Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Switch Language

Netherlands — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the Netherlands is 510,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in the Netherlands is 3.91 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the Netherlands ranked at No. 782

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the Netherlands ranked at No. 1121

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in the Netherlands is reported to be 330,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in the Netherlands is 2.023

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the Netherlands are reported to have 691,0854 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the Netherlands are reported to have 59,1175 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 966 7
2010: 768
2009: 936 7
2008: 786 7 9
2007: 82
2006: 82
2005: 104
2004: 1006 7 10
2003: 1046 7 10 9
2002: 1056 7 10
2001: 1146 7 10 9
2000: 1156 7 10
1999: 1316 7 11 9
1998: 1156 7 10 9
1997: 118
1996: 128

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.583
2010: 0.468
2009: 0.563
2008: 0.48
2007: 0.50
2006: 0.50
2005: 0.64
2004: 0.61
2003: 0.64
2002: 0.65
2001: 0.71
2000: 0.72
1999: 0.83
1998: 0.73
1997: 0.76
1996: 0.82

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual homicides by any means total

2010: 14412
2009: 154
2008: 150
2007: 143
2006: 128
2005: 174
2004: 191
2003: 202
2002: 195
2001: 202
2000: 180
1999: 203
1998: 176
1997: 20812 13
1996: 211
1995: 299

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.912
2009: 0.9
2008: 0.9
2007: 0.9
2006: 0.8
2005: 1.1
2004: 1.2
2003: 1.2
2002: 1.2
2001: 1.3
2000: 1.1
1999: 1.3
1998: 1.1
1997: 1.312 13
1996: 1.4
1995: 1.9

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual firearm homicides total

2011: 496
2010: 33
2009: 5512 6
2008: 52
2007: 47
2006: 43
2005: 64
2004: 67
2003: 566
2002: 63
2001: 69
2000: 66
1999: 75
1998: 58
1997: 63
1996: 71

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.296
2010: 0.2
2009: 0.312 6
2008: 0.3
2007: 0.3
2006: 0.3
2005: 0.4
2004: 0.4
2003: 0.356
2002: 0.39
2001: 0.43
2000: 0.41
1999: 0.47
1998: 0.37
1997: 0.4
1996: 0.46
1994: 0.3614

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual handgun homicides total

2010: 16
2009: 2
2008: 1
2007: 2
2006: 1
2005: 5
2004: 4
2003: 5
2002: 3
2001: 1
2000: 1
1999: 2
1998: 3
1997: 4
1996: 3

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.016
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.03
1996: 0.02

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual long gun homicides total

2011: 16
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 1
2003: 2
2002: 1
2000: 1
1998: 1
1997: 1

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.016
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1998: 0.01
1997: 0.01

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual gun homicides (other) total

2011: 486
2010: 31
2009: 38
2008: 35
2007: 37
2006: 30
2005: 49
2004: 49
2003: 49
2002: 59
2001: 68
2000: 64
1999: 73
1998: 54
1997: 58
1996: 68

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.296
2010: 0.19
2009: 0.23
2008: 0.21
2007: 0.23
2006: 0.18
2005: 0.30
2004: 0.30
2003: 0.30
2002: 0.37
2001: 0.42
2000: 0.40
1999: 0.46
1998: 0.34
1997: 0.37
1996: 0.44

Suicides (any method)

In the Netherlands, annual suicides by any means total 1999: 1,51711

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1999: 9.3911
1994: 10.3015

Gun Suicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual firearm suicides total

2011: 477
2010: 40
2009: 52
2008: 40
2007: 42
2006: 50
2005: 49
2004: 45
2003: 46
2002: 39
2001: 43
2000: 47
1999: 51
1998: 53
1997: 50
1996: 55

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.287
2010: 0.24
2009: 0.32
2008: 0.24
2007: 0.26
2006: 0.31
2005: 0.3
2004: 0.28
2003: 0.28
2002: 0.24
2001: 0.27
2000: 0.3
1999: 0.32
1998: 0.34
1997: 0.32
1996: 0.35
1994: 0.3116

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual handgun suicides total

2011: 87
2010: 1
2009: 7
2008: 6
2007: 3
2006: 9
2005: 19
2004: 11
2003: 8
2002: 11
2001: 6
2000: 12
1999: 6
1998: 9
1997: 15
1996: 8

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.057
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.12
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.05
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.04
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.10
1996: 0.05

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, the number of long gun suicides is

2011: 37
2010: 3
2009: 6
2008: 3
2007: 3
2006: 5
2005: 6
2004: 6
2003: 9
2002: 3
2000: 1
1999: 5
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 7

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.027
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.02
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.05

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual gun suicides (other) total

2011: 367
2010: 36
2009: 39
2008: 31
2007: 36
2006: 36
2005: 24
2004: 28
2003: 29
2002: 25
2001: 37
2000: 34
1999: 40
1998: 41
1997: 33
1996: 40

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.227
2010: 0.22
2009: 0.24
2008: 0.19
2007: 0.22
2006: 0.22
2005: 0.15
2004: 0.17
2003: 0.18
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.23
2000: 0.21
1999: 0.25
1998: 0.26
1997: 0.21
1996: 0.26

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2010: 110
2004: 2
2003: 1
2002: 3
2001: 1
2000: 2
1999: 5
1998: 3
1997: 3
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0110
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.01
1994: 0.0117

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2002: 210
2001: 1
1999: 1
1997: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2002: 0.0110
2001: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.01

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2010: 110
2002: 1

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0110
2002: 0.01

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2004: 210
2003: 1
2000: 2
1999: 4
1998: 3
1997: 2

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2004: 0.0110
2003: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.01

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 29
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 1
2003: 1
2001: 1
1999: 011
1998: 19
1997: 2
1996: 1

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.019
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.01
1999: 0.0011
1998: 0.019
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.01
1994: 0.0318

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 19
2006: 1
1997: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.019
2006: 0.01
1997: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 19
2008: 1
2007: 1
2005: 1
2003: 1
2001: 1
1998: 1
1997: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.019
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.01
1998: 0.01
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.01

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the Netherlands, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited19 20

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, the Netherlands is ranked 'small'21

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In the Netherlands, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the Netherlands is reported by Customs to be US$2,094,12231 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, the Netherlands is categorized as 'minor'32

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In the Netherlands, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law33 23 24 26 27 28 29

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the Netherlands is reported by Customs to be US$55,279,28531 (2011)34

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the Netherlands is moderate35

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the Netherlands, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law36 37 38

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, the Netherlands was ranked at No. 539

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the Netherlands is categorised as restrictive40

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the Netherlands includes the Wet Wapens en Munitie 1997 [Arms and Ammunition Act],41 42 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,43 44 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012 and the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200345

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the Netherlands are regulated by the Ministry of Justice and the local Commissioner of Police,46 and the European Commission44

Right to Possess Firearms

In the Netherlands, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law47 48

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the Netherlands, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic and 'Category II' firearms, incendiary and armour-piercing ammunition49 50 51 52 53

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the Netherlands, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited50 49 54 52 53

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the Netherlands, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited50 49 54 55 56 53

Regulation of Handguns

In the Netherlands, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence50 52 55 56 53

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the Netherlands, only licensed gun owners49 57 58 52 55 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in the Netherlands are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, hunting, sports shooting, collection57 59 49 60

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the Netherlands is 18 years57 49 60

Gun Licence Background Check

An applicant for a firearm licence in the Netherlands must pass a background check which considers criminal57 60 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In the Netherlands, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required48

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in the Netherlands does not stipulate48 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In the Netherlands, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required48 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In the Netherlands gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every one year57

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in the Netherlands are permitted to possess any number of firearms48

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in the Netherlands are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition48 61

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the Netherlands, the law requires62 63 64 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In the Netherlands, licensed firearm dealers are required64 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the Netherlands, State agencies are required63 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In the Netherlands, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited20

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the Netherlands, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful20 65 66 56

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In the Netherlands, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined48

Regulation of Gun Shows

In the Netherlands, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated48 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in the Netherlands do not include48 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in the Netherlands do not include48 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the Netherlands include67 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the Netherlands include68 69 67 24 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In the Netherlands, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law70 71 72

Firearm Tracing

In the Netherlands, state authorities carry out73 72 64 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Marking of Firearms and Ammunition

In the Netherlands, state authorities do not employ48 ballistic fingerprinting technology to trace guns and ammunition

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In the Netherlands, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited74

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In the Netherlands, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited74

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In the Netherlands, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm75 is no more than 9 months prison or a fine76

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in the Netherlands are known to have77 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In the Netherlands, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 143,63277

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the Netherlands, it is state policy78 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, the Netherlands are bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament79 80

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, the Netherlands is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that the Netherlands have submitted one or more national reports81 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200682 by the Netherlands.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified83 by the Netherlands

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified84 by the Netherlands

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the Netherlands committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects85

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the Netherlands against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 5486 87 88 89 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the Netherlands have submitted one or more national reports90 91 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the Netherlands, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated92 91

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the Netherlands, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated92

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the Netherlands submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent92 93 91

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated91 by the Netherlands to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the Netherlands have declared94 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the Netherlands have been a Member State of the United Nations since 194595

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists96 the Netherlands as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in the Netherlands, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where the Netherlands ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

3.

GunPolicy.org.2014.‘Calculated Rates – Netherlands.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,3 July. (Q4269)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

6.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Homicide in the Netherlands.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,20 June. (Q6093)Full Citation

7.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Suicide in the Netherlands.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,20 June. (Q6158)Full Citation

8.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

9.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in the Netherlands.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,20 June. (Q6454)Full Citation

10.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Unintentional Gun Deaths in Netherlands.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,20 June. (Q6196)Full Citation

11.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

12.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Netherlands.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6212)Full Citation

13.

Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares and Arsalaan Siddique.2001.‘Crimes Recorded by Police: Homicide.’ International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999.London:UK Home Office,1 May. (Q2143)Full Citation

14.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

15.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

16.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

17.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

18.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

19.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees – Production.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1707)Full Citation

20.

Netherlands.1997.‘Recognition.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2116)Full Citation

21.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

22.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees – Export.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1710)Full Citation

23.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees – Transit.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1711)Full Citation

24.

Netherlands.1997.‘Entering and Leaving of Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II and III – Art. 14.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2119)Full Citation

25.

Netherlands.1997.‘Transfer and Acquisition of Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II, III and IV – Art. 31.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2126)Full Citation

26.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

27.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

28.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

29.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

30.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

31.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

32.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

33.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees – Import.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1709)Full Citation

34.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

35.

Expatica (Brussels). 2004. ‘Report: 15,000 Guns Smuggled Annually.’ 22 July. (N183) Full Citation

36.

Netherlands.2010.‘Brokering.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1715)Full Citation

37.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

38.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

39.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

40.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

41.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1708)Full Citation

42.

Netherlands.1997.‘Wording of the Act.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2112)Full Citation

43.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

44.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

45.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

46.

Netherlands.1997.‘Commissioner of Police.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2117)Full Citation

47.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

48.

Netherlands.1997.‘Wording of the Act.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q4151)Full Citation

49.

Netherlands.1997.‘Possessing and Carrying Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II, III and IV – Art. 26.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2121)Full Citation

50.

Netherlands.1997.‘Wording of the Act.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2113)Full Citation

51.

Netherlands.1997.‘Categories of Ammunition.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2114)Full Citation

52.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

53.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

54.

Netherlands.1997.‘Possessing and Carrying Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II, III and IV – Art. 27.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2123)Full Citation

55.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

56.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

57.

Netherlands.1997.‘Possessing and Carrying Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II, III and IV – Art. 28.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2124)Full Citation

58.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

59.

Netherlands.1997.‘Exemptions – Collection.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2115)Full Citation

60.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

61.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

62.

Netherlands.1997.‘Provisions Concerning the Implementation of the Act – Art. 42.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2128)Full Citation

63.

Netherlands.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing – Record Keeping.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4568)Full Citation

64.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

65.

Netherlands.1997.‘Exceptional Grounds for Refusal (Mandatory).’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2118)Full Citation

66.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

67.

Netherlands.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1713)Full Citation

68.

Netherlands.1997.‘Transport of Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II and III – Art. 22.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.TheHague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2120)Full Citation

69.

Netherlands.1997.‘Safety Requirements – Art. 33.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2127)Full Citation

70.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees – Marking.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1712)Full Citation

71.

Netherlands.2010.‘Marking.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4567)Full Citation

72.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation

73.

Netherlands.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing – Tracing.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4569)Full Citation

74.

Georg Schreuder Hes. 2011. ‘Gun Laws in The Netherlands.’ Radio Netherlands. 9 April. (N214) Full Citation

75.
76.

Netherlands.1997.‘Punishment Provisions – Art. 55.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2129)Full Citation

77.

Karp, Aaron.2008.‘A Semi-automatic Process?: Identifying and destroying military surplus.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,14 July. (Q1993)Full Citation

78.

Netherlands.2010.‘Collection and Disposal.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1714)Full Citation

79.

European Parliament.2007.‘Roll-call Vote: EU Firearms Directive.’ Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons.Brussels:VoteWatch.eu,29 November. (Q1346)Full Citation

80.

EU Parliament.2007.‘Draft Legislative Resolution on the EU Parliament Firearms Directive 2007.’ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.Brussels:European Parliament,12 July. (Q1970)Full Citation

81.

Saferworld.2010.‘EU Arms Transfer Reporting Database.’ Saferworld European Union Arms Transfer Reporting Database.London:Saferworld,9 December. (Q3364)Full Citation

82.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

83.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

84.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

85.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

86.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

87.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

88.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

89.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

90.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

91.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) – Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

92.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

93.

Netherlands.2010.‘Cooperation with Civil Society and NGOs.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1716)Full Citation

94.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

95.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

96.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation