69 63 Owning a firearm for self-defence is specifically excluded, and prohibited56

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in New Zealand is 16 years,57 71 67 18 years for military style semi-automatic firearms,65 and any age while shooting an unrestricted firearm (shotgun, rifle, or airgun) under the immediate supervision of an appropriately qualified licence holder72

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in New Zealand must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental, medical, addiction and domestic violence73 74 75 61 62 76 18 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In New Zealand, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required73 61 62 77 78

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In New Zealand, licensing authorities are required73 61 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in New Zealand stipulates74 79 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In New Zealand, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required80 81 82 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In New Zealand, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every ten years83 84

Licensing Records

In New Zealand, authorities maintain a record62 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in New Zealand are permitted to possess any number of sporting type shotguns or rifles85

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in New Zealand are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition86 87 88

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In New Zealand, the law for only handguns, military-style semi-automatic and restricted firearms requires40 61 62 89 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In New Zealand, licensed firearm dealers are required90 91 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In New Zealand, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted with a valid firearms licence92 93

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In New Zealand, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful94 95 69

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in New Zealand is not obliged93 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In New Zealand, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to one pistol, military style semi-automatic firearm, or restricted firearm per acquisition permit58 96

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In New Zealand, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined86 87 88

Regulation of Gun Shows

In New Zealand, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated97 98 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in New Zealand include73 64 61 62 99 100 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in New Zealand include101 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in New Zealand do not include86 87 88 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in New Zealand include102 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In New Zealand, a unique identifying mark on each firearm only in the handgun, military-style semi-automatic and restricted weapon categories is required by law103 104 30 105 106

Firearm Tracing

In New Zealand, state authorities do not carry out86 87 88 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In New Zealand, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not86 87 88 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In New Zealand, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited107 108 109 18

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In New Zealand, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited108 109 107 18

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In New Zealand, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm110 is 3 months to 3 years prison and/or a fine57 111 67

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In New Zealand, it is state policy112 82 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Pacific Islands Forum

As a member of the Pacific Islands Forum, New Zealand adopted the March, 2000 Nadi Framework agreement, which aims to harmonise small arm-related legislation across Oceania. In August 2003, the Nadi Framework’s draft model Weapons Control Bill was unanimously accepted for consideration by all 16 member states of the Pacific Islands Forum113 114

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006115 by New Zealand.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified116 by New Zealand

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed117 by New Zealand

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, New Zealand committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects118

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored New Zealand against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 83119 120 121 122 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, New Zealand has submitted one or more national reports123 106 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In New Zealand, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated124 106

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In New Zealand, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated124

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of New Zealand submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent124 106

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated125 126 127 106 by New Zealand to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, New Zealand has declared128 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, New Zealand has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945129

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists130 New Zealand as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

To see where New Zealand ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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