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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Nepal — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Nepal is 440,0001 2 3

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Nepal is 1.71 3

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Nepal ranked at No. 1154

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Nepal ranked at No. 1593

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Nepal is reported to be

2012: 34,4685

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Nepal is

2012: 0.126

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Nepal is reported to be

2012: 55,0001 2

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Nepal is

2012: 0.186

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Nepal there are estimated to be 385,0002 1 7

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Nepal the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be 1.296

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Nepal are reported to have 160,0002 8 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In Nepal, police officers on routine patrol carry one or more firearms9

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Nepal are reported to have 74,00010 2 11 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Nepal, annual homicides by any means total

2014: 63912
2013: 638
2012: 778
2011: 78613
2010: 813
2009: 80413 14
2008: 889
2007: 893
2006: 633
2005: 913
2004: 936
2003: 757
2002: 858
2001: 848
2000: 635
1999: 63014
1998: 650
1997: 575

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Nepal, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 2.2712
2013: 2.29
2012: 2.83
2011: 2.89
2010: 3.03
2009: 3.013 14
2008: 3.4
2007: 3.413 14 15
2006: 2.5
2005: 3.6
2004: 3.8
2003: 3.1
2002: 3.613 14
2001: 3.6
2000: 2.7
1999: 2.614
1998: 2.8
1997: 2.5

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

In Nepal, annual male homicides by any means total

2010: 62816

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

In Nepal, annual female homicides by any means total

2010: 18516

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Nepal, annual firearm homicides total

2006: 8213 17
2005: 110

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Nepal, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2006: 0.306 17
2005: 0.41

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Nepal, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 4%18
2006: 13%13
2005: 12%

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Nepal, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited19

Home-made Guns

In Nepal, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be high7 20

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Nepal, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law21 22

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Nepal is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 16,61423
2015: 3,362
2012: 766
2011: 024

Firearm Imports

In Nepal, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law21 22

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Nepal is reported to be

2011: 125
2010: 1
2009: 4
2008: 16
2007: 17

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Nepal is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 11,785,86223
2015: 11,375,882
2014: 13,454,238
2013: 12,422,673
2012: 852,829
2011: 1,809,24524

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Nepal is high7 20

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Nepal includes the Arms and Ammunition Act 196226

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Nepal are regulated by the Government27 28

Right to Possess Firearms

In Nepal, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law29 30

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In Nepal, civilian possession of automatic weapons is regulated by law18

Law Regulates Handguns

In Nepal, civilian possession of handguns is regulated by law18

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Nepal, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law18

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Nepal, only licensed gun owners31 32 18 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Nepal must pass a background check which considers undefined18 records

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Nepal are permitted to possess up to three firearms19

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Nepal, the law requires33 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Nepal, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful31

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Nepal include34 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Nepal, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law18

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Nepal, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm35 is five years in prison and/or a fine of 100,000 Rupees36

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Nepal are known to have37 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn Nepal, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2013: 6,70019
2007: 3,47537

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Nepal, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be 1,40019 (2009-2013)

Small Arms Destroyed

In Nepal, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 3,47537

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200838 by Nepal.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed39 by Nepal

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed40 by Nepal

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Nepal committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects41

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Nepal has yet to submit a national report42 43 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Nepal, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated43

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Nepal, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated43

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Nepal submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent43

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated43 by Nepal to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided43 to Nepal by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Nepal has not declared44 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Nepal has been a Member State of the United Nations since 195545

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list46 Nepal as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Nepal, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Nepal ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Total Firearms in Private Possession.’ Legacies of War in the Company of Peace: Firearms in Nepal.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Nepal Armed Violence Assessment (NAVA),1 May. (Q8464)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Table 1: Estimated Distribution of Firearms in Nepal, 2012.’ Legacies of War in the Company of Peace: Firearms in Nepal.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Nepal Armed Violence Assessment (NAVA),1 May. (Q8461)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Registration.’ Legacies of War in the Company of Peace: Firearms in Nepal.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, Nepal Armed Violence Assessment (NAVA),1 May. (Q8462)Full Citation

6.

GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Nepal.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,15 June. (Q8466)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Unregistered Ownership.’ Legacies of War in the Company of Peace: Firearms in Nepal.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Nepal Armed Violence Assessment (NAVA),1 May. (Q8463)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Police Firearms.’ Legacies of War in the Company of Peace: Firearms in Nepal.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Nepal Armed Violence Assessment (NAVA),1 May. (Q8465)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Introduction.’ Legacies of War in the Company of Peace: Firearms in Nepal.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Nepal Armed Violence Assessment (NAVA),1 May. (Q8460)Full Citation

11.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

12.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

13.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Nepal.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10279)Full Citation

14.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Nepal.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6300)Full Citation

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Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘South Asia, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3815)Full Citation

16.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

17.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

18.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Nepal.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9428)Full Citation

19.

Paudel, Lekh Nath.2014.‘Tackling Firearms Smuggling.’ The Highway Routes: Small Arms Smuggling in Eastern Nepal.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Nepal Armed Violence Assessment (NAVA),1 November. (Q8947)Full Citation

20.

Paudel, Lekh Nath.2014.‘Introduction.’ The Highway Routes: Small Arms Smuggling in Eastern Nepal.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Nepal Armed Violence Assessment (NAVA),1 November. (Q8946)Full Citation

21.

Nepal.1963.‘Prohibition to Bring Into or Take Out.’ Arms and Ammunition Act, 2019 (1962), Act Number 45 of 2019.Kathmandu:Nepal Law Commission,5 February. (Q2176)Full Citation

22.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

23.

United Nations.2018.‘National Customs Data on Small Arms Exports and Imports - Nepal.’ UN Comtrade International Trade Statistics Database.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,1 January. (Q13442)Full Citation

24.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

25.

UN Register of Conventional Arms.2018.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports - Nepal.’ UNROCA - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 January. (Q13365)Full Citation

26.

Nepal.1963.‘Arms and Ammunition Act.’ Arms and Ammunition Act, 2019 (1962), Act Number 45 of 2019.Kathmandu:Nepal Law Commission,5 February. (Q2173)Full Citation

27.

Nepal.1963.‘Power of Government of Nepal to Apply.’ Arms and Ammunition Act, 2019 (1962), Act Number 45 of 2019.Kathmandu:Nepal Law Commission,5 February. (Q2179)Full Citation

28.

Nepal.1963.‘Power of Government of Nepal to Frame Rules.’ Arms and Ammunition Act, 2019 (1962), Act Number 45 of 2019.Kathmandu:Nepal Law Commission,5 February. (Q2181)Full Citation

29.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

30.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

31.

Nepal.1963.‘Prohibition to Manufacture, Possess and Sell Without Licence.’ Arms and Ammunition Act, 2019 (1962), Act Number 45 of 2019.Kathmandu:Nepal Law Commission,5 February. (Q2175)Full Citation

32.

Nepal.1963.‘Prohibition to Carry Arms Without a Licence.’ Arms and Ammunition Act, 2019 (1962), Act Number 45 of 2019.Kathmandu:Nepal Law Commission,5 February. (Q2177)Full Citation

33.

Nepal.1963.‘Power of Taking the List of Arms or Ammunition.’ Arms and Ammunition Act, 2019 (1962), Act Number 45 of 2019.Kathmandu:Nepal Law Commission,5 February. (Q2182)Full Citation

34.

Nepal.1963.‘Prohibition to Keep the Arms and Ammunition at a Particular Fixed Place.’ Arms and Ammunition Act, 2019 (1962), Act Number 45 of 2019.Kathmandu:Nepal Law Commission,5 February. (Q2178)Full Citation

35.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
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36.

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37.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Summary of Disarmament Outcomes in 45 DDR Programmes.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,9 July. (Q2941)Full Citation

38.

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39.

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40.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

41.

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42.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

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44.

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45.

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46.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation