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Moldova — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Moldova is 300,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Moldova is 1.32 to 7.11 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Moldova, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 6293

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Moldova, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 24,7243

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 3,9603 handguns in civilian possession in Moldova

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Moldova ranked at No. 1034

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Moldova ranked at No. 831

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Moldova is reported to be 26,6263

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Moldova is 0.635

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Moldova is reported to be 236,0004

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Moldova is 5.985

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Moldova there are estimated to be 50,0006

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Moldova there are estimated to be 1.255 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Moldova are reported to have 182,0237 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Moldova are reported to have 15,4518 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Moldova, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2012: 299 10 11 12
2011: 3713
2010: 269 10 11 12
2009: 219 10 12
2008: 219 10 11 12
2007: 34
2006: 30
2005: 33
2004: 49
2003: 53
2002: 57
2001: 76
2000: 65
1999: 68
1998: 63
1997: 81
1996: 123

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.795
2011: 1.0413
2010: 0.705
2009: 0.56
2008: 0.55
2007: 0.88
2006: 0.77
2005: 0.84
2004: 1.23
2003: 1.31
2002: 1.39
2001: 1.84
2000: 1.55
1999: 1.61
1998: 1.48
1997: 1.88
1996: 2.84

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Moldova, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 30414
2010: 267
2009: 246
2008: 236
2007: 217
2006: 26214 15
2005: 296
2004: 27714 16
2003: 319
2002: 39914 17
2001: 410
2000: 43314 18
1999: 380
1998: 357
1997: 39814 19
1996: 400
1995: 395

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 8.614
2010: 7.5
2009: 6.8
2008: 6.514 20
2007: 5.9
2006: 7.114 15 20
2005: 7.9
2004: 7.214 16 20
2003: 8.2
2002: 10.114 17 20
2001: 10.1
2000: 10.514 18 20
1999: 9.1
1998: 8.5
1997: 9.314 19 20
1996: 9.3
1995: 9.1

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Moldova, annual firearm homicides total

2012: 159
2011: 16
2010: 9
2009: 119 14
2008: 11
2007: 15
2006: 20
2005: 19
2004: 24
2003: 31
2002: 42
2001: 57
2000: 46
1999: 45
1998: 42
1997: 46
1996: 72
1995: 2719 14

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.429
2011: 0.45
2010: 0.25
2009: 0.319 14
2008: 0.31
2007: 0.42
2006: 0.56
2005: 0.53
2004: 0.67
2003: 0.86
2002: 1.16
2001: 1.57
2000: 1.26
1999: 1.23
1998: 1.15
1997: 1.26
1996: 1.67
1995: 0.6219 14

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Moldova, annual handgun homicides total

2011: 29
2009: 2
2008: 3
2007: 5
2006: 1
2004: 4
2003: 3
2002: 2
2001: 9
2000: 12
1999: 15
1998: 15
1997: 11
1996: 2

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.069
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.14
2006: 0.03
2004: 0.11
2003: 0.08
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.25
2000: 0.33
1999: 0.41
1998: 0.41
1997: 0.30
1996: 0.05

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Moldova, annual long gun homicides total

2012: 19
2011: 2
2010: 1
2009: 1
2007: 2
2006: 3
2005: 2
2002: 2
2000: 3
1999: 3
1997: 3
1996: 36

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.039
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2007: 0.06
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.06
2002: 0.05
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.08
1997: 0.08
1996: 0.83

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Moldova, annual gun homicides (other) total

2012: 149
2011: 12
2010: 8
2009: 8
2008: 8
2007: 8
2006: 16
2005: 17
2004: 20
2003: 28
2002: 38
2001: 48
2000: 31
1999: 27
1998: 27
1997: 32
1996: 34

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.399
2011: 0.34
2010: 0.22
2009: 0.22
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.22
2006: 0.45
2005: 0.47
2004: 0.55
2003: 0.78
2002: 1.05
2001: 1.32
2000: 0.85
1999: 0.74
1998: 0.74
1997: 0.88
1996: 0.79

Suicides (any method)

In Moldova, annual suicides by any means total 1999: 57921

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Moldova, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is 1999: 13.5721

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Moldova, annual firearm suicides total

2012: 810
2011: 15
2010: 10
2009: 6
2008: 5
2007: 8
2006: 4
2005: 7
2004: 13
2003: 14
2002: 11
2001: 11
2000: 8
1999: 7
1998: 9
1997: 18
1996: 23

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.2210
2011: 0.42
2010: 0.28
2009: 0.17
2008: 0.14
2007: 0.22
2006: 0.11
2005: 0.19
2004: 0.36
2003: 0.39
2002: 0.3
2001: 0.3
2000: 0.22
1999: 0.19
1998: 0.25
1997: 0.49
1996: 0.53

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Moldova, annual handgun suicides total

2011: 410
2009: 1
2008: 1
2007: 3
2005: 1
2004: 2
2002: 1
2001: 3
2000: 1
1999: 2
1998: 1
1997: 3
1996: 11

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.1110
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.08
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.06
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.05
1998: 0.03
1997: 0.08
1996: 0.25

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Moldova, the number of long gun suicides is

2012: 110
2011: 1
2010: 2
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2003: 1
2002: 1
2001: 1
2000: 1
1999: 2
1998: 1
1997: 3
1996: 1

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0310
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.06
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.03
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.05
1998: 0.03
1997: 0.08
1996: 0.02

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Moldova, annual gun suicides (other) total

2012: 710
2011: 10
2010: 8
2009: 5
2008: 3
2007: 4
2006: 3
2005: 6
2004: 11
2003: 13
2002: 9
2001: 7
2000: 6
1999: 3
1998: 7
1997: 12
1996: 11

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.2010
2011: 0.28
2010: 0.22
2009: 0.14
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.11
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.17
2004: 0.31
2003: 0.36
2002: 0.25
2001: 0.19
2000: 0.16
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.19
1997: 0.33
1996: 0.25

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Moldova, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2012: 311
2011: 3
2010: 2
2008: 1
2007: 2
2006: 5
2005: 3
2004: 3
2003: 4
2002: 3
2001: 5
2000: 6
1999: 9
1998: 6
1997: 11
1996: 22

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0811
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.06
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.06
2006: 0.14
2005: 0.08
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.11
2002: 0.08
2001: 0.14
2000: 0.16
1999: 0.25
1998: 0.16
1997: 0.3
1996: 0.51

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Moldova, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2011: 111
2007: 1
2002: 1
2000: 1
1999: 2
1997: 3
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0311
2007: 0.03
2002: 0.03
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.05
1997: 0.08
1996: 0.02

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Moldova, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2012: 211
2004: 2
2000: 1
1999: 4
1997: 1
1996: 2

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0611
2004: 0.06
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.11
1997: 0.03
1996: 0.05

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Moldova, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2012: 111
2011: 2
2010: 2
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 5
2005: 3
2004: 1
2003: 4
2002: 2
2001: 5
2000: 4
1999: 3
1998: 6
1997: 7
1996: 19

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0311
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.06
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.14
2005: 0.08
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.11
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.14
2000: 0.11
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.16
1997: 0.19
1996: 0.44

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Moldova, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 312
2011: 3
2010: 5
2009: 4
2008: 4
2007: 9
2006: 1
2005: 4
2004: 9
2003: 4
2002: 1
2001: 3
2000: 5
1999: 7
1998: 6
1997: 6
1996: 6

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0812
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.14
2009: 0.11
2008: 0.11
2007: 0.25
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.25
2003: 0.11
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.14
1999: 0.19
1998: 0.16
1997: 0.16
1996: 0.14

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Moldova, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 212
2010: 3
2008: 1
2007: 5
2006: 1
2004: 4
2001: 2
2000: 2
1999: 1
1998: 2
1997: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0612
2010: 0.08
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.14
2006: 0.03
2004: 0.11
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.06
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.05
1997: 0.03

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Moldova, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 212
2009: 2
2007: 1
2003: 2
1999: 1
1997: 1
1996: 3

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0612
2009: 0.06
2007: 0.03
2003: 0.06
1999: 0.03
1997: 0.03
1996: 0.07

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Moldova, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 312
2011: 1
2009: 2
2008: 3
2007: 3
2005: 4
2004: 5
2003: 2
2002: 1
2001: 1
2000: 3
1999: 5
1998: 4
1997: 4
1996: 3

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Moldova, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0812
2011: 0.03
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.08
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.14
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.14
1998: 0.11
1997: 0.11
1996: 0.07

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Moldova, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited outside the monopoly of State, except ammunition designed for hunting weapons22 23 24 25

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Moldova, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law26 27 28 29 30

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Moldova is reported by Customs to be US$56831 (2009)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Moldova, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law32 33 26

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Moldova is reported by Customs to be US$1,807,43831 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Moldova is moderate34

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Moldova, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law35

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Moldova include28 29 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Moldova is categorised as restrictive36

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Moldova includes the Weapons Law 1998,37 Act No. 451-XV on Licensing Regulation of Business Activities, of 2001, and Act No. 1163-XIV on Control of Export, Re-Transfer, Import and Transit of Strategic Materials,200026

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Moldova are regulated by the Government, the Parliament, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Interdepartmental Commission for the Control of Export, Re-transfer, Import and Transit of Strategic Materials and the local Police authorities38 32 39 40 41 42 43

Right to Possess Firearms

In Moldova, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law44 45 46 47

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Moldova, civilians are not allowed to possess military weapons or any firearms other than hunting weapons, collector's weapons, and revolvers and/or pistols46 48

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Moldova, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited46 48

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Moldova, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited46 48

Regulation of Handguns

In Moldova, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence46

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Moldova, only licensed gun owners47 49 50 51 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Moldova are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, self-defence, hunting, target shooting, training, collection52 46 53 48 54

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Moldova is 18 years46

Gun Licence Background Check

An applicant for a firearm licence in Moldova must pass a background check which considers criminal, medical, mental and addiction49 46 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Moldova, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required55

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Moldova does not stipulate55 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Moldova, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required55 3 for a firearm licence

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Moldova are permitted to possess any number of firearms55

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Moldova are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition55

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Moldova, the law requires56 57 58 59 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Moldova, licensed firearm dealers are not required55 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Moldova, State agencies are required60 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Moldova, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without prior consent of Police61 57

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Moldova, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful61

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Moldova, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined55

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Moldova, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated55 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Moldova include58 62 63 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Moldova do not include55 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Moldova include64 65 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Moldova include58 66 67 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Moldova, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law23 68 69

Firearm Tracing

In Moldova, state authorities carry out70 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Marking of Firearms and Ammunition

In Moldova, state authorities employ59 ballistic fingerprinting technology to trace guns and ammunition

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Moldova, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit62 50 51 54

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Moldova, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit62 50 51 54

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Moldova, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm71 is 2 to 5 years prison and a fine of up to 600 conventional units72 73

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Moldova are known to have74 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In Moldova, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 9,67874

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Moldova, it is state policy74 75 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed76 by Moldova.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified77 by Moldova

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified78 by Moldova

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Moldova against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 4579 80 81 82 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Moldova has submitted one or more national reports83 70 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Moldova, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated84 70

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Moldova, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated70

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated70 by Moldova to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided70 to Moldova by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Moldova has not declared85 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Moldova has been a Member State of the United Nations since 199286

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list87 Moldova as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Moldova, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Moldova ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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2.

SEESAC.2006.‘South Eastern Europe: Weapons Possession Per 100 Inhabitants.’ South Eastern Europe: Estimates of Weapons Possession (Edition 2).Belgrade:South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC),12 January. (Q3915)Full Citation

3.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org.2014.‘Calculated Rates – Moldova.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,3 July. (Q4264)Full Citation

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Gounev, Philip, Marko Hajdinjak and Janosch Witte.2006.‘Gun Ownership Levels.’ The Rifle Has the Devil Inside: Study on Gun Culture in South Eastern Europe.Belgrade:South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) / Centre for the Study of Democracy (CSD),22 June. (Q3918)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

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WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Homicide in Moldova.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,23 June. (Q6069)Full Citation

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WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Suicide in Moldova.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,23 June. (Q6161)Full Citation

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WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Unintentional Gun Deaths in Moldova.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,23 June. (Q6200)Full Citation

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WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Moldova.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,23 June. (Q6459)Full Citation

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WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

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UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Moldova.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6279)Full Citation

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UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

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UNODC.2006.‘Reported Overall Homicide Numbers and Rates per 100,000 Population for 64 Countries, 2003-04.’ Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2003 – 2004).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q9)Full Citation

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UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

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