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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Monaco — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Monaco, annual homicides by any means total

2008: 01 2
2007: 0
2006: 11 3
2005: 1
2004: 11 4
2001: 11

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Monaco, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.01 2
2007: 0.0
2006: 2.91 2 3
2005: 3.0
2004: 3.01 2 4
2001: 3.11

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Monaco, annual firearm homicides total

2006: 01 3
2005: 0
2004: 14

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Monaco, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2006: 0.005 3
2005: 0.00
2004: 2.934

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Monaco, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2006: 0%1
2005: 0%
2004: 100%2

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Monaco, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence,6 7 but is not conducted in practice8

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Monaco, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law7 9

Firearm Imports

In Monaco, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law6 7 9

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Monaco is reported by Customs to be US$10,47310 (2009)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Monaco is low11

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Monaco, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law7

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Monaco is categorised as restrictive12

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Monaco includes the Convention on good-neighbourliness between France and the Principality of Monaco of 18 May 196313 and the Act No. 913 on Weapons and Ammunition and its implementing legislation7

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Monaco are regulated by the Ministry of State14

Right to Possess Firearms

In Monaco, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law15 16

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Regulation of Handguns

In Monaco, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence11

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Monaco, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law7

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Monaco, only licensed gun owners14 6 7 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Monaco are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection14 7

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Monaco is 21 years11

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Monaco must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and domestic violence11 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Monaco, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required11

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Monaco stipulates11 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Monaco, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required11 for a firearm licence

Licensing Records

In Monaco, authorities maintain a record17 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Monaco, the law requires17 18 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Monaco, licensed firearm dealers are required18 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Monaco, licensed gun makers are required18 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Monaco, State agencies are required19 8 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Monaco do not include11 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Monaco do not include8 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Monaco include11 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Monaco, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law17 20 21

Firearm Tracing

In Monaco, state authorities carry out22 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Monaco, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law7

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Monaco, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm23 is five years in prison and a fine7 6 17

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed24 by Monaco.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been accessed25 by Monaco

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified26 17 by Monaco

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Monaco committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects27

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Monaco against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 13428 29 30 31 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Monaco has submitted one or more national reports32 33 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Monaco, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated34 33

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Monaco submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent33

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated33 by Monaco to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Monaco has not declared35 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Monaco has been a Member State of the United Nations since 199336

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list37 Monaco as a Participating State


Short References

1.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Monaco.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10344)Full Citation

2.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Monaco.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6251)Full Citation

3.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

4.

UNODC.2006.‘Reported Overall Homicide Numbers and Rates per 100,000 Population for 64 Countries, 2003-04.’ Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2003 - 2004).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q9)Full Citation

5.

GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Monaco.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,26 June. (Q10366)Full Citation

6.

Monaco.2004.‘Authorization.’ National Report of Monaco on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Monaco to the United Nations,12 February. (Q13176)Full Citation

7.

Monaco.2004.‘Weapons That Are Not Weapons of War.’ National Report of Monaco on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Monaco to the United Nations,12 February. (Q13177)Full Citation

8.

Monaco.2004.‘Armed Forces.’ National Report of Monaco on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Monaco to the United Nations,12 February. (Q13173)Full Citation

9.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

10.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

11.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

12.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

13.

Monaco.2004.‘Domestic Legislative Framework.’ National Report of Monaco on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Monaco to the United Nations,12 February. (Q13174)Full Citation

14.

Monaco.2004.‘Weapons of War.’ National Report of Monaco on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Monaco to the United Nations,12 February. (Q13175)Full Citation

15.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

16.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

17.

Monaco.2004.‘International Commitments.’ National Report of Monaco on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Monaco to the United Nations,12 February. (Q13178)Full Citation

18.

France.2011.‘Record Keeping (Enregistrement).’ National Report of France on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of France to the United Nations,11 April. (Q4675)Full Citation

19.

France.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Securing (Gestion et Sécurisation des Stocks).’ National Report of France on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of France to the United Nations,1 May. (Q4807)Full Citation

20.

France.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing of Firearms (Marquage, Enregistrement et Traçage des Armes).’ National Report of France on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of France to the United Nations,1 May. (Q4814)Full Citation

21.

France.2011.‘Marking (Marquage).’ National Report of France on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of France to the United Nations,11 April. (Q4746)Full Citation

22.

France.2011.‘Measures Taken for Tracing and to Address Tracing Requests (Mesures Prises pour Tracer et Répondre aux Demandes de Traçage).’ National Report of France on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of France to the United Nations,11 April. (Q4806)Full Citation

23.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

24.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

25.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

26.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

27.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

28.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

29.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

30.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

31.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

32.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

33.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

34.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

35.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

36.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

37.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation