Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Montenegro — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Montenegro is 150,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Montenegro is 23.11 to 37.533 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Montenegro ranked at No. 1244

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Montenegro ranked at No. 211

Proportion of Households with Handguns

In Montenegro, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2012: 11.8%5

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Montenegro is reported to be

2012: 80,0006
2007: 73,0007

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Montenegro is

2012: 12.178
2007: 10.66

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Montenegro is reported to be

2012: 100,0006
2007: 98,3407
2005: 86,0001
2004: 86,0009 10
2003: 86,00011

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Montenegro is

2012: 15.218
2007: 14.36
2005: 12.30
2004: 13.239
2003: 12.058

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Montenegro there are estimated to be 64,50011 to 89,00010 6

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Montenegro there are estimated to be 12.608 illicit firearms per 100 people

Number of Households with Firearms

In Montenegro, the number of households containing one or more guns is reported to be

2012: 38,56912

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Montenegro are reported to have 28,00013 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Montenegro are reported to have 5,15714 to 5,91815 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Montenegro, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2009: 5416
2008: 5717 18
2007: 49
2005: 68

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Montenegro, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 8.5516
2008: 8.408
2007: 7.16
2005: 9.72

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Montenegro, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 1719
2011: 2119 20 21
2010: 1519 20
2009: 21
2008: 24
2007: 12
2006: 2522
2005: 2220
2004: 14
2003: 20
2002: 27

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Montenegro, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 2.719
2011: 3.419 20 21
2010: 2.419 20
2009: 3.4
2008: 3.919 23
2007: 1.9
2006: 4.1623 22
2005: 3.62
2004: 2.8523
2003: 3.10
2002: 4.320

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Montenegro, annual firearm homicides total

2011: 1619
2010: 7
2009: 1317 19
2008: 14
2007: 5
2005: 2217

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Montenegro, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 2.428
2010: 1.05
2009: 2.0617 8
2008: 2.23
2007: 0.8
2005: 3.5317

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Montenegro, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 76%19 21
2010: 47%19
2009: 52%
2008: 33%
2007: 67%

Handgun Homicides

In Montenegro, annual handgun homicides total

2005: 1017

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

In Montenegro, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2005: 1.6017

Long Gun Homicides

In Montenegro, annual long gun homicides total

2005: 117

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

In Montenegro, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2005: 0.1617

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Montenegro, annual gun homicides (other) total

2009: 1317
2008: 14
2007: 5
2005: 11

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Montenegro, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 2.0617
2008: 2.23
2007: 0.80
2005: 1.76

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Montenegro, annual firearm suicides total

2009: 4118
2008: 43
2007: 44
2005: 46

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Montenegro, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 6.4918
2008: 6.84
2007: 7.03
2005: 7.38

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Montenegro, annual handgun suicides total

2009: 118
2005: 3

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Montenegro, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.1618
2005: 0.48

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Montenegro, the number of long gun suicides is

2008: 118
2007: 1

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Montenegro, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.1618
2007: 0.16

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Montenegro, annual gun suicides (other) total

2009: 4018
2008: 42
2007: 43
2005: 43

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Montenegro, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 6.3318
2008: 6.68
2007: 6.87
2005: 6.90

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Montenegro, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted, with Ministry of Interior approval24

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Montenegro, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law25

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Montenegro is reported by Customs to be US$578,27326 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Montenegro is reported by Customs to be US$766,11526 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Montenegro is moderate27 28 29 30

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Montenegro, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law31

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Montenegro include25 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Montenegro scored

2014: 16.2532
2013: 9.5033
2012: 14.5034
2011: 12.5035
2010: 13.2536
2009: 10.5037
2008: 9.7538
2007: 9.2539
2006: 9.2540
2005: 1.5041

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Montenegro is categorised as restrictive42

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Montenegro includes the Law on Weapons 1992,43 and the Law on Foreign Sales of Arms, Military Equipment and Dual-Purpose Goods, 200525

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Montenegro are regulated by the Ministry of Interior44 45

Right to Possess Firearms

In Montenegro, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law46 47 48

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Montenegro, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, semi-automatic long arms (with the exception of some semi-auto hunting rifles), double-barrelled firearms, silencers, or infra-red sighting devices49

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Montenegro, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited49 21

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Montenegro, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited, with very narrow exceptions for hunting purposes49

Regulation of Handguns

In Montenegro, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence50 44 21

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Montenegro, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law50 49 21

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Montenegro, only licensed gun owners44 51 52 21 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Montenegro are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, sports shooting, self-defence, collection51 50

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Montenegro is 16 years, as a member of a shooting organisation53

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Montenegro must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and medical54 21 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Montenegro, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required48

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Montenegro does not stipulate48 54 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Montenegro, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required55 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Montenegro, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every ten years52

Licensing Records

In Montenegro, authorities maintain a record56 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Montenegro are permitted to possess only those firearms specified on an official acquisition permit, valid for 6 months, whereas licensed members of authorised shooting organisations are permitted to own several types of hunting or sporting firearms44 51 57

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Montenegro are permitted to possess an unlimited quantity of smoothbore ammunition, but a maximum of 50 'factory packages' of rifled ammunition per calendar year44

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Montenegro, the law does not require48 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Montenegro, licensed firearm dealers are required58 45 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Montenegro, licensed gun makers are not required48 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Montenegro, State agencies are required59 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Montenegro, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to those firearms specified on an official acquisition permit, valid for 6 months44 51

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Montenegro, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined48

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Montenegro, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated48 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Montenegro do not include48 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Montenegro do not include48 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Montenegro include60 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Montenegro include24 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Montenegro, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law61 62

Firearm Tracing

In Montenegro, state authorities carry out63 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Montenegro, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not48 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Montenegro, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit64 21

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Montenegro, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit64 21

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Montenegro are known to have65 66 67 68 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Montenegro, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2013: 41169
2012: 319
2011: 453
2010: 379
2003: 7002
1998: 2,000

Small Arms Destroyed

In Montenegro, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 52,000 (2001), 23,22365 (2002), 25,00066 (2003), 7,00067 (2003-2006), and 2,15968 (2006)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Montenegro, it is not state policy70 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200871 by Montenegro.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified72 by Montenegro

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified73 by Montenegro

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Montenegro committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects74

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Montenegro has submitted one or more national reports75 76 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Montenegro, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated76

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Montenegro, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated76

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Montenegro submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent76

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated76 by Montenegro to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided76 to Montenegro by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Montenegro has declared77 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Montenegro has been a Member State of the United Nations since 200678

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list79 Montenegro as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

To see where Montenegro ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Grillot, Suzette R..2010.‘The Spread and Control of Small Arms in Montenegro.’ Guns in the Balkans: Controlling Small Arms and Light Weapons in Seven Western Balkan Countries.London:Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, Taylor & Francis,1 June. (Q11613)Full Citation

3.

SEESAC.2006.‘South Eastern Europe: Weapons Possession Per 100 Inhabitants.’ South Eastern Europe: Estimates of Weapons Possession (Edition 2).Belgrade:South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC),12 January. (Q3915)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

Carapic, Jovana.2014.‘Estimates of Household Firearm Ownership.’ Handgun Ownership and Armed Violence in the Western Balkans.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 September. (Q11595)Full Citation

6.

Carapic, Jovana.2014.‘Availability of Firearms and Levels of Violence in the Western Balkans.’ Handgun Ownership and Armed Violence in the Western Balkans.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 September. (Q11594)Full Citation

7.

Krkeljic, Ljiljana.2007.‘Data on Small Arms Possession in Montenegro.’ Small Arms and Gender-Based Violence in Montenegro.Podgorica:United Nations Development Programme / UNDP,31 October. (Q3811)Full Citation

8.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Montenegro.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,22 February. (Q4265)Full Citation

9.

Gounev, Philip, Marko Hajdinjak and Janosch Witte.2006.‘Gun Ownership Levels.’ The Rifle Has the Devil Inside: Study on Gun Culture in South Eastern Europe.Belgrade:South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) / Centre for the Study of Democracy (CSD),22 June. (Q3918)Full Citation

10.

SEESAC.2006.‘SALW Problem.’ South Eastern Europe Small Arms and Light Weapons Monitor, 2006.Belgrade:South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons / SEESAC and Saferworld,1 January. (Q4031)Full Citation

11.

Florquin, Nicolas, and Shelly O'Neill Stoneman.2004.‘Civilian Small Arms Stockpiles.’ A House Isn't a Home Without a Gun: SALW Survey of the Republic of Montenegro.Geneva:South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) and the Small Arms Survey,1 June. (Q3583)Full Citation

12.

Carapic, Jovana.2014.‘Estimates of Household Firearms Possession Across the Western Balkans.’ Handgun Ownership and Armed Violence in the Western Balkans.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 September. (Q11598)Full Citation

13.

Gobinet, Pierre.2011.‘Military Firearm Stocks and Surpluses - Montenegro.’ Significant Surpluses: Weapons and Ammunition Stockpiles in South-east Europe.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, and the Regional Approach to Stockpile Reduction / RASR,1 December. (Q6066)Full Citation

14.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles: Known Law Enforcement Firearms Inventories.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q2089)Full Citation

15.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

16.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

17.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Montenegro.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,20 June. (Q6092)Full Citation

18.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Montenegro.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,20 June. (Q6157)Full Citation

19.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Montenegro.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10331)Full Citation

20.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Montenegro.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6255)Full Citation

21.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Montenegro.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9628)Full Citation

22.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

23.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Europe and Central Asia, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3816)Full Citation

24.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 78a.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3278)Full Citation

25.

Serbia & Montenegro.2005.‘Export Controls.’ National Report of Serbia and Montenegro on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Serbia & Montenegro to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3509)Full Citation

26.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

27.

SEESAC.2005.‘SALW Transfers - Republic of Montenegro.’ South Eastern Europe Small Arms and Light Weapons Monitor, 2005.Belgrade:South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons / SEESAC and Saferworld,1 January. (Q4033)Full Citation

28.

Oxfam.2006.‘AK-47: World's Favourite Killing Machine.’ Control Arms Briefing Note.Oxford:Oxfam International,26 June. (Q3914)Full Citation

29.

Hirst, Chrissie, Bernardo Mariani and Adrian Wilkinson.2004.‘SALW Transfers - Republic of Montenegro.’ South Eastern Europe Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) Monitor, 2004.Belgrade:South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons / SEESAC and Saferworld,16 March. (Q4036)Full Citation

30.

European Commission.2013.‘Firearms and the Internal Security of the EU: Protecting Citizens and Disrupting Illegal Trafficking.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8229)Full Citation

31.

Serbia & Montenegro.2005.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Serbia and Montenegro on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Serbia & Montenegro to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3511)Full Citation

32.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

33.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

34.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

35.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

36.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

37.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

38.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

39.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

40.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

41.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

42.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

43.

Montenegro.1992.‘Law on Weapons - Basic Provisions.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3284)Full Citation

44.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 12.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3269)Full Citation

45.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 68.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3279)Full Citation

46.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

47.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

48.

Montenegro.1992.‘Law on Weapons - Basic Provisions.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q5389)Full Citation

49.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 11.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3268)Full Citation

50.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 10.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3267)Full Citation

51.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 13.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3270)Full Citation

52.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 25.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3275)Full Citation

53.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 17.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3272)Full Citation

54.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 16.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3271)Full Citation

55.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 21.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3285)Full Citation

56.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 67.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3288)Full Citation

57.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 24.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3287)Full Citation

58.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 66.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3277)Full Citation

59.

Serbia & Montenegro.2005.‘Collection and Safekeeping of SALW Surpluses.’ National Report of Serbia and Montenegro on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Serbia & Montenegro to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3508)Full Citation

60.

Serbia & Montenegro.2005.‘SALW Safekeeping and Handling Management and Security.’ National Report of Serbia and Montenegro on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Serbia & Montenegro to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3507)Full Citation

61.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 23.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3286)Full Citation

62.

Serbia & Montenegro.2005.‘Marking, Record-Keeping and Tracing.’ National Report of Serbia and Montenegro on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Serbia & Montenegro to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3510)Full Citation

63.

Karp, Aaron, Nicholas Marsh and Giorgio Ravagli.2015.‘Summary of Reported International Requests for Tracing of Firearms, 2010-2013.’ UNODC Study on Firearms 2015.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),3 July. (Q10546)Full Citation

64.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 19.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3273)Full Citation

65.

Serbia & Montenegro.2003.‘Collection and Reassignment of Small Arms and Light Weapons Surplus Stocks.’ National Report of Serbia and Montenegro on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Serbia & Montenegro to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3514)Full Citation

66.

Serbia & Montenegro.2004.‘Collection and Reassignment of SALW Surplus Stocks.’ National Report of Serbia and Montenegro on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Serbia & Montenegro to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3513)Full Citation

67.

Vecernje Novosti (Belgrade). 2006. ‘The Balkans United in the Combat Against Violence.’ 2 November. (N211) Full Citation

68.

SEESAC.2006.‘SALW Destruction Programmes and Capacities.’ South Eastern Europe Small Arms and Light Weapons Monitor, 2006.Belgrade:South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons / SEESAC and Saferworld,1 January. (Q4032)Full Citation

69.

Karp, Aaron, Nicholas Marsh and Giorgio Ravagli.2015.‘Number of Firearms Reported Seized by Police, 2010-2013.’ UNODC Study on Firearms 2015.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),3 July. (Q10542)Full Citation

70.

Montenegro.1992.‘Article 63.’ Republic of Montenegro Law on Firearms, No. 31/92.Podgorica:Official Gazette of Montenegro,1 January. (Q3276)Full Citation

71.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

72.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

73.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

74.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

75.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

76.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

77.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

78.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

79.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation