Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Netherlands — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the Netherlands is 510,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in the Netherlands is 3.91 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the Netherlands ranked at No. 782

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the Netherlands ranked at No. 1121

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn the Netherlands, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2004/05: 4.8%3
1999/2003: 1.7%
1995/98: 2.3%
1992: 1.9%4
1992/94: 2.0%3
1989: 2.0%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In the Netherlands, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 0.7%4

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In the Netherlands, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 0.0%4

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn the Netherlands, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2004/05: 1.3%3
1999/2003: 0.8%
1995/98: 0.9%
1992/94: 1.4%3 4
1989: 0.9%

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in the Netherlands is reported to be 330,0001

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in the Netherlands is 2.025

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in the Netherlands there are estimated to be 85,000 to 125,0006

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in the Netherlands there are estimated to be 0.775 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the Netherlands are reported to have 691,0857 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the Netherlands are reported to have 59,1178 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 789
2014: 74
2013: 71
2012: 929 10
2011: 969
2010: 769 11
2009: 939
2008: 78
2007: 82
2006: 82
2005: 104
2004: 100
2003: 104
2002: 105
2001: 114
2000: 115
1999: 131
1998: 115
1997: 118
1996: 128

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.465
2014: 0.44
2013: 0.42
2012: 0.55
2011: 0.58
2010: 0.46
2009: 0.56
2008: 0.48
2007: 0.50
2006: 0.50
2005: 0.64
2004: 0.61
2003: 0.64
2002: 0.65
2001: 0.71
2000: 0.72
1999: 0.83
1998: 0.73
1997: 0.76
1996: 0.82

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 10412
2014: 123
2013: 125
2012: 14512 13
2011: 14312 13 14
2010: 14412 13 15
2009: 154
2008: 150
2007: 143
2006: 128
2005: 174
2004: 191
2003: 202
2002: 195
2001: 202
2000: 180
1999: 20312 15
1998: 176
1997: 20812 15 16
1996: 211
1995: 29915 16

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.615
2014: 0.73
2013: 0.74
2012: 0.875 5 13
2011: 0.865 13 14
2010: 0.875 13 15
2009: 0.93
2008: 0.91
2007: 0.87
2006: 0.78
2005: 1.07
2004: 1.17
2003: 1.25
2002: 1.21
2001: 1.26
2000: 1.13
1999: 1.285 15
1998: 1.12
1997: 1.335 15 16
1996: 1.36
1995: 1.915 16

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 319
2014: 40
2013: 289 17
2012: 499 17 10
2011: 499 17 13
2010: 33
2009: 419 17 13 15
2008: 37
2007: 39
2006: 31
2005: 54
2004: 539 17 15
2003: 569 17
2002: 63
2001: 69
2000: 66
1999: 75
1998: 58
1997: 63
1996: 71

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.185
2014: 0.24
2013: 0.175 17
2012: 0.295 17 10
2011: 0.295 17
2010: 0.20
2009: 0.255 17 15
2008: 0.23
2007: 0.24
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.33
2004: 0.335 17 15
2003: 0.355 17
2002: 0.39
2001: 0.43
2000: 0.41
1999: 0.47
1998: 0.37
1997: 0.40
1996: 0.46
1994: 0.3618

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn the Netherlands, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 34%13 14
2010: 23%
2009: 27%
2008: 25%
2007: 28%
2006: 24%
2005: 31%
2004: 29.9%15

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual handgun homicides total

2015: 09
2014: 2
2013: 29 17
2012: 2
2011: 09
2010: 19 17
2009: 2
2008: 1
2007: 2
2006: 1
2005: 5
2004: 4
2003: 5
2002: 3
2001: 1
2000: 1
1999: 2
1998: 3
1997: 4
1996: 3

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.015 17
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.005
2010: 0.015 17
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.03
1996: 0.02

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual long gun homicides total

2015: 09
2014: 1
2013: 0
2012: 19 17
2011: 1
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 1
2007: 09
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 29 17
2002: 1
2001: 09
2000: 19 17
1999: 09
1998: 19 17
1997: 1
1996: 09

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.015 17
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.005
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.015 17
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.005
1998: 0.015 17
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.005

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual gun homicides (other) total

2015: 319
2014: 37
2013: 269 17
2012: 46
2011: 48
2010: 31
2009: 38
2008: 35
2007: 37
2006: 30
2005: 49
2004: 49
2003: 49
2002: 59
2001: 68
2000: 64
1999: 73
1998: 54
1997: 58
1996: 68

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.185
2014: 0.22
2013: 0.155 17
2012: 0.27
2011: 0.29
2010: 0.19
2009: 0.23
2008: 0.21
2007: 0.23
2006: 0.18
2005: 0.30
2004: 0.30
2003: 0.30
2002: 0.37
2001: 0.42
2000: 0.40
1999: 0.46
1998: 0.34
1997: 0.37
1996: 0.44

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual suicides by any means total

2015: 1,87119
2014: 1,839
2013: 1,857
2012: 1,753
2011: 1,647
2010: 1,600
2009: 1,525
2008: 1,435
2007: 1,353
2006: 1,524
2005: 1,572
2004: 1,514
2003: 1,500
2002: 1,567
2001: 1,473
2000: 1,500
1999: 1,51719 20
1998: 1,51919
1997: 1,570
1996: 1,577

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 11.045
2014: 10.90
2013: 11.05
2012: 10.48
2011: 9.89
2010: 9.65
2009: 9.25
2008: 8.74
2007: 8.27
2006: 9.34
2005: 9.64
2004: 9.31
2003: 9.25
2002: 9.71
2001: 9.18
2000: 9.42
1999: 9.595 20
1998: 9.665
1997: 10.05
1996: 10.14
1994: 10.3021

Gun Suicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual firearm suicides total

2015: 479
2014: 33
2013: 439 22
2012: 429 22 10
2011: 479 22
2010: 40
2009: 52
2008: 40
2007: 42
2006: 50
2005: 49
2004: 45
2003: 46
2002: 39
2001: 43
2000: 47
1999: 51
1998: 53
1997: 50
1996: 55

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.285
2014: 0.20
2013: 0.265 22
2012: 0.255 22 10
2011: 0.285 22
2010: 0.24
2009: 0.32
2008: 0.24
2007: 0.26
2006: 0.31
2005: 0.30
2004: 0.28
2003: 0.28
2002: 0.24
2001: 0.27
2000: 0.30
1999: 0.32
1998: 0.34
1997: 0.32
1996: 0.35
1994: 0.3123

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual handgun suicides total

2015: 59
2014: 3
2013: 49 22
2012: 5
2011: 8
2010: 1
2009: 7
2008: 6
2007: 3
2006: 9
2005: 19
2004: 11
2003: 8
2002: 11
2001: 6
2000: 12
1999: 6
1998: 9
1997: 15
1996: 8

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.035
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.025 22
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.12
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.05
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.04
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.10
1996: 0.05

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn the Netherlands, the number of long gun suicides is

2015: 49
2014: 1
2013: 49 22
2012: 6
2011: 3
2010: 3
2009: 6
2008: 3
2007: 3
2006: 5
2005: 6
2004: 6
2003: 9
2002: 3
2001: 09
2000: 19 22
1999: 5
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 7

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.025
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.025 22
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: .004
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.005
2000: 0.015 22
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.05

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual gun suicides (other) total

2015: 389
2014: 29
2013: 359 22
2012: 31
2011: 36
2010: 36
2009: 39
2008: 31
2007: 36
2006: 36
2005: 24
2004: 28
2003: 29
2002: 25
2001: 37
2000: 34
1999: 40
1998: 41
1997: 33
1996: 40

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.225
2014: 0.17
2013: 0.215 22
2012: 0.19
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.22
2009: 0.24
2008: 0.19
2007: 0.22
2006: 0.22
2005: 0.15
2004: 0.17
2003: 0.18
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.23
2000: 0.21
1999: 0.25
1998: 0.26
1997: 0.21
1996: 0.26

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2015: 09
2014: 1
2013: 0
2012: 19 24 10
2011: 09
2010: 19 24
2009: 09
2008: 0
2007: 0
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 29 24
2003: 1
2002: 3
2001: 1
2000: 2
1999: 5
1998: 3
1997: 3
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.015 24 5
2011: 0.005
2010: 0.015 24
2009: 0.005
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.015 24
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.01
1994: 0.0125

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2015: 09
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 0
2002: 29 24
2001: 1
2000: 09
1999: 19 24
1998: 09
1997: 19 24
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.00
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.015 24
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.005
1999: 0.015 24
1998: 0.005
1997: 0.015 24
1996: 0.01

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2015: 09
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 19 24
2011: 09
2010: 19 24
2009: 09
2008: 0
2007: 0
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 0
2002: 19 24
2001: 09
2000: 0
1999: 0
1998: 0
1997: 0
1996: 0

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.00
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.015 24
2011: 0.005
2010: 0.015 24
2009: 0.005
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.015 24
2001: 0.005
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.00
1997: 0.00
1996: 0.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2015: 09
2014: 1
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 29 24
2003: 1
2002: 09
2001: 0
2000: 29 24
1999: 4
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 09

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.015 24
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.005
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.015 24
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.005

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2015: 09
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 29 26
2009: 09
2008: 19 26
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 1
2004: 09
2003: 19 26
2002: 09
2001: 19 26
2000: 09
1999: 09 20
1998: 19 26
1997: 2
1996: 1

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.00
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.015 26
2009: 0.005
2008: 0.015 26
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.005
2003: 0.015 26
2002: 0.005
2001: 0.015 26
2000: 0.005
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.01
1997: 0.015 26
1996: 0.01
1994: 0.0327

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2015: 09
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 19 26
2009: 09
2008: 0
2007: 0
2006: 19 26
2005: 09
2004: 0
2003: 0
2002: 0
2001: 0
2000: 0
1999: 0
1998: 0
1997: 19 26
1996: 09

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.00
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.015 26
2009: 0.005
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.015 26
2005: 0.005
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.00
1997: 0.015 26
1996: 0.005

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2015: 09
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 0
2002: 0
2001: 0
2000: 0
1999: 0
1998: 0
1997: 0
1996: 0

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.00
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.00
1997: 0.00
1996: 0.00

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Netherlands, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2015: 09
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 19 26
2009: 09
2008: 19 26
2007: 1
2006: 09
2005: 19 26
2004: 09
2003: 19 26
2002: 09
2001: 19 26
2000: 09
1999: 0
1998: 19 26
1997: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Netherlands, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.005
2014: 0.00
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.015 26
2009: 0.005
2008: 0.015 26
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.005
2005: 0.015 26
2004: 0.005
2003: 0.015 26
2002: 0.005
2001: 0.015 26
2000: 0.005
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.015 26
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.01

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the Netherlands, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited28 29

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, the Netherlands was ranked 'small'30

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In the Netherlands, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the Netherlands is reported by Customs to be US$2,094,12240 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, the Netherlands was categorized as 'minor'41

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In the Netherlands, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law42 32 33 35 36 37 38

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the Netherlands is reported by Customs to be US$55,279,28540 (2011)43 44 45 46

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the Netherlands is moderate47

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the Netherlands, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law48 49 50

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, the Netherlands scored

2016: 19.2551
2014: 19.2552
2013: 19.2553
2012: 18.5054
2011: 17.0055
2010: 17.0056
2009: 16.5057
2008: 17.0058
2007: 16.5059
2006: 16.2560
2005: 17.7561
2004: 13.0062

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the Netherlands is categorised as restrictive63

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the Netherlands includes the Wet Wapens en Munitie 1997 [Arms and Ammunition Act],64 65 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,66 67 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012 and the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200368

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the Netherlands are regulated by the Ministry of Justice and the local Commissioner of Police,69 and the European Commission67

Right to Possess Firearms

In the Netherlands, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law70 71 72

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the Netherlands, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic and 'Category II' firearms, incendiary and armour-piercing ammunition73 74 75 76 77

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the Netherlands, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited74 73 78 76 77 14

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the Netherlands, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited74 73 78 79 80 77

Regulation of Handguns

In the Netherlands, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence74 76 79 80 77 14

Law Regulates Long Guns

In the Netherlands, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law14

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the Netherlands, only licensed gun owners73 81 82 76 79 14 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in the Netherlands are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, sports shooting, collection81 83 73 84

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the Netherlands is 18 years81 73 84

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in the Netherlands must pass a background check which considers criminal81 84 14 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In the Netherlands, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required72

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in the Netherlands does not stipulate72 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In the Netherlands, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required72 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In the Netherlands, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every one year81

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in the Netherlands are permitted to possess any number of firearms72

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in the Netherlands are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition72 85

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the Netherlands, the law requires86 87 88 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In the Netherlands, licensed firearm dealers are required88 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the Netherlands, State agencies are required87 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In the Netherlands, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited29

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the Netherlands, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful29 89 90 80

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In the Netherlands, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined72

Regulation of Gun Shows

In the Netherlands, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated72 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in the Netherlands do not include72 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in the Netherlands do not include72 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the Netherlands include91 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the Netherlands include92 93 91 33 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In the Netherlands, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law94 95 96

Firearm Tracing

In the Netherlands, state authorities carry out97 96 88 98 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In the Netherlands, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not72 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In the Netherlands, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited99 14

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In the Netherlands, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited99 14

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In the Netherlands, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm100 is no more than nine months in prison or a fine101 102

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In the Netherlands, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2013/16: 24,000103

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn the Netherlands, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

1994/96: 143,632104
1991/2007: 143,632105

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the Netherlands, it is state policy106 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, the Netherlands is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament107 108

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, the Netherlands is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that the Netherlands have submitted one or more national reports109 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006110 by the Netherlands.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified111 by the Netherlands

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified112 by the Netherlands

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the Netherlands committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects113

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the Netherlands against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 54114 115 116 117 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the Netherlands have submitted one or more national reports118 119 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the Netherlands, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated120 119

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the Netherlands, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated120

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the Netherlands submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent120 121 119

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated119 by the Netherlands to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the Netherlands have declared122 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the Netherlands have been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945123

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists124 the Netherlands as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in the Netherlands, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where the Netherlands ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

3.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11810)Full Citation

4.

Killias, Martin.1993.‘Gun Ownership, Suicide and Homicide: An International Perspective.’ Understanding Crime, Experiences of Crime and Crime Control - Acts of the International Conference, Rome, 18-20 Nov 1992.Rome:United Nations International Crime & Justice Research Institute (UNICRI),1 August. (Q1187)Full Citation

5.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Netherlands.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,16 September. (Q4269)Full Citation

6.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2016.‘Illegal Firearm Possession in the Netherlands, 2001/03.’ Guns for Sale: The Belgian Illicit Gun Market in a European Perspective.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,21 March. (Q11827)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

9.

Netherlands.2016.‘External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality: Firearms.’ Statistics Netherlands.Amsterdam:Statistics Netherlands,30 June. (Q12293)Full Citation

10.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

11.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

12.

Netherlands.2016.‘Homicides, 1996-2015.’ Statistics Netherlands.Amsterdam:Statistics Netherlands,30 June. (Q12294)Full Citation

13.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in the Netherlands.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10345)Full Citation

14.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Netherlands.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9429)Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Netherlands.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6212)Full Citation

16.

Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares and Arsalaan Siddique.2001.‘Crimes Recorded by Police: Homicide.’ International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999.London:UK Home Office,1 May. (Q2143)Full Citation

17.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in the Netherlands.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,6 July. (Q6093)Full Citation

18.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

19.

Netherlands.2016.‘Suicides, 1996-2015.’ Statistics Netherlands.Amsterdam:Statistics Netherlands,30 June. (Q12296)Full Citation

20.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

21.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

22.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in the Netherlands.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,6 July. (Q6158)Full Citation

23.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

24.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Netherlands.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,6 July. (Q6196)Full Citation

25.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

26.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in the Netherlands.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,20 June. (Q6454)Full Citation

27.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

28.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Production.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1707)Full Citation

29.

Netherlands.1997.‘Recognition.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2116)Full Citation

30.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

31.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Export.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1710)Full Citation

32.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Transit.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1711)Full Citation

33.

Netherlands.1997.‘Entering and Leaving of Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II and III - Art. 14.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2119)Full Citation

34.

Netherlands.1997.‘Transfer and Acquisition of Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II, III and IV - Art. 31.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2126)Full Citation

35.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

36.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

37.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

38.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

39.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

40.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

41.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

42.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Import.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1709)Full Citation

43.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

44.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

45.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

46.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

47.

Expatica (Brussels). 2004. ‘Report: 15,000 Guns Smuggled Annually.’ 22 July. (N183) Full Citation

48.

Netherlands.2010.‘Brokering.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1715)Full Citation

49.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

50.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

51.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

52.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

53.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

54.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

55.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

56.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

57.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

58.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

59.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

60.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

61.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

62.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

63.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

64.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1708)Full Citation

65.

Netherlands.1997.‘Wording of the Act.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2112)Full Citation

66.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

67.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

68.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

69.

Netherlands.1997.‘Commissioner of Police.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2117)Full Citation

70.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

71.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

72.

Netherlands.1997.‘Wording of the Act.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q4151)Full Citation

73.

Netherlands.1997.‘Possessing and Carrying Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II, III and IV - Art. 26.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2121)Full Citation

74.

Netherlands.1997.‘Wording of the Act.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2113)Full Citation

75.

Netherlands.1997.‘Categories of Ammunition.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2114)Full Citation

76.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

77.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

78.

Netherlands.1997.‘Possessing and Carrying Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II, III and IV - Art. 27.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2123)Full Citation

79.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

80.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

81.

Netherlands.1997.‘Possessing and Carrying Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II, III and IV - Art. 28.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2124)Full Citation

82.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

83.

Netherlands.1997.‘Exemptions - Collection.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2115)Full Citation

84.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

85.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

86.

Netherlands.1997.‘Provisions Concerning the Implementation of the Act - Art. 42.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2128)Full Citation

87.

Netherlands.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing - Record Keeping.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4568)Full Citation

88.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

89.

Netherlands.1997.‘Exceptional Grounds for Refusal (Mandatory).’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2118)Full Citation

90.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

91.

Netherlands.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1713)Full Citation

92.

Netherlands.1997.‘Transport of Weapons and Ammunition of the Categories II and III - Art. 22.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.TheHague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2120)Full Citation

93.

Netherlands.1997.‘Safety Requirements - Art. 33.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2127)Full Citation

94.

Netherlands.2010.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Marking.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1712)Full Citation

95.

Netherlands.2010.‘Marking.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4567)Full Citation

96.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation

97.

Netherlands.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing - Tracing.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4569)Full Citation

98.

Karp, Aaron, Nicholas Marsh and Giorgio Ravagli.2015.‘Summary of Reported International Requests for Tracing of Firearms, 2010-2013.’ UNODC Study on Firearms 2015.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),3 July. (Q10546)Full Citation

99.

Georg Schreuder Hes. 2011. ‘Gun Laws in The Netherlands.’ Radio Netherlands. 9 April. (N214) Full Citation

100.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

101.

Netherlands.1997.‘Punishment Provisions - Art. 55.’ Weapons and Ammunition Act (Wet Wapens en Munitie) 1997.The Hague:Ministry of Justice,10 July. (Q2129)Full Citation

102.

European Commission.2014.‘Sanctions.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12307)Full Citation

103.

Graeme Kidd. 2015. ‘Police Seize 24,000 Weapons, Ammunition Since 2013.’ NL Times. 5 October. (N576) Full Citation

104.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q11758)Full Citation

105.

Karp, Aaron.2008.‘A Semi-automatic Process?: Identifying and destroying military surplus.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,14 July. (Q1993)Full Citation

106.

Netherlands.2010.‘Collection and Disposal.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1714)Full Citation

107.

European Parliament.2007.‘Roll-call Vote: EU Firearms Directive.’ Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons.Brussels:VoteWatch.eu,29 November. (Q1346)Full Citation

108.

EU Parliament.2007.‘Draft Legislative Resolution on the EU Parliament Firearms Directive 2007.’ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.Brussels:European Parliament,12 July. (Q1970)Full Citation

109.

Saferworld.2010.‘EU Arms Transfer Reporting Database.’ Saferworld European Union Arms Transfer Reporting Database.London:Saferworld,9 December. (Q3364)Full Citation

110.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

111.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

112.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

113.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

114.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

115.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

116.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

117.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

118.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

119.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

120.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

121.

Netherlands.2010.‘Cooperation with Civil Society and NGOs.’ National Report of the Netherlands on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1716)Full Citation

122.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

123.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

124.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation