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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Malaysia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Malaysia is 370,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Malaysia is 1.51

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Malaysia, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 5,3402

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Malaysia, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 127,2222

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Malaysia, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 9,4762

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Malaysia ranked at No. 963

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Malaysia ranked at No. 1331

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Malaysia is reported to be 142,0382

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Malaysia is 0.634

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Malaysia is reported to be 142,0381 2

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Malaysia is 0.554

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Malaysia are reported to have 440,2505 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Malaysia are reported to have 70,0006 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Malaysia, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2008: 827

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Malaysia, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.37

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Malaysia, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 6528
2010: 5409
2006: 60410 11
2005: 497
2000: 55112
1999: 58811
1998: 629
1997: 540
1996: 447
1995: 396

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Malaysia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 2.38
2010: 1.939
2006: 2.3110
2005: 1.94
2004: 1.611
2003: 1.6
2002: 1.3
2001: 1.6
2000: 2.3612
1999: 2.59
1998: 2.83
1997: 2.511
1996: 2.1
1995: 1.9

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Malaysia, annual firearm homicides total

2008: 387
2006: 6411
1995: 4113

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Malaysia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.17
2006: 0.211
1995: 0.1713

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Malaysia, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2010: 7%9
2006: 13.4%11

Suicides (any method)

In Malaysia, annual suicides by any means total

1995: 36813

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Malaysia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1995: 1.5113

Gun Suicides

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Malaysia, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.07

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Malaysia, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2008: 27
1995: 1613

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Malaysia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.014
1995: 0.0713

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Malaysia, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2008: 427

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Malaysia, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.154

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Malaysia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence14 15 16

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Malaysia was ranked 'small'17

Home-made Guns

In Malaysia, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate18

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Malaysia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law19 20 21

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Malaysia is reported by Customs to be US$619,13222 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Malaysia was categorized as 'minor'23

Firearm Imports

In Malaysia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law24 25 26 27 20 21

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Malaysia is reported by Customs to be US$9,142,38822 (2011)28 29 30 31

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Malaysia is moderate2

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Malaysia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law32

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Malaysia include33 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Malaysia is categorised as restrictive34

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Malaysia includes the Arms Act No. 206 of 1960,35 the Arms Licensing Regulation of 1961, the Arms (Manufacture of Arms and Ammunition) Regulations of 1989, the Customs Act (Prohibition of Import and Export) Orders of 2012, the Strategic Trade Act of 201016 and the Penal Code20 32

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Malaysia are regulated by the Chief Police Officer36 37

Right to Possess Firearms

In Malaysia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law38 39 40

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Malaysia, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms41 9

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Malaysia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is not prohibited in law40 41

Regulation of Handguns

In Malaysia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is not prohibited in law40 41 9

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Malaysia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law41 9

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Malaysia, only licensed gun owners42 9 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Malaysia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, sports-shooting and personal protection37 43

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Malaysia is 18 years, or 16 in exceptional cases41

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Malaysia must pass a background check which considers various44 9 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Malaysia, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required40

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Malaysia does not stipulate40 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Malaysia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required40 45 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Malaysia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every one years37 15

Licensing Records

In Malaysia, authorities maintain a record46 47 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Malaysia are permitted to possess only the number and type of firearms specified on the firearm licence37

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Malaysia are permitted to possess only the quantity of ammunition specified on the firearm licence37

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Malaysia, the law requires37 47 48 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Malaysia, licensed firearm dealers are required49 46 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Malaysia, licensed gun makers are required49 46 14 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Malaysia, State agencies are required50 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Malaysia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without licence51

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Malaysia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful15 51

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Malaysia, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined40

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Malaysia, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated15 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Malaysia include52 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Malaysia include53 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Malaysia include50 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Malaysia do not include40 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Malaysia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law37 54 16 48 55

Firearm Tracing

In Malaysia, state authorities carry out47 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Malaysia, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are47 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Malaysia, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit42 37 9

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Malaysia, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit42 37 9

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Malaysia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm56 is up to seven years in prison and/or a fine of up to 10,000 ringgit57 58

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Malaysia, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015: 50059

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200860 by Malaysia.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified61 by Malaysia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed62 by Malaysia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Malaysia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects63

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Malaysia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 7864 65 66 67 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Malaysia has submitted one or more national reports68 69 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Malaysia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated70 69

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Malaysia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated70

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Malaysia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent69

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated69 by Malaysia to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided69 to Malaysia by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Malaysia has not declared71 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Malaysia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 195772

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list73 Malaysia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Malaysia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Malaysia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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25.

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36.

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