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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Mexico — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Mexico is 15,000,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Mexico is 13.51 2 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Mexico ranked at No. 73

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Mexico ranked at No. 422

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Mexico is reported to be

2012: 3,118,5924
2009: 2,033,749
2006: 2,824,2315 6

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Mexico is

2012: 2.667
2009: 1.81
2006: 2,715

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Mexico are reported to have 505,0008 9 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Mexico are reported to have 655,0008 10 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Mexico, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2001: 4,71811 12

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Mexico, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2001: 4.677

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Mexico, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 27,19911
2010: 24,37411 13 14
2009: 19,803
2008: 14,006
2007: 8,86711 13 14 15
2006: 12,078
2005: 11,181
2004: 11,149
2003: 11,741
2002: 11,598
2001: 11,856
2000: 12,295
1999: 14,18611 15
1998: 15,425
1997: 15,080
1996: 15,956
1995: 16,978
1994: 15,84415
1993: 16,056
1992: 16,605
1991: 15,143
1990: 14,520

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 23.711
2010: 21.511 13 14
2009: 17.7
2008: 12.7
2007: 8.1
2006: 11.2
2005: 10.5
2004: 10.6
2003: 11.3
2002: 11.3
2001: 11.7
2000: 12.3
1999: 14.411
1998: 15.9
1997: 15.8
1996: 17.0
1995: 18.4
1994: 17.5816
1993: 17.957
1992: 18.91
1991: 17.57
1990: 17.16

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Mexico, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 11,30911 17
2009: 8,804
2008: 5,095
2007: 4,040
2006: 3,61011 17 18
2005: 3,209
2004: 2,85811 17
2003: 3,006
2002: 2,60611 17 19
2001: 3,512
2000: 3,60511 17 20
1999: 8,78011 20
1998: 6,572
1997: 5,04411

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 10.011 17 14
2009: 7.9
2008: 4.6
2007: 3.7
2006: 3.3
2005: 3.0
2004: 2.7
2003: 2.9
2002: 2.5
2001: 3.5
2000: 3.6
1999: 8.911 20
1998: 6.8
1997: 5.311
1994: 9.8821

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Mexico, annual suicides by any means total

2009: 4,83422
2008: 4,467
2007: 4,211
2006: 4,06522 23
2005: 4,12422
2004: 3,878
2003: 3,940
2002: 3,700
2001: 3,66322 12
2000: 3,42922

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 4.522
2008: 4.2
2007: 4.0
2006: 3.922 24
2005: 4.0
2004: 3.822
2003: 3.9
2002: 3.7
2001: 3.722 12
2000: 3.522
1994: 2.8925

Gun Suicides

In Mexico, annual firearm suicides total 2001: 71412

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2001: 0.6912
1994: 0.9126

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Mexico, annual unintentional shooting deaths total 2001: 48412

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2001: 0.4712
1994: 1.2727

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Mexico, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total 2001: 812

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Mexico, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is 2001: 0.0112

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Mexico, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence28 29 30 31

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Mexico is ranked 'small'32

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Mexico, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law33 34 35 36 37 38

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Mexico is reported by Customs to be US$22,273,02239 (2011)40

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Mexico is categorized as 'minor'41

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Mexico, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law33 34 42 43 36 37 38 31

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Mexico is reported by Customs to be US$49,024,99639 (2011)44

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Mexico is high45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Mexico, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law55 56

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Mexico include38 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, Mexico was ranked at No. 3557

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Mexico is categorised as restrictive58

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Mexico includes the Federal Law of Firearms and Explosives 2004,59 the Regulation of the Federal Firearms Law and Explosives,60 and Articles 160 to 163 of the Penal Code31

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Mexico are regulated by the Ministry of National Defence and the Ministry of the Interior61 62 63

Right to Possess Firearms

In Mexico, the right to private gun ownership is conditionally guaranteed by the Constitution,64 65 66 as limited by statute law67 68 69

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Mexico, civilians are not allowed to possess military grade firearms intended for Army, Navy and Air Force use, including: .357 Magnum revolvers and those greater than .38 calibre, handguns greater than 9mm, rifles and carbines of .223, 7mm, 7.62 and .30 calibres, automatic firearms, or shotguns with barrels shorter than 635mm or greater than 12 gauge70 71 72

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Mexico, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited71 70

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Mexico, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence73 74 75

Regulation of Handguns

In Mexico, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence,73 74 75 with some exceptions based on manufacturer and calibre70

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Mexico, only licensed gun owners76 77 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Mexico are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, rodeo riding, collection, personal protection, or employment78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Mexico is 18 years86

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Mexico must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental, physical and addiction78 84 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Mexico, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required to carry pistols and revolvers85

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Mexico does not stipulate55 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Mexico, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required55 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Mexico, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every two years, for carry permits77

Licensing Records

In Mexico, authorities maintain a record87 83 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Mexico are permitted to possess 2 firearms for legitimate defence purposes. To own more than two firearms requires special justification88

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Mexico are permitted to possess only 500 cartridges in .22 caliber, 1,000 cartridges for shotguns and 200 cartridges for other arms89 90

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Mexico, the law requires91 92 93 94 83 61 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Mexico, licensed firearm dealers are required95 96 97 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Mexico, licensed gun makers are required98 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Mexico, State agencies are required92 99 94 100 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Mexico, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited, except in extraordinary cases101 102 85

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Mexico, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful97 28 85

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Mexico, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to one firearm per transaction. To sell individuals more than one gun, dealers must have receive special permission in advance103

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Mexico, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined55

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Mexico, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated55 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Mexico include104 105 106 82 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Mexico include29 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Mexico include107 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Mexico include108 109 110 111 112 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Mexico, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law100 98 113

Firearm Tracing

In Mexico, state authorities carry out100 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Mexico, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are100 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Mexico, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit78 85 74 84 110

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Mexico, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit78 85 74 84 110

Gun Free Zones

In Mexico, private guns are prohibited in public demonstrations and celebrations and in deliberative assemblies114

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Mexico, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm115 is 7 years prison116

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Mexico are known to have117 118 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Collected and Seized

In Mexico, firearms voluntarily surrendered for destruction, collected or seized in routine policing are reported to number 306,354119 (1994-2012)120 121

Small Arms Destroyed

In Mexico, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 28,302117 (2007), and 79,074118 (2009)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Mexico, it is state policy98 122 123 124 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Mexico adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified125 126 by Mexico

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

At the resumption of the most recent session of the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (UNCCPCJ), a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, Mexico was listed as an elected member for a three-year term of office127

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006128 by Mexico.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified129 by Mexico

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified130 by Mexico

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Mexico committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects131

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Mexico against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 2132 133 134 135 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Mexico has submitted one or more national reports136 137 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Mexico, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated138 137

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Mexico, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated138 137

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Mexico submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent137 139

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated137 by Mexico to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided137 to Mexico by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Mexico has declared140 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Mexico has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945141

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list142 Mexico as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Mexico, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Mexico ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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