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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Jamaica — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Jamaica is 180,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Jamaica is 6.61 2

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 1933
1999: 7434

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 5,3483
1995: 3,4224

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 35,3733
1995: 13,9804

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Jamaica ranked at No. 1145

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Jamaica ranked at No. 742

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Jamaica is reported to be

2016: 34,0553
2010: 25,1006
2006: 27,0007
2004: 50,0008

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Jamaica is

2016: 1.159
2010: 0.88
2006: 0.98
2004: 1.84

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Jamaica is reported to be

2016: 45,9153
2010: 32,6006
2006: 65,00010 11
2005: 65,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Jamaica is

2016: 1.559
2010: 1.14
2006: 2.4410
2005: 2.389

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Jamaica are reported to have 6,50012 13 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Jamaica are reported to have 9,00012 14 15 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 1,03916
2009: 19117
1997: 45018
1995: 45919

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 35.229
2009: 6.76
1997: 18.618
1995: 18.599

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 1,21016
2013: 1,20020
2012: 1,09920 21
2011: 1,13320 21 22 23 24
2010: 1,44720 21 22 23
2009: 1,68320 21 22 23 25 26
2008: 1,61920 21 22 23 25
2007: 1,584
2006: 1,340
2005: 1,67427 20 21 22 23 25
2004: 1,471
2003: 975
2002: 1,045
2001: 1,139
2000: 887
1999: 84927 22 28
1998: 953
1997: 1,031
1996: 925
1995: 78027 22
1994: 69027
1993: 654
1992: 629
1991: 561
1990: 542

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 41.019
2013: 44.0020
2012: 40.5920 21 29
2011: 41.9720 21 22 23 24
2010: 53.7820 21 22 23
2009: 62.7720 21 22 23 25 26
2008: 60.5920 21 22 23 25
2007: 59.49
2006: 50.51
2005: 62.92
2004: 55.55
2003: 37.03
2002: 39.86
2001: 43.71
2000: 34.15
1999: 33.422 30
1998: 33.922 30 28
1997: 41.422 28
1996: 37.222 30 28
1995: 31.722
1994: 28.329
1993: 27.17
1992: 26.45
1991: 23.79
1990: 23.09

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Jamaica, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 98016
2013: 88420
2012: 778
2011: 79220 21
2010: 1,09720 21 22 31
2009: 1,29521 22 31
2008: 1,246
2007: 1,251
2006: 1,005
2005: 1,27822 31 8
2004: 1,111
2003: 69031 8
2002: 710
2001: 790
2000: 57531
1995: 45019

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 33.229
2013: 30.38
2012: 26.93
2011: 27.61
2010: 38.539 22 31
2009: 45.839 22 31 25
2008: 44.43
2007: 44.96
2006: 36.42
2005: 47.722 31 25
2004: 41.7
2003: 26.331 9
2002: 27.1
2001: 30.3
2000: 22.231
1997: 18.2328
1995: 16.9719

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Jamaica, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 80%32
2013: 74%20
2012: 71%
2011: 70%20 21 24
2010: 76%20 21
2009: 77%21
2008: 77%
2007: 79%
2006: 75%
2005: 76.3%22
2004: 75.5%
2000: 61%33
1990: 50%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual suicides by any means total

2015: 5916
2008: 4734 35
2007: 5034
2006: 53
2005: 58
2004: 4234 35
2003: 6434
2002: 56
2001: 73
2000: 80
1995: 3619

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 2.009
2008: 1.834 35
2007: 1.934
2006: 2.0
2005: 2.2
2004: 1.6
2003: 2.4
2002: 2.1
2001: 2.8
2000: 3.1
1995: 1.3619

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Jamaica, annual firearm suicides total

2015: 916
1995: 919

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.319
1995: 0.3419

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Jamaica, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2009: 19117

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Jamaica, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2009: 6.769

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Jamaica, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence,36 37 38 39 40 but is not conducted in practice41 42 43

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Jamaica, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law44 45 46 47 48

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Jamaica is reported by Customs to be US$4,31649 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Jamaica, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law44 45 46 47 50 48 51

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Jamaica is reported by Customs to be US$1,553,16649 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Jamaica is high52 8 53 54 55 56 57

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Jamaica, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law58 42 50

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Jamaica include59 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Jamaica is categorised as restrictive60

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Jamaica includes the Firearms Act 1967 and its 2010 Amendments,61 the 2001 Firearms Regulation,45 the Gunpowder and Explosives Act,51 the Customs Act 1941 and the Trade Act 195562

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Jamaica are regulated by the Ministry of National Security63 and the Firearm Licensing Authority64 65 50

Right to Possess Firearms

In Jamaica, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law66 67 68

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Jamaica, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms69 70 71 24

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Jamaica, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited69 70 71 24

Regulation of Handguns

In Jamaica, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence70 71 24

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Jamaica, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law70 71 24

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Jamaica, only licensed gun owners71 70 72 24 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Jamaica are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm72 73

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Jamaica is 17 years70

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Jamaica must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental health72 69 74 24 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Jamaica, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required75

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Jamaica, licensing authorities are not required68 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Jamaica does not stipulate68 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Jamaica, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required72 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Jamaica, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every four or five years76

Licensing Records

In Jamaica, authorities maintain a record63 77 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Jamaica are permitted to possess any number of firearms68 78

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Jamaica are permitted to possess only 50 rounds of ammunition per year56

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Jamaica, the law requires63 79 77 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Jamaica, licensed firearm dealers are required80 79 47 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Jamaica, State agencies are required81 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Jamaica, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without a Firearm Disposal Permit70 82 83

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Jamaica, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful36 70 83 37 38 39 40

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Jamaica, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined68

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Jamaica, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated68 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Jamaica include72 75 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Jamaica include72 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Jamaica include81 84 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Jamaica do not include68 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Jamaica, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law42 50 63 85 86 87

Firearm Tracing

In Jamaica, state authorities carry out88 63 89 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Jamaica, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are90 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Jamaica, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law91 92 93 24

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Jamaica, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm94 is five years in prison and a fine70 71 95 36 83 37 38 40 91 92 96 44 46

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Jamaica are known to have97 98 99 100 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2016: 33632
2015: 571101 102
2014: 615101
2013: 726103
2012: 596
2011: 496
2010: 687
2005: 683104
2004: 6208
2003: 517
2002: 481
2001: 546
1999: 4,00099

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2015: 1,468101
2010: 6,000105
2004: 10,13298 106
2002: 1,430
1999: 4,00099

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Jamaica, it is state policy107 97 98 105 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Jamaica adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified108 109 by Jamaica

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006110 by Jamaica.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified111 by Jamaica

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified112 by Jamaica

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Jamaica committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects113 51

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Jamaica against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 122114 115 116 117 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Jamaica has submitted one or more national reports118 119 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Jamaica, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated120 119

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Jamaica, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated121

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Jamaica submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent119

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated119 by Jamaica to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided119 to Jamaica by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Jamaica has not declared122 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Jamaica has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1962123

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list124 Jamaica as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Jamaica, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Jamaica ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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