Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Japan — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Japan is 710,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Japan is 0.61 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Japan, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 40,5392

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Japan, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 325,1362

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Japan, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 773

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Japan ranked at No. 644

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Japan ranked at No. 1641

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2004/05: 0.8%5
1999/2003: 0.3%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2004/05: 0.0%5
1999/2003: 0.0%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Japan is reported to be

2011: 271,0006
2010: 320,0007

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Japan is

2011: 0.218
2010: 0.25

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Japan is reported to be 413,0961

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Japan is 0.328

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Japan are reported to have 737,5009 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Japan are reported to have 250,00010 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 611
2007: 226
2006: 2

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.008
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.00

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 1,02012
2011: 44213 14
2010: 465
2009: 506
2008: 646
2007: 574
2006: 619
2005: 643
2004: 699
2003: 697
2002: 60914
2001: 645
2000: 637
1999: 674
1998: 716
1997: 677
1996: 616
1995: 677

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.812
2011: 0.313 14
2010: 0.4
2009: 0.4
2008: 0.513 14 15
2007: 0.5
2006: 0.5
2005: 0.5
2004: 0.6
2003: 0.6
2002: 0.514 15
2001: 0.5
2000: 0.514
1999: 0.5
1998: 0.6
1997: 0.5
1996: 0.5
1995: 0.5
1994: 0.6216

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Japan, annual firearm homicides total

2008: 1114
2002: 4717
2001: 56
1997: 3418
1996: 36
1995: 42

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.014
2002: 0.0417
2001: 0.04
1997: 0.0318
1996: 0.03
1995: 0.03
1994: 0.0219

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 2%12
2008: 1.8%14
2002: 6.0%
2001: 7.2%
1997: 4.5%
1996: 5.0%
1995: 5.5%

Suicides (any method)

In Japan, annual suicides by any means total

1997: 23,50220

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1997: 18.4120
1994: 16.7221

Gun Suicides

In Japan, annual firearm suicides total

1999: 4720

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

1999: 0.0420
1994: 0.0422

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2011: 123
1999: 720

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

1999: 0.0120
1994: 0.0024

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Japan, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

1999: 720

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

1999: 0.0120
1994: 0.0025

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Japan, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence26

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Japan was ranked 'small'27

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Japan, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law28

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Japan is reported by Customs to be US$73,272,05429 (2011)30 31 32

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Japan was categorized as 'major'33 34 35 36

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Japan, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law37 38

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Japan is reported by Customs to be US$27,896,88829 (2011)39 40 41 42 43

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Japan is moderate44 3

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Japan, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law45 46

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Japan do not include47 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Japan scored

2014: 7.0048
2013: 7.5049
2012: 8.5050
2011: 9.0051
2010: 9.0052
2009: 9.5053
2008: 8.5054
2007: 9.0055
2006: 9.0056
2005: 9.7557
2004: 9.5058

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Japan is categorised as restrictive59

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Japan includes the Firearms and Swords Control Law,60 38 the Ordnance Manufacturing Law,26 the Explosives Control Law,61 62 and the Customs Law37

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Japan are regulated by the Prefectural Public Safety Commission63

Right to Possess Firearms

In Japan, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law64 65 47

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Japan, civilians are not allowed to possess handguns, hunting guns without specific approval,2 military rifles, machine guns, any gunpowder charged firearm, certain air guns38 and imitation firearms66

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Japan, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited38 67 12

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Japan, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited38 67

Regulation of Handguns

In Japan, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited, with the exception of accomplished sports shooters68 38 67 12

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Japan, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law38 12

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Japan, only licensed gun owners2 69 70 12 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Japan are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting (with special permission)2 70

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Japan is 18 years69 70

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Japan must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental health2 69 70 12 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Japan, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required3

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Japan does not stipulate3 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Japan, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required2 69 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Japan, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years69 71

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Japan are permitted to possess any number of firearms72

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Japan are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition47

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Japan, the law requires73 74 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Japan, licensed firearm dealers are required73 74 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Japan, licensed gun makers are required73 74 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Japan, State agencies are required74 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Japan, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited75

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Japan, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful75

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Japan, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined47

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Japan, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated47 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Japan include76 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Japan do not include47 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Japan include76 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Japan do not include47 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Japan, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law74 73

Firearm Tracing

In Japan, state authorities carry out74 73 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Japan, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not47 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Japan, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited71 12

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Japan, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit71 12

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Japan, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm77 is 15 years in prison38

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Japan, it is state policy78 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists79 Japan as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200680 by Japan.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified81 by Japan

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified82 by Japan

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Japan committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects83

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Japan against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 4184 85 86 87 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Japan has submitted one or more national reports88 46 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Japan, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated89 46

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Japan, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated89 46

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Japan submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent46 90

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated46 91 by Japan to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Japan has declared92 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Japan has been a Member State of the United Nations since 195693

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists94 Japan as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

To see where Japan ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q1466)Full Citation

3.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11807)Full Citation

6.

Juliette Jowit, Sandra Laville, Calla Wahlquist, Philip Oltermann, Justin McCurry and Lois Beckett. 2016. ‘So, America, This Is How Other Countries Do Gun Control.’ Guardian. 14 March. (N453) Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2010.‘Elusive Arsenals: Gang and Group Firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups, and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,14 June. (Q2105)Full Citation

8.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Japan.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,16 March. (Q4248)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 1 - Estimated Law Enforcement Firearms in 20 Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q6544)Full Citation

11.

Jake Adelstein. 2015. ‘The Yakuza: Inside Japan's Murky Criminal Underworld.’ CNN. 16 September. (N383) Full Citation

12.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Japan.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9610)Full Citation

13.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides in Japan.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10258)Full Citation

14.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Japan.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6318)Full Citation

15.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘East Asia and the Pacific, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3814)Full Citation

16.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

17.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2001.‘Japan: Total Recorded Intentional Homicides (Completed) and Total Recorded Intentional Homicides Committed With a Firearm.’ Sixth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, covering the period 1995-1997.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,27 June. (Q1335)Full Citation

19.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

20.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

21.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

22.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

23.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

24.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

25.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

26.

Japan.2010.‘Outline of National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Ordnance Manufacturing Law.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1680)Full Citation

27.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

28.

Japan.2010.‘Three Principles on Arms Export.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1683)Full Citation

29.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

30.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

31.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

32.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

33.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11068)Full Citation

34.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

35.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

36.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

37.

Japan.2010.‘Outline of National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Customs Law.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1687)Full Citation

38.

Japan.2010.‘Outline of National Criminal Offences Relating to Illicit SALW - Firearms and Swords Control Law.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1685)Full Citation

39.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Imports per Top Importer and for All Importers, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11072)Full Citation

40.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

41.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

42.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

43.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

44.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q2100)Full Citation

45.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

46.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

47.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q4146)Full Citation

48.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

49.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

50.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

51.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

52.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

53.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

54.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

55.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

56.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

57.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

58.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

59.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

60.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q1465)Full Citation

61.

Japan.2010.‘Outline of National Criminal Offences Relating to Illicit SALW - Explosives Control Law.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1686)Full Citation

62.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q1467)Full Citation

63.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q1468)Full Citation

64.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

65.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

66.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q2102)Full Citation

67.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5369)Full Citation

68.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q2101)Full Citation

69.

Japan.2002.‘Firearms Control in Japan 2002.’ No! Guns 2002.Tokyo:Firearms Division, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q2122)Full Citation

70.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5420)Full Citation

71.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5439)Full Citation

72.

Karp, Aaron.2005.‘The Count Continues: Stockpiles: North-East Asia: The world's largest regional small arms stockpiles?.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q2104)Full Citation

73.

Japan.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1679)Full Citation

74.

Japan.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1678)Full Citation

75.

Japan.2002.‘Firearms Control in Japan 2002.’ No! Guns 2002.Tokyo:Firearms Division, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q2103)Full Citation

76.

Japan.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1682)Full Citation

77.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

78.

Japan.2010.‘Disposal.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1681)Full Citation

79.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

80.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

81.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

82.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

83.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

84.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

85.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

86.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

87.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

88.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

89.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

90.

Japan.2010.‘Cooperation with Civil Society and NGOs.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1688)Full Citation

91.

Robin Ballantyne. 2005. ‘Japan's Hidden Arms Trade.’ Asia Times (Hong Kong) / Japan Focus. 1 December. (N192) Full Citation

92.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

93.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

94.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation