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Germany — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Germany is 25,000,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Germany is 30.31 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Germany ranked at No. 42

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Germany ranked at No. 151

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Germany is reported to be 2,000,0003

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Germany is 2.444

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Germany is reported to be 7,200,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Germany is 8.734

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Germany there are estimated to be 17,000,0005

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Germany there are estimated to be 20.614 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Germany are reported to have 1,205,7256 to 3,100,0007 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Germany are reported to have 300,9678 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2012: 8199 10 11 12
2011: 878
2010: 90313
2009: 9369 10 11 12
2008: 953
2007: 959
2006: 953
2005: 1,044
2004: 1,145
2003: 1,122
2002: 1,061
2001: 1,102
2000: 1,112
1999: 1,201
1998: 1,164

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 1.014
2011: 1.08
2010: 1.1013
2009: 1.144
2008: 1.16
2007: 1.17
2006: 1.16
2005: 1.27
2004: 1.39
2003: 1.36
2002: 1.29
2001: 1.34
2000: 1.35
1999: 1.46
1998: 1.42

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 66214
2010: 690
2009: 706
2008: 722
2007: 757
2006: 808
2005: 869
2004: 868
2003: 859
2002: 955
2001: 925
2000: 1,015
1999: 1,020
1998: 998
1997: 1,265
1996: 1,382
1995: 1,406

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.814
2009: 0.9
2008: 0.9
2007: 0.9
2006: 1.0
2005: 1.1
2004: 1.1
2003: 1.0
2002: 1.2
2001: 1.1
2000: 1.2
1999: 1.2
1998: 1.2
1997: 1.5
1996: 1.7
1995: 1.7
1994: 1.1715

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual firearm homicides total

2012: 619
2011: 54
2010: 519 14
2009: 75
2008: 57
2007: 59
2006: 65
2005: 89
2004: 98
2003: 85
2002: 106
2001: 84
2000: 101
1999: 155
1998: 126
1997: 55514
1996: 582
1995: 804

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.079
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.069 14
2009: 0.09
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.12
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.13
2001: 0.10
2000: 0.12
1999: 0.19
1998: 0.15
1997: 0.714
1996: 0.7
1995: 1.0
1994: 0.2216

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual handgun homicides total

2012: 209
2011: 18
2010: 15
2009: 37
2008: 21
2007: 21
2006: 27
2005: 34
2004: 32
2003: 26
2002: 38
2001: 27
2000: 32
1999: 52
1998: 54

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.029
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.06
1998: 0.07

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual long gun homicides total

2012: 69
2011: 3
2010: 1
2009: 3
2008: 2
2007: 3
2006: 5
2005: 4
2004: 7
2003: 5
2002: 11
2001: 4
2000: 8
1999: 10
1998: 8

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.019
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.01

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual gun homicides (other) total

2012: 359
2011: 33
2010: 35
2009: 35
2008: 34
2007: 35
2006: 33
2005: 51
2004: 59
2003: 54
2002: 57
2001: 53
2000: 61
1999: 93
1998: 64

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.049
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.07
1999: 0.11
1998: 0.08

Suicides (any method)

In Germany, annual suicides by any means total 1999: 11,16017

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1999: 13.5317
1994: 15.6418

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, annual firearm suicides total

2012: 69010
2011: 753
2010: 772
2009: 767
2008: 800
2007: 805
2006: 799
2005: 868
2004: 907
2003: 915
2002: 815
2001: 866
2000: 836
1999: 906
1998: 904

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.8410
2011: 0.92
2010: 0.94
2009: 0.94
2008: 0.97
2007: 0.98
2006: 0.97
2005: 1.05
2004: 1.1
2003: 1.11
2002: 0.99
2001: 1.05
2000: 1.02
1999: 1.1
1998: 1.1
1994: 1.1719

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, annual handgun suicides total

2012: 21610
2011: 237
2010: 238
2009: 253
2008: 217
2007: 242
2006: 246
2005: 241
2004: 248
2003: 263
2002: 245
2001: 258
2000: 246
1999: 258
1998: 274

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.2610
2011: 0.29
2010: 0.29
2009: 0.31
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.29
2006: 0.30
2005: 0.29
2004: 0.30
2003: 0.32
2002: 0.30
2001: 0.31
2000: 0.30
1999: 0.31
1998: 0.33

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, the number of long gun suicides is

2012: 5110
2011: 72
2010: 64
2009: 67
2008: 77
2007: 56
2006: 88
2005: 90
2004: 76
2003: 80
2002: 60
2001: 71
2000: 67
1999: 64
1998: 74

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0610
2011: 0.09
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.11
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.09
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.09

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual gun suicides (other) total

2012: 42310
2011: 444
2010: 470
2009: 447
2008: 506
2007: 507
2006: 465
2005: 537
2004: 583
2003: 572
2002: 510
2001: 537
2000: 523
1999: 584
1998: 556

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.5210
2011: 0.54
2010: 0.57
2009: 0.55
2008: 0.62
2007: 0.62
2006: 0.56
2005: 0.65
2004: 0.71
2003: 0.69
2002: 0.62
2001: 0.65
2000: 0.64
1999: 0.71
1998: 0.68

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2012: 611
2011: 11
2010: 13
2009: 14
2008: 15
2007: 8
2006: 14
2005: 8
2004: 13
2003: 17
2002: 18
2001: 20
2000: 23
1999: 16
1998: 13

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0111
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.02
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1994: 0.0420

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2012: 111
2011: 1
2010: 2
2009: 2
2008: 5
2007: 2
2006: 2
2004: 1
2003: 3
2002: 3
2001: 2
2000: 4
1999: 8
1998: 2

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0011
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.00

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2012: 211
2011: 2
2010: 4
2009: 6
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 3
2005: 3
2004: 5
2003: 3
2002: 2
2001: 6
2000: 3
1999: 3
1998: 4

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0011
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2012: 311
2011: 8
2010: 7
2009: 6
2008: 9
2007: 5
2006: 9
2005: 5
2004: 7
2003: 11
2002: 13
2001: 12
2000: 16
1999: 5
1998: 7

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0011
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.02
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.01

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 6212
2011: 60
2010: 67
2009: 80
2008: 81
2007: 87
2006: 75
2005: 79
2004: 127
2003: 105
2002: 122
2001: 132
2000: 152
1999: 124
1998: 121

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0812
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.10
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.11
2006: 0.09
2005: 0.10
2004: 0.15
2003: 0.13
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.16
2000: 0.19
1999: 0.15
1998: 0.15
1994: 0.1521

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 2012
2011: 11
2010: 26
2009: 23
2008: 24
2007: 25
2006: 32
2005: 34
2004: 59
2003: 28
2002: 45
2001: 47
2000: 76
1999: 41
1998: 37

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0212
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.09
1999: 0.05
1998: 0.05

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 612
2011: 2
2010: 4
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 5
2006: 9
2005: 4
2004: 5
2003: 8
2002: 7
2001: 7
2000: 7
1999: 3
1998: 8

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0112
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 3612
2011: 47
2010: 37
2009: 54
2008: 56
2007: 57
2006: 34
2005: 41
2004: 63
2003: 69
2002: 70
2001: 78
2000: 69
1999: 80
1998: 76

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0412
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.08
2002: 0.08
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.10
1998: 0.09

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Germany, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence22

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Germany is ranked 'medium'23 24

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Germany, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Germany is reported by Customs to be US$387,920,29835 (2011)36 37 38

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Germany is categorized as 'major'39 37

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Germany, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law22 40 30 31 32 33

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Germany is reported by Customs to be US$156,548,48435 (2011)41 42

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Germany, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law43 44 45

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, Germany was ranked at No. 246

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Germany is categorised as restrictive47 48

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Germany includes the Basic Law, War Weapons Control Act,49 the Weapons Act,50 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,51 52 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003,53 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms54

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Germany are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior55 and the Federal States,56 and the European Commission52

Right to Possess Firearms

In Germany, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law57

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Germany, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition58 59

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Germany, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited58 59

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Germany, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation60 61 59

Regulation of Handguns

In Germany, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation58 60 61 59

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Germany, only licensed gun owners62 63 58 60 64 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Germany are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection (in exceptional circumstances), security48 65 66

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Germany is 21 years67 66

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Germany must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental66 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Germany does not stipulate (unless reflected in a criminal record)3 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Germany, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required3 for a firearm licence

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Germany are permitted to possess a varied number of firearms dependent on type and intended use68 65 69

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Germany are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm70

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Germany, the law requires71 72 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Germany, licensed firearm dealers are required71 72 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Germany, licensed gun makers are required71 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Germany, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful22 73 74 61

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Germany include62 3 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Germany include75 76 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Germany include62 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Germany, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law77 78 79

Firearm Tracing

In Germany, state authorities carry out80 79 72 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Germany, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit (in exceptional circumstances)3

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Germany, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm81 is 10 years prison50

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Germany are known to have82 83 84 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In Germany, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 2,303,25282 83 84 (1990 - 2009)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Germany, it is state policy85 86 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Germany is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament87 88

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Germany is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Germany has submitted one or more national reports89 on its arms transfers

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

At the resumption of the most recent session of the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (UNCCPCJ), a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, Germany was listed as an elected member for a three-year term of office90

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200691 by Germany.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified92 by Germany

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified93 by Germany

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Germany committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects94

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Germany against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 595 96 97 98 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Germany has submitted one or more national reports99 100 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Germany, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated101 100

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Germany, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated101 100

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Germany submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent101 100

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated100 by Germany to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Germany has declared102 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Germany has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1973103

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists104 Germany as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

To see where Germany ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

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United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org.2014.‘Calculated Rates – Germany.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,30 June. (Q4238)Full Citation

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Gounev, Philip, Marko Hajdinjak and Janosch Witte.2006.‘Gun Ownership Levels.’ The Rifle Has the Devil Inside: Study on Gun Culture in South Eastern Europe.Belgrade:South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) / Centre for the Study of Democracy (CSD),22 June. (Q3918)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles: The largest military inventories.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q87)Full Citation

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WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Suicide in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,19 June. (Q6145)Full Citation

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WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Unintentional Gun Deaths in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,19 June. (Q6185)Full Citation

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WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,19 June. (Q6446)Full Citation

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WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

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