Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Switch Language

Germany — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Germany is 25,000,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Germany is 30.31 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Germany ranked at No. 42

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Germany ranked at No. 151

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Germany is reported to be 2,000,0003

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Germany is 2.444

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Germany is reported to be 7,200,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Germany is 8.734

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Germany there are estimated to be 17,000,0005

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Germany there are estimated to be 20.614 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Germany are reported to have 1,205,7256 to 3,100,0007 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Germany are reported to have 300,9678 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Germany, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2010: 9039

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Germany, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2010: 1.109

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 66210
2010: 690
2009: 706
2008: 722
2007: 757
2006: 808
2005: 869
2004: 868
2003: 859
2002: 955
2001: 925
2000: 1,015
1999: 1,020
1998: 998
1997: 1,265
1996: 1,382
1995: 1,406

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.810
2009: 0.9
2008: 0.9
2007: 0.9
2006: 1.0
2005: 1.1
2004: 1.1
2003: 1.0
2002: 1.2
2001: 1.1
2000: 1.2
1999: 1.2
1998: 1.2
1997: 1.5
1996: 1.7
1995: 1.7
1994: 1.1711

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 15810 12
2009: 188
2008: 171
2007: 186
2006: 214
2005: 230
2004: 247
2003: 277
2002: 269
2001: 331
2000: 384
1999: 414
1998: 402
1997: 55510
1996: 582
1995: 804

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.210 12
2009: 0.2
2008: 0.2
2007: 0.2
2006: 0.3
2005: 0.3
2004: 0.3
2003: 0.3
2002: 0.3
2001: 0.4
2000: 0.5
1999: 0.5
1998: 0.5
1997: 0.710
1996: 0.7
1995: 1.0
1994: 0.2213

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual handgun homicides total

2010: 1512
2009: 37
2008: 21
2007: 21
2006: 27
2005: 34
2004: 32
2003: 26
2002: 38
2001: 27
2000: 32
1999: 52
1998: 54

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0212
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.06
1998: 0.07

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual long gun homicides total

2010: 112
2009: 3
2008: 2
2007: 3
2006: 5
2005: 4
2004: 7
2003: 5
2002: 11
2001: 4
2000: 8
1999: 10
1998: 8

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0012
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.01

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual gun homicides (other) total

2010: 3512
2009: 35
2008: 34
2007: 35
2006: 33
2005: 51
2004: 59
2003: 54
2002: 57
2001: 53
2000: 61
1999: 93
1998: 64

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0412
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.07
1999: 0.11
1998: 0.08

Suicides (any method)

In Germany, annual suicides by any means total 1999: 11,16014

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1999: 13.5314
1994: 15.6415

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, annual firearm suicides total

2010: 77216
2009: 767
2008: 800
2007: 805
2006: 799
2005: 868
2004: 907
2003: 915
2002: 815
2001: 866
2000: 836
1999: 906
1998: 904

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.9416
2009: 0.94
2008: 0.97
2007: 0.98
2006: 0.97
2005: 1.05
2004: 1.1
2003: 1.11
2002: 0.99
2001: 1.05
2000: 1.02
1999: 1.1
1998: 1.1
1994: 1.1717

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, annual handgun suicides total

2010: 23816
2009: 253
2008: 217
2007: 242
2006: 246
2005: 241
2004: 248
2003: 263
2002: 245
2001: 258
2000: 246
1999: 258
1998: 274

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.2916
2009: 0.31
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.29
2006: 0.30
2005: 0.29
2004: 0.30
2003: 0.32
2002: 0.30
2001: 0.31
2000: 0.30
1999: 0.31
1998: 0.33

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, the number of long gun suicides is

2010: 6416
2009: 67
2008: 77
2007: 56
2006: 88
2005: 90
2004: 76
2003: 80
2002: 60
2001: 71
2000: 67
1999: 64
1998: 74

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0816
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.11
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.09
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.09

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual gun suicides (other) total

2010: 47016
2009: 447
2008: 506
2007: 507
2006: 465
2005: 537
2004: 583
2003: 572
2002: 510
2001: 537
2000: 523
1999: 584
1998: 556

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.5716
2009: 0.55
2008: 0.62
2007: 0.62
2006: 0.56
2005: 0.65
2004: 0.71
2003: 0.69
2002: 0.62
2001: 0.65
2000: 0.64
1999: 0.71
1998: 0.68

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2010: 1318
2009: 14
2008: 15
2007: 8
2006: 14
2005: 8
2004: 13
2003: 17
2002: 18
2001: 20
2000: 23
1999: 16
1998: 13

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0218
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.02
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1994: 0.0419

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2010: 218
2009: 2
2008: 5
2007: 2
2006: 2
2004: 1
2003: 3
2002: 3
2001: 2
2000: 4
1999: 8
1998: 2

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0018
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.00

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2010: 418
2009: 6
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 3
2005: 3
2004: 5
2003: 3
2002: 2
2001: 6
2000: 3
1999: 3
1998: 4

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0018
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2010: 718
2009: 6
2008: 9
2007: 5
2006: 9
2005: 5
2004: 7
2003: 11
2002: 13
2001: 12
2000: 16
1999: 5
1998: 7

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0118
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.02
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.01

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 6720
2009: 80
2008: 81
2007: 87
2006: 75
2005: 79
2004: 127
2003: 105
2002: 122
2001: 132
2000: 152
1999: 124
1998: 121

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0820
2009: 0.10
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.11
2006: 0.09
2005: 0.10
2004: 0.15
2003: 0.13
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.16
2000: 0.19
1999: 0.15
1998: 0.15
1994: 0.1521

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 2620
2009: 23
2008: 24
2007: 25
2006: 32
2005: 34
2004: 59
2003: 28
2002: 45
2001: 47
2000: 76
1999: 41
1998: 37

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0320
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.09
1999: 0.05
1998: 0.05

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 420
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 5
2006: 9
2005: 4
2004: 5
2003: 8
2002: 7
2001: 7
2000: 7
1999: 3
1998: 8

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0020
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 3720
2009: 54
2008: 56
2007: 57
2006: 34
2005: 41
2004: 63
2003: 69
2002: 70
2001: 78
2000: 69
1999: 80
1998: 76

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0520
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.08
2002: 0.08
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.10
1998: 0.09

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Germany, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence22

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Germany is ranked 'medium'23 24

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Germany, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Germany is reported by Customs to be US$387,920,29835 (2011)36 37

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Germany is categorized as 'major'38 37

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Germany, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law22 39 30 31 32 33

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Germany is reported by Customs to be US$156,548,48435 (2011)40

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Germany, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law41 42 43

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, Germany was ranked at No. 244

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Germany is categorised as restrictive45 46

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Germany includes the Basic Law, War Weapons Control Act,47 the Weapons Act,48 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,49 50 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003,51 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms52

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Germany are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior53 and the Federal States,54 and the European Commission50

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Germany, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition55 56

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Germany, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited55 56

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Germany, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation57 58 56

Regulation of Handguns

In Germany, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation55 57 58 56

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Germany, only licensed gun owners59 60 55 57 61 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Germany are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection (in exceptional circumstances), security46 62 63

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Germany is 21 years64 63

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Germany must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental63 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Germany does not stipulate (unless reflected in a criminal record)3 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Germany, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required3 for a firearm licence

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Germany are permitted to possess a varied number of firearms dependent on type and intended use65 62 66

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Germany are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm67

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Germany, the law requires68 69 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Germany, licensed firearm dealers are required68 69 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Germany, licensed gun makers are required68 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Germany, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful22 70 71 58

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Germany include59 3 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Germany include72 73 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Germany include59 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Germany, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law74 75 76

Firearm Tracing

In Germany, state authorities carry out77 76 69 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Germany, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit (in exceptional circumstances)3

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Germany, the maximum penalty for illicit firearm possession is 10 years prison48

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Germany are known to have78 79 80 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In Germany, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 2,303,25278 79 80 (1990 - 2009)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Germany, it is state policy81 82 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Germany is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament83 84

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Germany is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Germany has submitted one or more national reports85 on its arms transfers

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

At the resumption of the most recent session of the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (UNCCPCJ), a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, Germany was listed as an elected member for a three-year term of office86

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200687 by Germany.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified88 by Germany

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified89 by Germany

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Germany committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects90

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Germany has submitted one or more national reports91 92 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Germany, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated93 92

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Germany, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated93 92

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Germany submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent93 92

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated92 by Germany to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Germany has declared94 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Germany has been a Member State of the United Nations since 197395

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists96 Germany as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

To see where Germany ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

3.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

4.

GunPolicy.org.2011.‘Calculated Rates – Germany.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,17 March. (Q4238)Full Citation

5.

Gounev, Philip, Marko Hajdinjak and Janosch Witte.2006.‘Gun Ownership Levels.’ The Rifle Has the Devil Inside: Study on Gun Culture in South Eastern Europe.Belgrade:South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) / Centre for the Study of Democracy (CSD),22 June. (Q3918)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles: The largest military inventories.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q87)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

9.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

10.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Germany.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6214)Full Citation

11.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

12.

WHO.2012.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Homicide in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,23 February. (Q6106)Full Citation

13.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

14.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

15.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

16.

WHO.2012.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Suicide in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,27 February. (Q6145)Full Citation

17.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

18.

WHO.2012.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Unintentional Gun Deaths in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,9 March. (Q6185)Full Citation

19.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

20.

WHO.2012.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 June. (Q6446)Full Citation

21.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

22.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures – War Weapons.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1722)Full Citation

23.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

24.

Batchelor, Peter.2002.‘A Sick or Dying Industry? Products and Producers.’ Small Arms Survey 2002: Counting the Human Cost.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q2110)Full Citation

25.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1697)Full Citation

26.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1698)Full Citation

27.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls – Licenses.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1699)Full Citation

28.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls – Licenses.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1700)Full Citation

29.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls – Exemptions.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1701)Full Citation

30.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

31.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

32.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

33.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

34.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

35.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

36.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

37.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

38.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

39.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

40.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Importing States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,11 November. (Q5997)Full Citation

41.

Germany.2010.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1702)Full Citation

42.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

43.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

44.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

45.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

46.

Faltas, Sami, and Vera Chrobok.2004.‘Firearm Possession in Germany.’ Disposal of Surplus Small Arms: A survey of policies and practices in OSCE countries.Bonn:Bonn International Center for Conversion, BASIC, Saferworld, and the Small Arms Survey,1 January. (Q2137)Full Citation

47.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1690)Full Citation

48.

Germany.2010.‘Law Enforcement and Criminalisation.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1693)Full Citation

49.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

50.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

51.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

52.

UNGA.1969.‘Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks.’ Convention for the Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks on Small Arms of July 1, 1969.Brussels:United Nations General Assembly,1 July. (Q5999)Full Citation

53.

Germany.2010.‘National Coordination Agency.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1689)Full Citation

54.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures – War Weapons.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q2138)Full Citation

55.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

56.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

57.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

58.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

59.

US Army.2006.‘Acquisition and Possession of Privately Owned Firearms in Germany.’ US Army Family, Morale, Welfare and Recreation / FMWR.Heidelberg:United States Military Command Europe,3 January. (Q2140)Full Citation

60.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

61.

Craig Lord. 2009. ‘Strict German Gun Law Framed After 2002 School Massacre.’ Times (UK). 11 March. (N193) Full Citation

62.

US Army.2006.‘Acquisition and Possession of Privately Owned Firearms in Germany.’ US Army Family, Morale, Welfare and Recreation / FMWR.Heidelberg:United States Military Command Europe,3 January. (Q2141)Full Citation

63.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

64.

Fran Yeoman. 2009. ‘Germany Struggles with Gun Ownership Laws.’ Times (UK). 12 April. (N194) Full Citation

65.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms: National registration data: Solid but partial.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q2111)Full Citation

66.

US Army.2006.‘Acquisition and Possession of Privately Owned Firearms in Germany.’ US Army Family, Morale, Welfare and Recreation / FMWR.Heidelberg:United States Military Command Europe,3 January. (Q2142)Full Citation

67.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

68.

Germany.2010.‘Marking, Recordkeeping and Tracing – Registration.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1703)Full Citation

69.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

70.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures – War Weapons.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1723)Full Citation

71.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

72.

Germany.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1724)Full Citation

73.

Germany.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1725)Full Citation

74.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures – Manufacture.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1691)Full Citation

75.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures – Possession.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1692)Full Citation

76.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation

77.

Germany.2010.‘Marking, Recordkeeping and Tracing – Tracing.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1704)Full Citation

78.

Germany.2010.‘Collection and Disposal.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1695)Full Citation

79.

Germany.2010.‘Number of Federal Armed Forces Small Arms Destroyed in the Period 2005-2009.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1706)Full Citation

80.

Germany.2010.‘Analysis and Evaluation of Information Available to the Federal Criminal Police Bureau on Thefts, Losses and Seizures of SALW in 2009.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1705)Full Citation

81.

Germany.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security – Disposal.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1694)Full Citation

82.

Germany.2010.‘Collection and Disposal.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1696)Full Citation

83.

European Parliament.2007.‘Roll-call Vote: EU Firearms Directive.’ Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons.Brussels:VoteWatch.eu,29 November. (Q1346)Full Citation

84.

EU Parliament.2007.‘Draft Legislative Resolution on the EU Parliament Firearms Directive 2007.’ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.Brussels:European Parliament,12 July. (Q1970)Full Citation

85.

Saferworld.2010.‘EU Arms Transfer Reporting Database.’ Saferworld European Union Arms Transfer Reporting Database.London:Saferworld,9 December. (Q3364)Full Citation

86.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

87.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

88.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

89.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

90.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

91.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

92.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) – Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

93.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

94.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

95.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

96.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation