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Malaysia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Malaysia is

2016: 107,7251 2 3
2005: 370,0004

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Malaysia is

2016: 0.355 6 3
2005: 1.50

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Malaysia, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 2,2437

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Malaysia, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 70,8767

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Malaysia, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 14,7067

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Malaysia ranked at No. 968

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Malaysia ranked at No. 1334

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Malaysia is reported to be

2016: 89,7717
1999: 142,0389

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Malaysia is

2016: 0.295
1999: 0.63

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Malaysia is reported to be

2016: 89,7717
1999: 142,0389

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Malaysia is

2016: 0.295
1999: 0.63

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Malaysia there are estimated to be

2016: 17,9541 10 3

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Malaysia the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2016: 0.065

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Malaysia are reported to have 440,25011 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Malaysia are reported to have 70,00012 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Malaysia, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2008: 8213

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Malaysia, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.313

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Malaysia, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 65214
2010: 54015
2006: 60416 17
2005: 497
2000: 55118
1999: 58817
1998: 629
1997: 540
1996: 447
1995: 396

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Malaysia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 2.314
2010: 1.9315
2006: 2.3116
2005: 1.94
2004: 1.617
2003: 1.6
2002: 1.3
2001: 1.6
2000: 2.3618
1999: 2.59
1998: 2.83
1997: 2.517
1996: 2.1
1995: 1.9

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Malaysia, annual firearm homicides total

2008: 3813
2006: 6417
1995: 4119

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Malaysia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.113
2006: 0.217
1995: 0.1719

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Malaysia, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2010: 7%15
2006: 13.4%17

Suicides (any method)

In Malaysia, annual suicides by any means total

1995: 36819

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Malaysia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1995: 1.5119

Gun Suicides

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Malaysia, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.013

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Malaysia, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2008: 213
1995: 1619

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Malaysia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.015
1995: 0.0719

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Malaysia, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2008: 4213

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Malaysia, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.155

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Malaysia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence20 21 22

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Malaysia was ranked 'small'23

Home-made Guns

In Malaysia, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate24

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Malaysia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law25 26 27

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Malaysia is reported by Customs to be US$619,13228 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Malaysia was categorized as 'minor'29

Firearm Imports

In Malaysia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law30 31 32 33 26 27

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Malaysia is reported by Customs to be US$9,142,38828 (2011)34 35 36 37

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Malaysia is moderate9 38 39 40

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Malaysia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law41

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Malaysia include42 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Malaysia is categorised as restrictive43

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Malaysia includes the Arms Act No. 206 of 1960, as amended by the Arms Licensing Regulation of 1961 and the Arms (Manufacture of Arms and Ammunition) Regulations of 1989,44 the Explosives Act of 1957,45 the Customs Act (Prohibition of Import and Export) Orders of 2017,46 47 the Strategic Trade Act of 2010,48 and the Penal Code49

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Malaysia are regulated by the Chief Police Officer50 51

Right to Possess Firearms

In Malaysia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law52 53 54

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Malaysia, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms55 15

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Malaysia, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited55 15

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Malaysia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is not prohibited in law54 55

Regulation of Handguns

In Malaysia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is not prohibited in law54 55 15

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Malaysia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law55 15

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Malaysia, only licensed gun owners56 15 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Malaysia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, sports-shooting and personal protection51 57

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Malaysia is 18 years, or 16 in exceptional cases55

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Malaysia must pass a background check which considers various58 15 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Malaysia, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required54

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Malaysia does not stipulate54 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Malaysia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required54 59 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Malaysia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every year51 21

Licensing Records

In Malaysia, authorities maintain a record60 61 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Malaysia are permitted to possess only the number and type of firearms specified on the firearm licence51

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Malaysia are permitted to possess only the quantity of ammunition specified on the firearm licence51

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Malaysia, the law requires51 61 62 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Malaysia, licensed firearm dealers are required63 60 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Malaysia, licensed gun makers are required63 60 20 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Malaysia, State agencies are required64 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Malaysia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without licence65

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Malaysia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful21 65

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Malaysia, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined54

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Malaysia, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated21 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Malaysia include66 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Malaysia include67 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Malaysia include64 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Malaysia do not include54 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Malaysia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law51 68 22 62 69

Firearm Tracing

In Malaysia, state authorities carry out61 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Malaysia, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are61 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Malaysia, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit56 51 15

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Malaysia, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit56 51 15

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Malaysia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm70 is up to seven years in prison and/or a fine of up to 10,000 ringgit71 72

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Malaysia, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015: 50073

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200874 by Malaysia.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified75 by Malaysia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed76 by Malaysia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Malaysia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects77

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Malaysia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 7878 79 80 81 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Malaysia has submitted one or more national reports82 83 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Malaysia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated84 83

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Malaysia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated84

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Malaysia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent83

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated83 by Malaysia to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided83 to Malaysia by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Malaysia has not declared85 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Malaysia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 195786

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list87 Malaysia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Malaysia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Malaysia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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