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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Mexico — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Mexico is 15,000,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Mexico is 13.51 2 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Mexico ranked at No. 73

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Mexico ranked at No. 422

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Mexico is reported to be

2012: 3,118,5924
2009: 2,033,749
2006: 2,824,2315 6

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Mexico is

2012: 2.667
2009: 1.81
2006: 2,625

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Mexico are reported to have 505,0008 9 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Mexico are reported to have 655,0008 10 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Mexico, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2001: 4,71811 12

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Mexico, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2001: 4.677

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Mexico, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 26,03713
2011: 27,21313 11 14
2010: 25,75713 11 15 16
2009: 19,803
2008: 14,006
2007: 8,86713 11 15 16 17
2006: 10,452
2005: 9,921
2004: 9,329
2003: 10,087
2002: 10,088
2001: 10,285
2000: 10,737
1999: 14,18611 17
1998: 15,425
1997: 15,080
1996: 15,956
1995: 16,978
1994: 15,84417
1993: 16,056
1992: 16,605
1991: 15,143
1990: 14,520

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 21.513
2011: 22.813 11 14
2010: 21.813 11 15 16
2009: 17.0
2008: 12.2
2007: 7.8
2006: 9.3
2005: 9.0
2004: 8.5
2003: 9.3
2002: 9.5
2001: 9.8
2000: 10.3
1999: 14.411
1998: 15.9
1997: 15.8
1996: 17.0
1995: 18.4
1994: 17.5818
1993: 17.957
1992: 18.91
1991: 17.57
1990: 17.16

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Mexico, annual firearm homicides total

2011: 15,51113
2010: 14,16613 11 19
2009: 10,892
2008: 5,462
2007: 3,458
2006: 3,24013 11 19 20
2005: 2,877
2004: 2,85811 19
2003: 3,006
2002: 2,60611 19 21
2001: 3,512
2000: 3,60511 19 22
1999: 8,78011 22
1998: 6,572
1997: 5,04411

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 13.417
2010: 12.427 11 19 16
2009: 9.69
2008: 4.93
2007: 3.16
2006: 3.00
2005: 2.70
2004: 2.711 19 16
2003: 2.9
2002: 2.5
2001: 3.5
2000: 3.6
1999: 8.911 22
1998: 6.8
1997: 5.311
1994: 9.8823

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Mexico, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 57%13 14
2010: 55%
2009: 55%
2008: 39%
2007: 39%
2006: 31%
2005: 29%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Mexico, annual suicides by any means total

2009: 4,83424
2008: 4,467
2007: 4,211
2006: 4,06524 25
2005: 4,12424
2004: 3,878
2003: 3,940
2002: 3,700
2001: 3,66324 12
2000: 3,42924

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 4.524
2008: 4.2
2007: 4.0
2006: 3.924 26
2005: 4.0
2004: 3.824
2003: 3.9
2002: 3.7
2001: 3.724 12
2000: 3.524
1994: 2.8927

Gun Suicides

In Mexico, annual firearm suicides total 2001: 71412

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2001: 0.6912
1994: 0.9128

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Mexico, annual unintentional shooting deaths total 2001: 48412

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Mexico, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2001: 0.4712
1994: 1.2729

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Mexico, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total 2001: 812

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Mexico, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is 2001: 0.0112

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Mexico, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence30 31 32 33

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Mexico was ranked 'small'34

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Mexico, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law35 36 37 38 39 40

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Mexico is reported by Customs to be US$22,273,02241 (2011)42

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Mexico was categorized as 'minor'43

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Mexico, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law35 36 44 45 38 39 40 33

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Mexico is reported by Customs to be US$49,024,99641 (2011)46

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Mexico is high47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Mexico, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law57 58

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Mexico include40 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, Mexico was ranked at No. 3559

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Mexico is categorised as restrictive60

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Mexico includes the Federal Law of Firearms and Explosives 2004,61 the Regulation of the Federal Firearms Law and Explosives,62 and Articles 160 to 163 of the Penal Code33

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Mexico are regulated by the Ministry of National Defence and the Ministry of the Interior63 64 65

Right to Possess Firearms

In Mexico, the right to private gun ownership is conditionally guaranteed by the Constitution,66 67 68 as limited by statute law69 70 71

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Mexico, civilians are not allowed to possess military grade firearms intended for Army, Navy and Air Force use, including: .357 Magnum revolvers and those greater than .38 calibre, handguns greater than 9mm, rifles and carbines of .223, 7mm, 7.62 and .30 calibres, automatic firearms, or shotguns with barrels shorter than 635mm or greater than 12 gauge72 73 74

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Mexico, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited73 72 14

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Mexico, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence75 76 77

Regulation of Handguns

In Mexico, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence,75 76 77 with some exceptions based on manufacturer and calibre72 14

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Mexico, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law75 76 14

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Mexico, only licensed gun owners78 79 14 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Mexico are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, rodeo riding, collection, personal protection, or employment80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Mexico is 18 years88

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Mexico must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental, physical and addiction80 86 14 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Mexico, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required to carry pistols and revolvers87

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Mexico does not stipulate57 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Mexico, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required57 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Mexico, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every two years, for carry permits79

Licensing Records

In Mexico, authorities maintain a record89 85 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Mexico are permitted to possess 2 firearms for legitimate defence purposes. To own more than two firearms requires special justification90

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Mexico are permitted to possess only 500 cartridges in .22 caliber, 1,000 cartridges for shotguns and 200 cartridges for other arms91 92

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Mexico, the law requires93 94 95 96 85 63 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Mexico, licensed firearm dealers are required97 98 99 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Mexico, licensed gun makers are required100 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Mexico, State agencies are required94 101 96 102 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Mexico, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited, except in extraordinary cases103 104 87

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Mexico, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful99 30 87

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Mexico, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to one firearm per transaction. To sell individuals more than one gun, dealers must have receive special permission in advance105

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Mexico, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined57

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Mexico, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated57 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Mexico include106 107 108 84 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Mexico include31 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Mexico include109 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Mexico include110 111 112 113 114 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Mexico, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law102 100 115

Firearm Tracing

In Mexico, state authorities carry out102 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Mexico, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are102 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Mexico, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit80 87 76 86 112 14

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Mexico, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit80 87 76 86 112 14

Gun Free Zones

In Mexico, private guns are prohibited in public demonstrations and celebrations and in deliberative assemblies116

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Mexico, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm117 is 7 years prison118

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Mexico are known to have119 120 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Collected and Seized

In Mexico, firearms voluntarily surrendered for destruction, collected or seized in routine policing are reported to number 306,354121 (1994-2012)122 123

Small Arms Destroyed

In Mexico, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 28,302119 (2007), and 79,074120 (2009)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Mexico, it is state policy100 124 125 126 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Mexico adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified127 128 by Mexico

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists129 Mexico as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006130 by Mexico.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified131 by Mexico

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified132 by Mexico

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Mexico committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects133

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Mexico against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 2134 135 136 137 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Mexico has submitted one or more national reports138 139 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Mexico, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated140 139

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Mexico, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated140 139

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Mexico submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent139 141

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated139 by Mexico to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided139 to Mexico by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Mexico has declared142 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Mexico has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945143

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list144 Mexico as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Mexico, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Mexico ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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