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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Mali — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Mali is 143,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Mali is 1.11 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Mali ranked at No. 1272

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Mali ranked at No. 1491

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Mali there are estimated to be 5,5003

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Mali are reported to have 13,8704 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Mali are reported to have 17,8825 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Mali, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 1,1196
2008: 1,1577

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Mali, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 7.56
2008: 8.07
2004: 18.008
2002: 12.70
1998: 0.71

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Mali, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Home-made Guns

In Mali, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate21

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Mali, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law22 23 24 25

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Mali is reported by Customs to be US$337,31626 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Mali, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law24 22 27 28 29 30 9 31 32 33 11 34 35 36 12 37 38

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Mali is reported by Customs to be US$6,789,58626 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Mali is moderate3

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Mali, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law39 25 40

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Mali is categorised as restrictive41

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Mali includes the Law No. 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Governing Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali, the Decree No 08-681/P-RM of November 11, 2008, Governing the Composition, Functions, Organisation and Functioning of the National Commission for the Fight Against the Proliferation of Small Arms, the Decree No. 05 441/P RM of October 13, 2005, and the Law No 01-075 of July 18, 2001 (Customs Code)42 21 22 29

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Mali are regulated by the Minister of Internal Security, under the cover of the State Representative,30 the Governor of the Region or District of Bamako under the cover of State Representative,31 the representative of the department in charge of urban planning15 43

Right to Possess Firearms

In Mali, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law44 45 46 47 48

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Mali, civilians are not allowed to possess weapons of war43 49

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Mali, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited43 49

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Mali, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited43 49

Regulation of Handguns

In Mali, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence43 49

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Mali, only licensed gun owners31 32 33 34 35 50 51 52 43 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Mali are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example demonstrating a need for protection51

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Mali is 18 years old53

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Mali must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, and addiction53 38 52 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Mali, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required46 47 48

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Mali does not stipulate46 47 48 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Mali, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required46 47 48 for a firearm licence

Licensing Records

In Mali, authorities maintain a record54 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Mali are permitted to possess any number of firearms46 47 48

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Mali are permitted to possess a limited quantity of smoothbore and rifled ammunition fixed by the Minister in charge of Internal Security55

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Mali, the law requires54 56 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Mali, licensed firearm dealers are required57 58 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Mali, licensed gun makers are required57 58 20 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Mali, State agencies are required59 60 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Mali, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without authorisation36 50 34 35 61 62

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Mali, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful30 10 14 15 17 18 19 63 64

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Mali, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined46 47 48

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Mali, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated46 47 48 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Mali do not include46 47 48 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Mali include15 63 64 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Mali include59 60 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Mali do not include46 47 48 40 25 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Mali, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law65 16 56 20 24 66

Firearm Tracing

In Mali, state authorities carry out67 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Mali, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not46 47 48 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Mali, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit31 32 33 51

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Mali, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit31 32 33 51

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Mali, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm68 is five years in prison and a fine69

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Mali are known to have70 71 72 73 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Mali, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 2,70074 (1995), 85073 (2000-2001), 1,00072 (2004), 81971 (2008) and 2,32670 (2010)

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

In Mali, the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be 1,00072

Small Arms Destroyed

In Mali, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 3,00075 (1996), 85073 (2000-2001), 1,00072 (2004), 81971 (2008) and 2,32670 (2010)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Mali, it is state policy59 71 72 73 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Mali adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200676 77

Economic Community of West African States

In June 2006, as a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Mali adopted the ECOWAS Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition and other Related Materials. This stipulates strict controls on the transfer, manufacture, possession and security of small arms and light weapons78 79

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200680 by Mali.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified81 by Mali

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified82 by Mali

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Mali committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects83

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Mali against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 1784 85 86 87 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Mali has submitted one or more national reports88 89 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Mali, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated90 89

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Mali, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated90

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Mali submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent90 89

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated89 by Mali to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided89 to Mali by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Mali has not declared91 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Mali has been a Member State of the United Nations since 196092

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list93 Mali as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Mali, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Mali ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

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Mali.2004.‘Article 9.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4436)Full Citation

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Mali.2004.‘Article 11.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4439)Full Citation

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Mali.2004.‘Article 18.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4444)Full Citation

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Mali.2004.‘Article 33.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4452)Full Citation

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Mali.2004.‘Article 35.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4453)Full Citation

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Mali.2005.‘Article 3 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4458)Full Citation

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Mali.2005.‘Article 5 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4459)Full Citation

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Mali.2005.‘Article 7 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4460)Full Citation

17.

Mali.2005.‘Article 8 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4461)Full Citation

18.

Mali.2005.‘Article 9 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4462)Full Citation

19.

Mali.2005.‘Article 10 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4463)Full Citation

20.

Mali.2012.‘Manufacture (Fabrication).’ National Report of Mali on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Mali to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12486)Full Citation

21.

Mali.2010.‘Home-made Manufacture (Fabrication Artisanale).’ National Report of Mali on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Mali to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3956)Full Citation

22.

Mali.2003.‘Legislation - Regulation - Administrative Procedures (La Législation - Réglementations - Procédures Administrative).’ National Report of Mali on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Mali to the United Nations,24 June. (Q3959)Full Citation

23.

Mali.2010.‘Manufacture (Fabrication).’ National Report of Mali on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Mali to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3954)Full Citation

24.

Mali.2012.‘International Transfers (Transferts internationaux).’ National Report of Mali on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Mali to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12487)Full Citation

25.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Comparison of the Main Regulatory Aspects Examined - Mali.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5236)Full Citation

26.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

27.

Mali.2003.‘Import.’ National Report of Mali on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Mali to the United Nations,24 June. (Q3960)Full Citation

28.

Mali.2003.‘Illegal Import.’ National Report of Mali on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Mali to the United Nations,24 June. (Q3961)Full Citation

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Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Comparison of the Main Regulatory Aspects Examined - Mali.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q4011)Full Citation

30.

Mali.2004.‘Article 8.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4435)Full Citation

31.

Mali.2004.‘Article 12.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4440)Full Citation

32.

Mali.2004.‘Article 13.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4441)Full Citation

33.

Mali.2004.‘Article 16.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4442)Full Citation

34.

Mali.2004.‘Article 19.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4445)Full Citation

35.

Mali.2004.‘Article 21.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4446)Full Citation

36.

Mali.2004.‘Article 25.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4448)Full Citation

37.

Mali.2005.‘Article 12 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4464)Full Citation

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Mali.2005.‘Article 19 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4468)Full Citation

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Mali.2012.‘Brokering (Courtage).’ National Report of Mali on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Mali to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12488)Full Citation

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Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Transactions and Activities Covered - Imports, Exports, Transit and Brokering.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5013)Full Citation

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Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

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Mali.2010.‘Law (Loi).’ National Report of Mali on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Mali to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3952)Full Citation

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Mali.2005.‘Article 25 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4471)Full Citation

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Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

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Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

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Mali.2004.‘Article 2.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4434)Full Citation

47.

Mali.2005.‘Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005 (Décret No 05-441/P-RM du 13 Octobre 2005).’ Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4457)Full Citation

48.

Mali.2008.‘Decree No 08-681/P-RM of November 11, 2008, Laying Down the Remit, Composition, Organization and Methods of Operation of the National Commission Combating Proliferation of Small Arms.’ Décret No 08-681/P-RM du 11 Novembre 2008 Fixant les Attributions, la Composition, l'Organisation et les Modalités de Fonctionnement de la Commission Nationale de Lutte Contre la Prolifération des Armes Légères.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,11 November. (Q4474)Full Citation

49.

Mali.2004.‘Article 3.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4438)Full Citation

50.

Mali.2004.‘Article 27.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4449)Full Citation

51.

Mali.2005.‘Articles 22 and 23 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4469)Full Citation

52.

Mali.2005.‘Article 24 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4470)Full Citation

53.

Mali.2004.‘Article 32.’ Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali (Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali).Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,12 November. (Q4451)Full Citation

54.

Mali.2005.‘Articles 32 and 33 - Loi No 04-050 du 12 novembre 2004, Régissant les Armes et Munitions en République du Mali.’ Decree No 05-441/P-RM of October 13, 2005, for the Implementation of the Act No 04-050 of November 12, 2004, Regulating Arms and Ammunition in the Republic of Mali.Bamako:Office of the President of the Republic of Mali,13 October. (Q4472)Full Citation

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