Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Research supported by
Credit Swiss FDFA (EN)

Switch Language

New Zealand — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in New Zealand is 925,0001 to 1,200,0002. In the absence of registration for most firearms, only an approximation is possible

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in New Zealand is estimated to be 22.61 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In New Zealand, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 460,0003. In the absence of registration for most rifles, only an approximation is possible

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In New Zealand, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 300,0003. In the absence of registration for most shotguns, only an approximation is possible

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 36,0004 registered handguns in civilian possession in New Zealand

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, New Zealand ranked at No. 545

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, New Zealand ranked at No. 221

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in New Zealand is reported to be

2013: 237,6846
2010: 223,0004

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in New Zealand is

2013: 5.457
2010: 5.24

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in New Zealand is reported to be 43,8004. Of these, approximately 36,000 are privately owned pistols and revolvers, and 7,800 are military-style semi-automatic weapons (MSSAs)4

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in New Zealand is 1.037

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of New Zealand are reported to have 41,7378 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In New Zealand, police officers on routine patrol do not carry a firearm9

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in New Zealand are reported to have 1,80010 11 to 2,00012 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn New Zealand, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2010: 5113
2009: 71
2008: 56
2007: 55
2006: 58
2005: 55
2004: 48
2003: 55
2002: 60
2001: 60
2000: 52
1999: 54
1998: 84
1997: 70
1996: 66
1995: 80
1994: 92
1993: 92
1992: 122
1991: 106
1990: 108
1989: 90
1988: 140

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 1.2013
2009: 1.60
2008: 1.30
2007: 1.30
2006: 1.40
2005: 1.30
2004: 1.20
2003: 1.40
2002: 1.50
2001: 1.50
2000: 1.30
1999: 1.40
1998: 2.20
1997: 1.90
1996: 1.80
1995: 2.20
1994: 2.50
1993: 2.60
1992: 3.50
1991: 3.00
1990: 3.10
1989: 2.60
1988: 4.10

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn New Zealand, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 8314
2012: 68
2011: 3915 14
2010: 5516 15 14
2009: 85
2008: 53
2007: 57
2006: 66
2005: 72
2004: 49
2003: 58
2002: 70
2001: 53
2000: 56
1999: 51
1998: 57
1997: 69
1996: 69
1995: 47
1994: 7016 14
1993: 5116
1992: 82
1991: 66
1990: 78
1989: 72
1988: 58

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 1.907
2012: 1.57
2011: 0.9015
2010: 1.3016 15
2009: 2.00
2008: 1.2016 17 15
2007: 1.30
2006: 1.60
2005: 1.70
2004: 1.20
2003: 1.40
2002: 1.80
2001: 1.40
2000: 1.50
1999: 1.30
1998: 1.50
1997: 1.80
1996: 1.80
1995: 1.30
1994: 1.9016
1993: 1.40
1992: 2.30
1991: 1.90
1990: 2.30
1989: 2.10
1988: 1.70

Gun Homicides

ChartIn New Zealand, annual firearm homicides total

2013: 818
2012: 3
2011: 3
2010: 719 18
2009: 12
2008: 719 15 18
2007: 5
2006: 8
2005: 8
2004: 619 18
2003: 6
2002: 919 15 18
2001: 7
2000: 8
1999: 6
1998: 4
1997: 11
1996: 9
1995: 8
1994: 1719 18
1993: 619
1992: 15
1991: 11
1990: 24
1989: 18
1988: 18

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.187
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.2019
2009: 0.30
2008: 0.2019 15
2007: 0.10
2006: 0.20
2005: 0.20
2004: 0.1019
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.2019 15
2001: 0.20
2000: 0.20
1999: 0.20
1997: 0.30
1996: 0.20
1995: 0.20
1994: 0.5019
1993: 0.20
1992: 0.40
1991: 0.30
1990: 0.70
1989: 0.50
1988: 0.50

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn New Zealand, annual suicides by any means total

2011: 47820
2010: 53621 20
2009: 512
2008: 518
2007: 496
2006: 527
2005: 515
2004: 495
2003: 521
2002: 467
2001: 508
2000: 458
1999: 515
1998: 577
1997: 561
1996: 540
1995: 543
1994: 512
1993: 443
1992: 493
1991: 474
1990: 455
1989: 465
1988: 484

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 10.620
2010: 12.3021 20
2009: 11.90
2008: 12.10
2007: 11.70
2006: 12.60
2005: 12.50
2004: 12.10
2003: 12.90
2002: 11.80
2001: 13.10
2000: 11.90
1999: 13.40
1998: 15.10
1997: 14.80
1996: 14.50
1995: 14.80
1994: 14.10
1993: 12.40
1992: 14.00
1991: 13.60
1990: 13.20
1989: 13.60
1988: 14.30

Gun Suicides

ChartIn New Zealand, annual firearm suicides total

2011: 3622
2010: 4223 22
2009: 53
2008: 42
2007: 48
2006: 48
2005: 44
2004: 39
2003: 41
2002: 49
2001: 51
2000: 36
1999: 46
1998: 72
1997: 56
1996: 4723
1995: 64
1994: 71
1993: 73
1992: 91
1991: 84
1990: 72
1989: 64
1988: 102

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.847
2010: 1.0023
2009: 1.20
2008: 1.00
2007: 1.10
2006: 1.10
2005: 1.10
2004: 1.00
2003: 1.00
2002: 1.20
2001: 1.30
2000: 0.90
1999: 1.20
1998: 1.90
1997: 1.50
1996: 1.30
1995: 1.70
1994: 2.00
1993: 2.00
1992: 2.60
1991: 2.40
1990: 2.10
1989: 1.90
1988: 3.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn New Zealand, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2010: 224
2009: 4
2008: 5
2007: 1
2006: 2
2005: 2
2004: 2
2003: 7
2002: 2
2001: 2
2000: 4
1999: 1
1998: 624 25
1997: 0
1996: 6
1995: 4
1994: 4
1993: 3
1992: 10
1991: 8
1990: 8
1989: 6
1988: 18

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.057
2009: 0.09
2008: 0.1024
2007: 0.027
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.05
2003: 0.2024
2002: 0.057
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.11
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.2024
1997: 0.007
1996: 0.2024
1995: 0.117
1994: 0.11
1993: 0.08
1992: 0.3024
1991: 0.20
1990: 0.20
1989: 0.20
1988: 0.50

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn New Zealand, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 026
2009: 2
2008: 2
2007: 1
2006: 0
2005: 1
2004: 1
2003: 1
2002: 0
2001: 0
2000: 4
1999: 1
1998: 2
1997: 3
1996: 4
1995: 4
1994: 0
1993: 10
1992: 6
1991: 3
1990: 4
1989: 2
1988: 2

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.007
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.11
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.05
1997: 0.08
1996: 0.11
1995: 0.11
1994: 0.00
1993: 0.326
1992: 0.2
1991: 0.097
1990: 0.12
1989: 0.06
1988: 0.06

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

ChartIn New Zealand, the reported, or estimated annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries is

2012: 5927
2011: 61
2010: 80
2009: 77
2008: 92
2007: 69
2006: 77
2005: 60
2004: 62
2003: 88
2002: 65
2001: 59
2000: 54
1999: 45
1998: 51
1997: 59
1996: 64
1995: 56
1994: 60
1993: 70
1992: 72
1991: 91
1990: 92
1989: 89
1988: 97

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

ChartIn New Zealand, the reported, or estimated annual rate or proportion of non-fatal firearm injury is

2012: 1.3027
2011: 1.40
2010: 1.80
2009: 1.80
2008: 2.20
2007: 1.60
2006: 1.80
2005: 1.50
2004: 1.50
2003: 2.20
2002: 1.60
2001: 1.50
2000: 1.40
1999: 1.20
1998: 1.30
1997: 1.60
1996: 1.70
1995: 1.50
1994: 1.70
1993: 2.00
1992: 2.00
1991: 2.60
1990: 2.70
1989: 2.60
1988: 2.90

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In New Zealand, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence28

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, New Zealand is ranked 'small'29 28

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In New Zealand, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law30 31

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from New Zealand is reported by Customs to be US$3,556,66432 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, New Zealand is categorized as 'minor'33

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In New Zealand, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to New Zealand is reported by Customs to be US$3,807,60332 (2011)41

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in New Zealand is low42 43 44 45

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In New Zealand, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law46

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in New Zealand include30 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in New Zealand is categorised as restrictive47

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in New Zealand includes the Arms Act 1983,48 the Arms Amendment Act 1992,49 the Arms Regulations 1992,50 and the Customs Export Prohibition Order30

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in New Zealand are regulated by the Commissioner of Police51 10

Right to Possess Firearms

In New Zealand, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law52 53 54

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In New Zealand, civilians are not allowed to possess handguns, military-style semi-automatic weapons or fully automatic firearms without a permit to purchase and a relevant firearm licence endorsement55 56 57 58 59 60 61

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In New Zealand, private possession of fully automatic weapons is restricted to police-approved licensed gun owners with a ‘collector' licence endorsement.55 57 58 Each automatic or restricted weapon must be registered to its owner, and disabled when not in use62

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In New Zealand, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is restricted to police-approved licensed gun owners with a Military-Style Semi Automatic (MSSA) licence endorsement.63 56 55 58 59 60 Each MSSA must be registered to its owner and securely stored when not in use62

Regulation of Handguns

In New Zealand, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is restricted to police-approved licensed gun owners with a ‘pistol’ licence endorsement.57 56 55 64 59 60 Each handgun must be registered to its owner and securely stored62

Gun Ownership and Possession

In New Zealand, only licensed gun owners59 65 55 66 67 68 60 57 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in New Zealand are not legally required to prove genuine reason to possess a standard hunting or sports shooting firearm, but specific reasoning is required for special licence endorsements for pistols, restricted firearms, and Military Style Semi-Automatic weapons, including sports shooting, hunting, and collection.67 61 Owning a firearm for self-defence is specifically excluded, and prohibited54

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in New Zealand is 16 years,55 69 65 18 years for military style semi-automatic firearms,63 and any age while shooting an unrestricted firearm (shotgun, rifle, or airgun) under the immediate supervision of an appropriately qualified licence holder70

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in New Zealand must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental, medical, addiction and domestic violence71 72 73 59 60 74 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In New Zealand, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required71 59 60 75 76

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In New Zealand, licensing authorities are required71 59 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in New Zealand stipulates72 77 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In New Zealand, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required78 79 80 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In New Zealand gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every ten years81 82

Licensing Records

In New Zealand, authorities maintain a record60 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in New Zealand are permitted to possess any number of sporting type shotguns or rifles83

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in New Zealand are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition84 85 86

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In New Zealand, the law for only handguns, military-style semi-automatic and restricted firearms requires38 59 60 87 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In New Zealand, licensed firearm dealers are required88 89 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in New Zealand is not obliged90 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In New Zealand, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted with a valid firearms licence91 90

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In New Zealand, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful92 93 67

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In New Zealand, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to 1 pistol, military style semi-automatic firearm, or restricted firearm per acquisition permit56 94

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In New Zealand, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined84 85 86

Regulation of Gun Shows

In New Zealand, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated95 96 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in New Zealand include71 62 59 60 97 98 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in New Zealand include99 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in New Zealand do not include84 85 86 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in New Zealand include100 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In New Zealand, a unique identifying mark on each firearm only in the handgun, military-style semi-automatic and restricted weapon categories is required by law101 102 28 103 104

Firearm Tracing

In New Zealand, state authorities do not carry out84 85 86 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Marking of Firearms and Ammunition

In New Zealand, state authorities do not employ84 85 86 ballistic fingerprinting technology to trace guns and ammunition

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In New Zealand, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited105 106 107

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In New Zealand, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited106 107 105

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In New Zealand, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm108 is 3 months to 3 years prison and/or a fine55 109 65

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In New Zealand, it is state policy110 80 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Pacific Islands Forum

As a member of the Pacific Islands Forum, New Zealand adopted the March, 2000 Nadi Framework agreement, which aims to harmonise small arm-related legislation across Oceania. In August 2003, the Nadi Framework’s draft model Weapons Control Bill was unanimously accepted for consideration by all 16 member states of the Pacific Islands Forum111 112

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006113 by New Zealand.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified114 by New Zealand

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed115 by New Zealand

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, New Zealand committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects116

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored New Zealand against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 83117 118 119 120 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, New Zealand has submitted one or more national reports121 104 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In New Zealand, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated122 104

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In New Zealand, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated122

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of New Zealand submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent122 104

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated123 124 125 104 by New Zealand to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, New Zealand has declared126 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, New Zealand has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945127

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists128 New Zealand as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

To see where New Zealand ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

James Ihaka. 2009. ‘Questions Remain on 50,000 Gun Owners.’ New Zealand Herald. 12 May. (N139) Full Citation

3.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

4.

Green, Joe.2010.‘Licences and Endorsements May 2010.’ New Zealand Police Firearm Licensing and Endorsement Data.Wellington:NZ Police Headquarters,24 May. (Q1893)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

Charlie Gates. 2014. ‘Hunting Doubles Gun Numbers.’ Stuff (New Zealand). 4 June. (N338) Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org.2014.‘Calculated Rates – New Zealand.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,10 June. (Q4270)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

9.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Stockpiles and Trafficking in the Pacific: Police Inventories.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q145)Full Citation

10.

TVNZ. 2010. ‘Broad Vows to Give Police Greater Gun Access.’ Television New Zealand News. 13 December. (N205) Full Citation

11.

TVNZ (New Zealand). 2012. ‘Three Police Guns and a Taser 'Missing'.’ 15 September. (N341) Full Citation

12.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Stockpiles and Trafficking in the Pacific: Police inventories.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q1957)Full Citation

13.

Injury Prevention Research Unit.2014.‘Total Gun Deaths, New Zealand, 1988 to 2010.’ National Injury Query System / NIQS.Dunedin:Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago University School of Medicine,1 April. (Q8450)Full Citation

14.

New Zealand.2014.‘Homicide – Recorded.’ National Annual Recorded Offences for the Latest Calendar Years.Wellington:Statistics New Zealand,2 April. (Q1894)Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - New Zealand.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6248)Full Citation

16.

Injury Prevention Research Unit.2014.‘Homicides (any method), New Zealand, 1988 to 2010.’ National Injury Query System / NIQS.Dunedin:Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago University School of Medicine,1 April. (Q8451)Full Citation

17.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘East Asia and the Pacific, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3814)Full Citation

18.

New Zealand.2014.‘Murders (Firearm) – Recorded.’ National Annual Recorded Offences for the Latest Calendar Years.Wellington:Statistics New Zealand,2 April. (Q1895)Full Citation

19.

Injury Prevention Research Unit.2014.‘Gun Homicides, New Zealand, 1988 to 2010.’ National Injury Query System / NIQS.Dunedin:Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago University School of Medicine,1 April. (Q8448)Full Citation

20.

New Zealand.2014.‘Table 1: Suicide deaths and age-standardised rates, 1985–2011.’ Suicide Facts: Deaths and Intentional Self-Harm Hospitalisations 2011.Wellington:New Zealand Ministry of Health,27 January. (Q8455)Full Citation

21.

Injury Prevention Research Unit.2014.‘Suicides (any method), New Zealand, 1988 to 2010.’ National Injury Query System / NIQS.Dunedin:Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago University School of Medicine,1 April. (Q8452)Full Citation

22.

New Zealand.2014.‘Table 9: Methods Used for Suicide Deaths, 1997–2011 - Firearms and explosives.’ Suicide Facts: Deaths and Intentional Self-Harm Hospitalisations 2011.Wellington:New Zealand Ministry of Health,27 January. (Q8454)Full Citation

23.

Injury Prevention Research Unit.2014.‘Gun Suicides, New Zealand, 1988 to 2010.’ National Injury Query System / NIQS.Dunedin:Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago University School of Medicine,1 April. (Q8447)Full Citation

24.

Injury Prevention Research Unit.2014.‘Unintentional Gun Deaths, New Zealand, 1988 to 2010.’ National Injury Query System / NIQS.Dunedin:Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago University School of Medicine,1 April. (Q8446)Full Citation

25.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

26.

Injury Prevention Research Unit.2014.‘Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause, New Zealand, 1988 to 2010.’ National Injury Query System / NIQS.Dunedin:Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago University School of Medicine,1 April. (Q8449)Full Citation

27.

Injury Prevention Research Unit.2014.‘Non-fatal Firearm Injuries, New Zealand, 1988 to 2012.’ National Injury Query System / NIQS.Dunedin:Injury Prevention Research Unit, Otago University School of Medicine,1 April. (Q8453)Full Citation

28.

New Zealand.2010.‘Implementing the International Tracing Instrument – National Marking Practices.’ National Report of New Zealand on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the United Nations,1 February. (Q1880)Full Citation

29.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

30.

New Zealand.2010.‘Implementation of the Programme of Action – Export Controls.’ National Report of New Zealand on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the United Nations,1 February. (Q1882)Full Citation

31.

New Zealand.2008.‘Removal of Pistol, Military Style Semi-Automatic Firearm, or Restricted Weapon out of New Zealand.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q3018)Full Citation

32.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

33.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

34.

New Zealand.2008.‘Issue of Permits to Import Firearms or Parts of Firearms.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q2291)Full Citation

35.

New Zealand.2008.‘Offence to Import Firearms or Parts of Firearms Without Permit.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1145)Full Citation

36.

New Zealand.2008.‘Seizure of Illegally Imported Firearms or Parts of Firearms.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1141)Full Citation

37.

NZ Police.2009.‘Firearms Approved for Use in New Zealand.’ Police Web Site.Wellington:New Zealand Police Headquarters,8 October. (Q1212)Full Citation

38.

New Zealand.2010.‘Implementation of International Tracing Instrument – Record Keeping.’ National Report of New Zealand on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the United Nations,1 February. (Q1884)Full Citation

39.

New Zealand.1992.‘Permits to Import Firearms, Pistols, Military Style Semi-Automatic Firearms, Starting Pistols, or Restricted Weapons.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3028)Full Citation

40.

New Zealand.1992.‘Notification of Importation.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3030)Full Citation

41.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

42.

Chatvick, Andre.1999.‘Criminal Possession.’ A Report on Firearm Registration Issues.Wellington:NZ Police, Office of the Commissioner of Police, Strategic Policy Group,17 July. (Q3010)Full Citation

43.

Chatvick, Andre.1999.‘The Criminal Use of Firearms.’ A Report on Firearm Registration Issues.Wellington:NZ Police, Office of the Commissioner of Police, Strategic Policy Group,17 July. (Q3009)Full Citation

44.

Howat, John.2001.‘NGO Meeting to Discuss Issues [relating to the] UN Draft Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ Letter to the International Security and Disarmament Division, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.Wellington:Council of Licensed Firearms Owners,22 June. (Q3008)Full Citation

45.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Stockpiles and Trafficking in the Pacific.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q3007)Full Citation

46.

New Zealand.2010.‘Implementing the International Tracing Instrument – Brokering Activities..’ National Report of New Zealand on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the United Nations,1 February. (Q3048)Full Citation

47.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

48.

New Zealand.2008.‘Title, Short Title and Commencement.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q2293)Full Citation

49.

New Zealand.1992.‘Short Title and Commencement.’ Arms Amendment Act 1992 Public Act 1992 No 95.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,27 October. (Q3023)Full Citation

50.

New Zealand.1992.‘Title and Commencement.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3024)Full Citation

51.

New Zealand.2008.‘Delegation of Powers by Commissioner.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q3022)Full Citation

52.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

53.

NZ Police.2002.‘Firearms Licences: Introduction.’ Arms Manual.Wellington:New Zealand Police,1 November. (Q1182)Full Citation

54.

New Zealand.2004.‘Firearms for Self Defence.’ The Arms Code.Wellington:New Zealand Police,1 January. (Q3274)Full Citation

55.

New Zealand.2008.‘Restrictions on Possession of Firearms.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1876)Full Citation

56.

New Zealand.2008.‘Issue of Permit to Procure Pistol, Military Style Semi-automatic Firearm, or Restricted Weapon.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1165)Full Citation

57.

New Zealand.2008.‘Application for Endorsements in Respect of Pistol or Restricted Weapon.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1169)Full Citation

58.

Green, Joe.2006.‘The New Zealand Arms Control Regime.’ Presentation to the International Firearms Safety Seminar.Christchurch:New Zealand Police,23 February. (Q3012)Full Citation

59.

New Zealand.2007.‘Questionnaire on the Implementation of the Programme of Action.’ United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the United Nations,1 April. (Q3013)Full Citation

60.

Green, Joe.2006.‘The New Zealand Arms Control Regime.’ Presentation to the International Firearms Safety Seminar.Christchurch:New Zealand Police,23 February. (Q3014)Full Citation

61.

New Zealand.1992.‘Conditions of Endorsements in Respect of Pistols and Restricted Weapons.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3033)Full Citation

62.

New Zealand.2008.‘Conditions of Endorsements.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q3011)Full Citation

63.

New Zealand.2008.‘Application for Endorsement in Respect of Military style Semi-automatic Firearm.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1168)Full Citation

64.

Macedonia.2005.‘Article 5.’ Draft Law on Weapons.Skopje:Parliament of the Republic of Macedonia,8 February. (Q3102)Full Citation

65.

New Zealand.2008.‘Restrictions on Possession of Firearms.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1154)Full Citation

66.

New Zealand.2008.‘Restrictions on Possession of Airguns.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1171)Full Citation

67.

New Zealand.2002.‘Licence Types.’ Arms Manual.Wellington:NZ Police,1 November. (Q1183)Full Citation

68.

New Zealand.2010.‘Important Information for People Who Own Pre-Charged Pneumatic Air Rifles.’ New Zealand Police.Wellington:New Zealand Police Headquarters,13 October. (Q2930)Full Citation

69.

New Zealand.2008.‘Application for Firearms Licence.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q3019)Full Citation

70.

NZ Police.2007.‘Immediate Supervision.’ Arms Code.Wellington:New Zealand Police,1 January. (Q1180)Full Citation

71.

New Zealand.2007.‘How to Apply for a Firearms Licence.’ Arms Code.Wellington:NZ Police,1 January. (Q1177)Full Citation

72.

New Zealand.2008.‘Domestic Violence and Firearms Licences.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1175)Full Citation

73.

New Zealand.2008.‘Issue of Firearms Licence.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1176)Full Citation

74.

NZ Police.2002.‘Health of Applicants.’ Arms Manual.Wellington:New Zealand Police,1 November. (Q1174)Full Citation

75.

New Zealand.1992.‘Supply of particulars for Firearms Licence.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3032)Full Citation

76.

New Zealand.2002.‘Referees.’ Arms Manual.Wellington:NZ Police,1 November. (Q1181)Full Citation

77.

New Zealand.2008.‘Search of Suspected Persons and Seizure of Firearms in Cases of Domestic Violence.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q3016)Full Citation

78.

New Zealand.1992.‘Applicants to Undergo Theoretical Test.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3031)Full Citation

79.

New Zealand.2008.‘Regulations – Safety Training.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1159)Full Citation

80.

New Zealand.2010.‘Implementation of the Programme of Action – Surplus Destruction.’ National Report of New Zealand on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the United Nations,1 February. (Q1883)Full Citation

81.

New Zealand.2008.‘Duration of Firearms Licence.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1178)Full Citation

82.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5443)Full Citation

83.

NZ Police.2007.‘Firearms Licence.’ Arms Code.Wellington:New Zealand Police,1 January. (Q1170)Full Citation

84.

New Zealand.2008.‘Title, Short Title and Commencement.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q4152)Full Citation

85.

New Zealand.1992.‘Short Title and Commencement.’ Arms Amendment Act 1992 Public Act 1992 No 95.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,27 October. (Q4153)Full Citation

86.

New Zealand.1992.‘Title and Commencement.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q4154)Full Citation

87.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5381)Full Citation

88.

New Zealand.2008.‘Record of Dealings by Licensed Dealers.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1146)Full Citation

89.

New Zealand.1992.‘Records Kept by Licensed Dealers.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3026)Full Citation

90.

New Zealand.2008.‘Mail Order Sale of Firearm or Ammunition.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1157)Full Citation

91.

New Zealand.2008.‘Dealers and Their Employees and Agents to Hold Firearms Licences.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q3020)Full Citation

92.

New Zealand.2008.‘Dealers to be Licensed.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q2290)Full Citation

93.

New Zealand.2008.‘Duration of Dealer’s Licence.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1147)Full Citation

94.

New Zealand.1992.‘Application for Permit to Procure Pistol, Military Style Semi-Automatic Firearm, or Restricted Weapon.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3034)Full Citation

95.

New Zealand.2008.‘Gun Shows.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q3021)Full Citation

96.

New Zealand.1992.‘Application in Relation to Gun Show.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3025)Full Citation

97.

New Zealand.1992.‘Security Precautions in Relation to Pistols, Military Style Semi-Automatic Firearms, and Restricted Weapons.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3036)Full Citation

98.

NZ Police.2007.‘Arms Regulations Minimum Storage Standards.’ Arms Code.Wellington:New Zealand Police,1 January. (Q1161)Full Citation

99.

New Zealand.1992.‘Conditions Relating to Security Precautions.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3027)Full Citation

100.

NZ Police.2002.‘Transporting Firearms and Ammunition.’ Arms Manual.Wellington:New Zealand Police,1 November. (Q1162)Full Citation

101.

New Zealand.1992.‘Identification Numbers.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3029)Full Citation

102.

New Zealand.1992.‘Identification Numbers.’ Arms Regulations 1992 (SR 1992/346) [as at 1 January 2010].Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,11 December. (Q3035)Full Citation

103.

New Zealand.2008.‘Regulations – Marking.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1156)Full Citation

104.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) – Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

105.

New Zealand.2008.‘Offence to Carry Pistol or Restricted Weapon Without Authority.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1163)Full Citation

106.

New Zealand.2008.‘Unlawful Carriage or Possession in Public Place of Firearm, Airgun, Pistol, Ammunition, Explosive, or Restricted Weapon.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q3017)Full Citation

107.

New Zealand.2008.‘Carrying or Possession of Firearms, Airguns, Pistols, Restricted Weapons, or Explosives, Except for Lawful, Proper, and Sufficient Purpose.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1153)Full Citation

108.
109.

New Zealand.2008.‘Unlawful Possession of Pistol, Military Style Semi-automatic Firearm, or Restricted Weapon.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q1152)Full Citation

110.

New Zealand.2008.‘Authorising Disposal of Firearms, etc., Detained by Police.’ Arms Act 1983 No. 44.Wellington:Parliamentary Counsel Office,1 October. (Q2294)Full Citation

111.

SPCPC/OCO.2000.‘Towards a Common Approach to Weapons Control: The 'Nadi Framework'.’ South Pacific Chiefs of Police Conference (SPCPC) and Oceania Customs Organisation (OCO).Nadi, Fiji:Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) Secretariat,10 March. (Q576)Full Citation

112.

Baker, Jean.2000.‘Weapons Control Bill: Explanatory Notes.’ Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.Suva, Fiji:Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat,10 March. (Q577)Full Citation

113.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

114.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

115.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

116.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

117.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

118.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

119.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

120.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

121.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

122.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

123.

New Zealand.2007.‘International Co-operation and Capacity Building.’ Statement of New Zealand to the United Nations Biennial Meeting of States on small arms.New York:Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the United Nations,14 July. (Q587)Full Citation

124.

New Zealand.2010.‘Implementation of the Programme of Action – DDR Programmes.’ National Report of New Zealand on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the United Nations,1 February. (Q1881)Full Citation

125.

Maze, Kerry and Yvette Issar.2009.‘Case Study of the South Pacific: Tonga: Stockpile Management and Security.’ International Assistance for Implementing the UN Programme of Action on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).Geneva:United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research / UNIDIR,17 November. (Q1885)Full Citation

126.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

127.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

128.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation