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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Kiribati — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Kiribati is 81

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Kiribati is 0.0081 firearms per 100 people

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Kiribati is reported to be 81

Government Guns

Routine Arming of Police

In Kiribati, police officers on routine patrol do not carry a firearm2

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Kiribati are reported to have 1333 to 1374 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Kiribati, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 85 6
2008: 77

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Kiribati, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 8.25 6
2008: 7.37

Suicides (any method)

In Kiribati, annual suicides by any means total

2005: 218

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Kiribati, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2005: 22.589
2004: 6.5010
2002: 6.50
2001: 4.67
2000: 3.57
1999: 0.00

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Kiribati, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited11

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Kiribati, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law12

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Kiribati, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law13

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Kiribati is reported by Customs to be US$3,83714 (2011)

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Kiribati, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law15

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Kiribati is categorised as restrictive16

Law Regulates Civilian Access to Firearms

In Kiribati, civilian possession of guns is regulated by law6

Right to Possess Firearms

In Kiribati, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law17

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Kiribati, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms and handguns18

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Kiribati, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited18 6

Regulation of Handguns

In Kiribati, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited18 6

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Kiribati, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law6

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Kiribati, only licensed gun owners19 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Kiribati are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example pest control20

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Kiribati must pass a background check which considers undefined6 records

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Kiribati, the law requires21 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Kiribati, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law22

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Kiribati, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law6

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Kiribati, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm23 is 2 to 10 years prison and a $400 to $2,000 fine24

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Pacific Islands Forum

As a member of the Pacific Islands Forum, Kiribati adopted the March, 2000 Nadi Framework agreement, which aims to harmonise small arms-related legislation across Oceania. In August 2003, the Nadi Framework’s draft model Weapons Control Bill was unanimously accepted for consideration by all 16 member states of the Pacific Islands Forum25 26

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed27 by Kiribati.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified28 by Kiribati

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed29 by Kiribati

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Kiribati committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects30

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Kiribati has yet to submit a national report31 32 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Kiribati, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated33 32

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Kiribati, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated33 32

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Kiribati submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is not apparent33 32

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated32 by Kiribati to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided34 to Kiribati by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Kiribati has not declared35 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Kiribati has been a Member State of the United Nations since 199936

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list37 Kiribati as a Participating State


Short References

1.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Civilian Firearm Ownership in Pacific Nations, 2002.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q316)Full Citation

2.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Stockpiles and Trafficking in the Pacific: Police Inventories.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q145)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2003.‘Fewer Blanks: Global Firearm Stockpiles: Firearms of the Pacific.’ Small Arms Survey 2003: Development Denied.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q318)Full Citation

4.

Ribanti, Eken.2010.‘Correction on Number of Firearms.’ Personal correspondence with Philip Alpers.Tarawa:Kiribati Police Service,14 January. (Q1887)Full Citation

5.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides in Kiribati.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10353)Full Citation

6.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Kiribati.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9614)Full Citation

7.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Kiribati.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6243)Full Citation

8.

WHO.2009.‘Western Pacific Region - Country profiles and health databanks.’ Country Health Information Profiles / CHIPS.Manila:World Health Organisation, Regional Office for the Western Pacific,19 August. (Q1889)Full Citation

9.

GunPolicy.org.2011.‘Calculated Rates - Kiribati.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,19 August. (Q4340)Full Citation

10.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘East Asia and the Pacific, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3814)Full Citation

11.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Pacific Small Arms Legislation: Controls on Manufacture and Domestic Trade.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q327)Full Citation

12.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Import and Export Laws in Pacific States.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q320)Full Citation

13.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Pacific Small Arms Legislation: Domestic and regional issues.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q328)Full Citation

14.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

15.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

16.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

17.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

18.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Pacific Small Arms Legislation: Domestic and regional issues.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q1371)Full Citation

19.

Capie, David.2003.‘Legislation and enforcement: Good character.’ Under the Gun: The small arms challenge in the Pacific.Wellington:Victoria University Press,1 January. (Q319)Full Citation

20.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Genuine Reason: A Snapshot of Pacific Definitions - Kiribati.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q1370)Full Citation

21.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Pacific Small Arms Legislation: Registration.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q322)Full Citation

22.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q323)Full Citation

23.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

24.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Selected Penalties for Firearm Offences in the Pacific.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,31 March. (Q326)Full Citation

25.

SPCPC/OCO.2000.‘Towards a Common Approach to Weapons Control: The 'Nadi Framework'.’ South Pacific Chiefs of Police Conference (SPCPC) and Oceania Customs Organisation (OCO).Nadi, Fiji:Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) Secretariat,10 March. (Q576)Full Citation

26.

Baker, Jean.2000.‘Weapons Control Bill: Explanatory Notes.’ Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.Suva, Fiji:Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat,10 March. (Q577)Full Citation

27.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

28.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

29.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

30.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

31.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

32.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

33.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

34.

New Zealand.2010.‘Implementation of the Programme of Action - DDR Programmes.’ National Report of New Zealand on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of New Zealand to the United Nations,1 February. (Q1881)Full Citation

35.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

36.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

37.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation