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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Maldives — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the Maldives is 21,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in the Maldives is 6.51

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the Maldives ranked at No. 1662

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the Maldives ranked at No. 851

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the Maldives, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 133
2011: 54
2008: 55
2007: 3
2003: 46
2002: 87
2001: 7

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Maldives, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 3.93
2011: 1.44
2008: 1.65 8
2007: 1.05 8
2005: 0.308
2004: 1.80
2003: 1.286
2002: 2.797
2001: 2.50
1997: 2.35
1995: 0.8

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the Maldives, annual firearm homicides total

2008: 55
2007: 2

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Maldives, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 1.65
2007: 0.7

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn the Maldives, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2008: 100%3
2007: 67%

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the Maldives, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited9

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In the Maldives, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law10 11

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the Maldives is reported by Customs to be US$10912 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In the Maldives, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law10 11

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the Maldives is reported by Customs to be US$159,27312 (2011)

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the Maldives, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law13

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in the Maldives include14 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

Law Regulates Civilian Access to Firearms

In the Maldives, civilian possession of guns is regulated by law4

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the Maldives includes the Regulations on weapons and Laws on import and export of arms and ammunition10

Right to Possess Firearms

In the Maldives, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law15 16

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In the Maldives, civilian possession of automatic weapons is regulated by law4

Law Regulates Handguns

In the Maldives, civilian possession of handguns is regulated by law4

Law Regulates Long Guns

In the Maldives, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law4

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the Maldives, the law requires17 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the Maldives, State agencies are required18 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the Maldives include18 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In the Maldives, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law17 19

Firearm Tracing

In the Maldives, state authorities do not carry out20 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In the Maldives, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law4

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed21 by the Maldives.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed22 by the Maldives

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed23 by the Maldives

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the Maldives committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects24

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the Maldives against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 8825 26 27 28 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the Maldives have yet to submit a national report29 30 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the Maldives, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated31

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated30 by the Maldives to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the Maldives have not declared32 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the Maldives have been a Member State of the United Nations since 196533

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list34 the Maldives as a Participating State


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

3.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in the Maldives.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10278)Full Citation

4.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Maldives.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9624)Full Citation

5.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Maldives.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6301)Full Citation

6.

UNODC.2006.‘Reported Overall Homicide Numbers and Rates per 100,000 Population for 64 Countries, 2003-04.’ Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2003 - 2004).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q9)Full Citation

7.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

8.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘South Asia, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3815)Full Citation

9.

Maldives.2016.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of the Republic of Maldives on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations,16 March. (Q12964)Full Citation

10.

Maldives.2016.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of the Republic of Maldives on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations,16 March. (Q12965)Full Citation

11.

Maldives.2016.‘International Transfers - Record Keeping.’ National Report of the Republic of Maldives on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations,16 March. (Q12968)Full Citation

12.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

13.

Maldives.2016.‘Brokering.’ National Report of the Republic of Maldives on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations,16 March. (Q12969)Full Citation

14.

Maldives.2016.‘End-user Certificate.’ National Report of the Republic of Maldives on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations,16 March. (Q12966)Full Citation

15.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

16.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

17.

Maldives.2016.‘Marking and Record Keeping.’ National Report of the Republic of Maldives on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations,16 March. (Q12971)Full Citation

18.

Maldives.2016.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of the Republic of Maldives on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations,16 March. (Q12970)Full Citation

19.

Maldives.2016.‘Marking at Import.’ National Report of the Republic of Maldives on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations,16 March. (Q12967)Full Citation

20.

Maldives.2016.‘International Tracing.’ National Report of the Republic of Maldives on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations,16 March. (Q12972)Full Citation

21.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

22.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

23.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

24.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

25.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

26.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

27.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

28.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

29.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

30.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

31.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

32.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

33.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

34.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation