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Netherlands — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the Netherlands is 510,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in the Netherlands is 3.91 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the Netherlands ranked at No. 782

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the Netherlands ranked at No. 1121

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn the Netherlands, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2004/05: 4.8%3
1999/2003: 1.7%
1995/98: 2.3%
1992: 1.9%4
1992/94: 2.0%3
1989: 2.0%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

ChartIn the Netherlands, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

2005: 20%5
1992: 0.7%4

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

ChartIn the Netherlands, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

2005: 30%5
1992: 0.0%4

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn the Netherlands, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2004/05: 1.3%3 5
1999/2003: 0.8%
1995/98: 0.9%
1992/94: 1.4%3 4
1989: 0.9%

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in the Netherlands is reported to be 330,0001

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in the Netherlands is 2.026

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in the Netherlands there are estimated to be 85,000 to 125,0007

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in the Netherlands there are estimated to be 0.776 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the Netherlands are reported to have 691,0858 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the Netherlands are reported to have 59,1179 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2012: 9210
2011: 9611 12
2010: 7613
2009: 9311 12
2008: 7811 12 14
2007: 82
2006: 82
2005: 104
2004: 10011 12 15
2003: 10411 12 15 14
2002: 10511 12 15
2001: 11411 12 15 14
2000: 11511 12 15
1999: 13111 12 16 14
1998: 11511 12 15 14
1997: 118
1996: 128

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.510
2011: 0.586
2010: 0.4613
2009: 0.566
2008: 0.48
2007: 0.50
2006: 0.50
2005: 0.64
2004: 0.61
2003: 0.64
2002: 0.65
2001: 0.71
2000: 0.72
1999: 0.83
1998: 0.73
1997: 0.76
1996: 0.82

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 14517
2011: 14317 18
2010: 14417 19
2009: 154
2008: 150
2007: 143
2006: 128
2005: 174
2004: 191
2003: 202
2002: 195
2001: 202
2000: 180
1999: 20319
1998: 176
1997: 20819 20
1996: 211
1995: 299

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.917
2011: 0.917 18
2010: 0.917 19
2009: 0.9
2008: 0.9
2007: 0.9
2006: 0.8
2005: 1.1
2004: 1.2
2003: 1.3
2002: 1.2
2001: 1.3
2000: 1.1
1999: 1.319
1998: 1.1
1997: 1.319 20
1996: 1.4
1995: 1.9

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual firearm homicides total

2012: 4910
2011: 4911 17
2010: 33
2009: 4111 17 19
2008: 37
2007: 39
2006: 31
2005: 54
2004: 5311 19
2003: 5611
2002: 63
2001: 69
2000: 66
1999: 75
1998: 58
1997: 63
1996: 71

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.310
2011: 0.2911 6
2010: 0.20
2009: 0.2511 6 19
2008: 0.23
2007: 0.24
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.33
2004: 0.3311 19
2003: 0.3511
2002: 0.39
2001: 0.43
2000: 0.41
1999: 0.47
1998: 0.37
1997: 0.40
1996: 0.46
1994: 0.3621

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn the Netherlands, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 34%17 18
2010: 23%
2009: 27%
2008: 25%
2007: 28%
2006: 24%
2005: 31%
2004: 29.9%19

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual handgun homicides total

2010: 111
2009: 2
2008: 1
2007: 2
2006: 1
2005: 5
2004: 4
2003: 5
2002: 3
2001: 1
2000: 1
1999: 2
1998: 3
1997: 4
1996: 3

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0111
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.03
1996: 0.02

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual long gun homicides total

2011: 111
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 1
2003: 2
2002: 1
2000: 1
1998: 1
1997: 1

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0111
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1998: 0.01
1997: 0.01

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual gun homicides (other) total

2011: 4811
2010: 31
2009: 38
2008: 35
2007: 37
2006: 30
2005: 49
2004: 49
2003: 49
2002: 59
2001: 68
2000: 64
1999: 73
1998: 54
1997: 58
1996: 68

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.2911
2010: 0.19
2009: 0.23
2008: 0.21
2007: 0.23
2006: 0.18
2005: 0.30
2004: 0.30
2003: 0.30
2002: 0.37
2001: 0.42
2000: 0.40
1999: 0.46
1998: 0.34
1997: 0.37
1996: 0.44

Suicides (any method)

In the Netherlands, annual suicides by any means total

1999: 1,51716

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1999: 9.3916
1994: 10.3022

Gun Suicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual firearm suicides total

2012: 4210
2011: 4712
2010: 40
2009: 52
2008: 40
2007: 42
2006: 50
2005: 49
2004: 45
2003: 46
2002: 39
2001: 43
2000: 47
1999: 51
1998: 53
1997: 50
1996: 55

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.310
2011: 0.2812
2010: 0.24
2009: 0.32
2008: 0.24
2007: 0.26
2006: 0.31
2005: 0.3
2004: 0.28
2003: 0.28
2002: 0.24
2001: 0.27
2000: 0.3
1999: 0.32
1998: 0.34
1997: 0.32
1996: 0.35
1994: 0.3123

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual handgun suicides total

2011: 812
2010: 1
2009: 7
2008: 6
2007: 3
2006: 9
2005: 19
2004: 11
2003: 8
2002: 11
2001: 6
2000: 12
1999: 6
1998: 9
1997: 15
1996: 8

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0512
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.12
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.05
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.04
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.10
1996: 0.05

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, the number of long gun suicides is

2011: 312
2010: 3
2009: 6
2008: 3
2007: 3
2006: 5
2005: 6
2004: 6
2003: 9
2002: 3
2000: 1
1999: 5
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 7

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0212
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.02
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.05

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual gun suicides (other) total

2011: 3612
2010: 36
2009: 39
2008: 31
2007: 36
2006: 36
2005: 24
2004: 28
2003: 29
2002: 25
2001: 37
2000: 34
1999: 40
1998: 41
1997: 33
1996: 40

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.2212
2010: 0.22
2009: 0.24
2008: 0.19
2007: 0.22
2006: 0.22
2005: 0.15
2004: 0.17
2003: 0.18
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.23
2000: 0.21
1999: 0.25
1998: 0.26
1997: 0.21
1996: 0.26

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2012: 110
2010: 115
2004: 2
2003: 1
2002: 3
2001: 1
2000: 2
1999: 5
1998: 3
1997: 3
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.016
2010: 0.0115
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.01
1994: 0.0124

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2002: 215
2001: 1
1999: 1
1997: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2002: 0.0115
2001: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.01

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2010: 115
2002: 1

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0115
2002: 0.01

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2004: 215
2003: 1
2000: 2
1999: 4
1998: 3
1997: 2

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2004: 0.0115
2003: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.01

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 214
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 1
2003: 1
2001: 1
1999: 016
1998: 114
1997: 2
1996: 1

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0114
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.01
1999: 0.0016
1998: 0.0114
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.01
1994: 0.0325

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 114
2006: 1
1997: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0114
2006: 0.01
1997: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 114
2008: 1
2007: 1
2005: 1
2003: 1
2001: 1
1998: 1
1997: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0114
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.01
1998: 0.01
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.01

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the Netherlands, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited26 27

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, the Netherlands was ranked 'small'28

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In the Netherlands, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the Netherlands is reported by Customs to be US$2,094,12238 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, the Netherlands was categorized as 'minor'39

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In the Netherlands, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law40 30 31 33 34 35 36

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the Netherlands is reported by Customs to be US$55,279,28538 (2011)41 42 43 44

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the Netherlands is moderate45

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the Netherlands, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law46 47 48

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, the Netherlands scored

2016: 19.2549
2014: 19.2550
2013: 19.2551
2012: 18.5052
2011: 17.0053
2010: 17.0054
2009: 16.5055
2008: 17.0056
2007: 16.5057
2006: 16.2558
2005: 17.7559
2004: 13.0060

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the Netherlands is categorised as restrictive61

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the Netherlands includes the Wet Wapens en Munitie 1997 [Arms and Ammunition Act],62 63 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,64 65 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012 and the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200366

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the Netherlands are regulated by the Ministry of Justice and the local Commissioner of Police,67 and the European Commission65

Right to Possess Firearms

In the Netherlands, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law68 69 70

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the Netherlands, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic and 'Category II' firearms, incendiary and armour-piercing ammunition71 72 73 74 75

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the Netherlands, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited72 71 76 74 75 18

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the Netherlands, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited72 71 76 77 78 75

Regulation of Handguns

In the Netherlands, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence72 74 77 78 75 18

Law Regulates Long Guns

In the Netherlands, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law18

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the Netherlands, only licensed gun owners71 79 80 74 77 18 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in the Netherlands are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, sports shooting, collection79 81 71 82

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the Netherlands is 18 years79 71 82

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in the Netherlands must pass a background check which considers criminal79 82 18 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In the Netherlands, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required70

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in the Netherlands does not stipulate70 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In the Netherlands, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required70 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In the Netherlands, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every one year79

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in the Netherlands are permitted to possess any number of firearms70

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in the Netherlands are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition70 83

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the Netherlands, the law requires84 85 86 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In the Netherlands, licensed firearm dealers are required86 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the Netherlands, State agencies are required85 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In the Netherlands, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited27

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the Netherlands, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful27 87 88 78

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In the Netherlands, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined70

Regulation of Gun Shows

In the Netherlands, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated70 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in the Netherlands do not include70 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in the Netherlands do not include70 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the Netherlands include89 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the Netherlands include90 91 89 31 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In the Netherlands, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law92 93 94

Firearm Tracing

In the Netherlands, state authorities carry out95 94 86 96 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In the Netherlands, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not70 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In the Netherlands, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited97 18

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In the Netherlands, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited97 18

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In the Netherlands, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm98 is no more than 9 months in prison or a fine99

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In the Netherlands, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2013/16: 24,000100

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn the Netherlands, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

1994/96: 143,632101
1991/2007: 143,632102

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the Netherlands, it is state policy103 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, the Netherlands is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament104 105

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, the Netherlands is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that the Netherlands have submitted one or more national reports106 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006107 by the Netherlands.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified108 by the Netherlands

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified109 by the Netherlands

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the Netherlands committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects110

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the Netherlands against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 54111 112 113 114 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the Netherlands have submitted one or more national reports115 116 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the Netherlands, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated117 116

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the Netherlands, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated117

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the Netherlands submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent117 118 116

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated116 by the Netherlands to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the Netherlands have declared119 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the Netherlands have been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945120

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists121 the Netherlands as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in the Netherlands, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where the Netherlands ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11810)Full Citation

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Killias, Martin.1993.‘Gun Ownership, Suicide and Homicide: An International Perspective.’ Understanding Crime, Experiences of Crime and Crime Control - Acts of the International Conference, Rome, 18-20 Nov 1992.Rome:United Nations International Crime & Justice Research Institute (UNICRI),1 August. (Q1187)Full Citation

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Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Percentage of Types of Firearm Possessed [by Households] in European Countries, 2004-2005.’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q12045)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

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WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

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WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in the Netherlands.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,20 June. (Q6454)Full Citation

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