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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Germany — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Germany is 25,000,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Germany is 30.31 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Germany ranked at No. 42

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Germany ranked at No. 151

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Germany, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2004/05: 12.5%3
1989: 9.2%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Germany, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2004/05: 4.2%3
1989: 6.7%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Germany is reported to be

2016: 2,310,0004 5 6
1999: 2,000,0007

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Germany is

2016: 2.868
1999: 2.44

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Germany is reported to be

2016: 5,830,0004 5
2005: 7,200,0001

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Germany is

2016: 7.228
2005: 8.73

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Germany there are estimated to be 20,000,0005 9

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Germany there are estimated to be 30.05 8 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Germany are reported to have 1,205,725 to 3,139,50010 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Germany are reported to have 300,96711 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 82012 13 14 15
2013: 926
2012: 81912 13 14 15 16
2011: 87812 13 14 15
2010: 90317
2009: 93612 13 14 15
2008: 953
2007: 959
2006: 953
2005: 1,044
2004: 1,145
2003: 1,122
2002: 1,061
2001: 1,102
2000: 1,112
1999: 1,201
1998: 1,164

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.018
2013: 1.14
2012: 1.018 16
2011: 1.088
2010: 1.1017
2009: 1.148
2008: 1.16
2007: 1.17
2006: 1.16
2005: 1.27
2004: 1.39
2003: 1.36
2002: 1.29
2001: 1.34
2000: 1.35
1999: 1.46
1998: 1.42

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 66218 19 20
2010: 69018 19
2009: 706
2008: 722
2007: 757
2006: 808
2005: 869
2004: 868
2003: 859
2002: 955
2001: 925
2000: 1,015
1999: 1,02019
1998: 998
1997: 1,265
1996: 1,382
1995: 1,406

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.818 20
2010: 0.818 19
2009: 0.8
2008: 0.9
2007: 0.9
2006: 1.0
2005: 1.0
2004: 1.0
2003: 1.0
2002: 1.1
2001: 1.1
2000: 1.2
1999: 1.219
1998: 1.2
1997: 1.5
1996: 1.7
1995: 1.7
1994: 1.1721

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 575
2014: 4212
2013: 54
2012: 6112 16
2011: 5412
2010: 5112 19
2009: 75
2008: 57
2007: 59
2006: 6512 18 19
2005: 89
2004: 9812 19
2003: 85
2002: 106
2001: 84
2000: 101
1999: 155
1998: 126
1997: 55519
1996: 582
1995: 804

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0512
2013: 0.07
2012: 0.0712 16
2011: 0.0712
2010: 0.0612 19
2009: 0.09
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.0812 8 19
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.1212 19
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.13
2001: 0.10
2000: 0.12
1999: 0.19
1998: 0.15
1997: 0.719
1996: 0.7
1995: 1.0
1994: 0.2222

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Germany, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 13%20
2010: 26.3%19
2009: 29.9%
2008: 26.1%
2007: 26.9%
2006: 24%18
2005: 24%
2004: 30.5%19
2003: 33.8%
2002: 29.4%
2001: 38.1%
2000: 40.0%
1999: 41.2%
1998: 41.2%
1997: 47.1%
1996: 46.6%
1995: 58.6%

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 1512
2013: 29
2012: 20
2011: 18
2010: 15
2009: 37
2008: 21
2007: 21
2006: 27
2005: 34
2004: 32
2003: 26
2002: 38
2001: 27
2000: 32
1999: 52
1998: 54

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0212
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.06
1998: 0.07

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual long gun homicides total

2014: 212
2013: 4
2012: 6
2011: 3
2010: 1
2009: 3
2008: 2
2007: 3
2006: 5
2005: 4
2004: 7
2003: 5
2002: 11
2001: 4
2000: 8
1999: 10
1998: 8

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0012
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.01

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 2512
2013: 21
2012: 35
2011: 33
2010: 35
2009: 35
2008: 34
2007: 35
2006: 33
2005: 51
2004: 59
2003: 54
2002: 57
2001: 53
2000: 61
1999: 93
1998: 64

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0312
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.07
1999: 0.11
1998: 0.08

Suicides (any method)

In Germany, annual suicides by any means total

1999: 11,16023

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1999: 13.5323
1994: 15.6424

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 71913
2013: 795
2012: 69013 16
2011: 75313
2010: 772
2009: 767
2008: 800
2007: 805
2006: 799
2005: 868
2004: 907
2003: 915
2002: 815
2001: 866
2000: 836
1999: 906
1998: 904

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.8913
2013: 0.99
2012: 0.8413 16
2011: 0.9213
2010: 0.94
2009: 0.94
2008: 0.97
2007: 0.98
2006: 0.97
2005: 1.05
2004: 1.1
2003: 1.11
2002: 0.99
2001: 1.05
2000: 1.02
1999: 1.1
1998: 1.1
1994: 1.1725

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 20313
2013: 280
2012: 216
2011: 237
2010: 238
2009: 253
2008: 217
2007: 242
2006: 246
2005: 241
2004: 248
2003: 263
2002: 245
2001: 258
2000: 246
1999: 258
1998: 274

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2513
2013: 0.35
2012: 0.26
2011: 0.29
2010: 0.29
2009: 0.31
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.29
2006: 0.30
2005: 0.29
2004: 0.30
2003: 0.32
2002: 0.30
2001: 0.31
2000: 0.30
1999: 0.31
1998: 0.33

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 5213
2013: 62
2012: 51
2011: 72
2010: 64
2009: 67
2008: 77
2007: 56
2006: 88
2005: 90
2004: 76
2003: 80
2002: 60
2001: 71
2000: 67
1999: 64
1998: 74

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0613
2013: 0.08
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.09
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.11
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.09
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.09

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 46413
2013: 453
2012: 423
2011: 444
2010: 470
2009: 447
2008: 506
2007: 507
2006: 465
2005: 537
2004: 583
2003: 572
2002: 510
2001: 537
2000: 523
1999: 584
1998: 556

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.5713
2013: 0.56
2012: 0.52
2011: 0.54
2010: 0.57
2009: 0.55
2008: 0.62
2007: 0.62
2006: 0.56
2005: 0.65
2004: 0.71
2003: 0.69
2002: 0.62
2001: 0.65
2000: 0.64
1999: 0.71
1998: 0.68

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 214
2013: 12
2012: 614 16
2011: 1114
2010: 13
2009: 14
2008: 15
2007: 8
2006: 14
2005: 8
2004: 13
2003: 17
2002: 18
2001: 20
2000: 23
1999: 16
1998: 13

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0014
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.02
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1994: 0.0426

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2013: 114
2012: 1
2011: 1
2010: 2
2009: 2
2008: 5
2007: 2
2006: 2
2004: 1
2003: 3
2002: 3
2001: 2
2000: 4
1999: 8
1998: 2

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0014
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.00

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2013: 214
2012: 2
2011: 2
2010: 4
2009: 6
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 3
2005: 3
2004: 5
2003: 3
2002: 2
2001: 6
2000: 3
1999: 3
1998: 4

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0014
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2014: 214
2013: 9
2012: 3
2011: 8
2010: 7
2009: 6
2008: 9
2007: 5
2006: 9
2005: 5
2004: 7
2003: 11
2002: 13
2001: 12
2000: 16
1999: 5
1998: 7

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0014
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.02
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.01

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 5715
2013: 65
2012: 6215 16
2011: 6015
2010: 67
2009: 80
2008: 81
2007: 87
2006: 75
2005: 79
2004: 127
2003: 105
2002: 122
2001: 132
2000: 152
1999: 124
1998: 121

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0715
2013: 0.08
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.10
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.11
2006: 0.09
2005: 0.10
2004: 0.15
2003: 0.13
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.16
2000: 0.19
1999: 0.15
1998: 0.15
1994: 0.1527

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 1915
2013: 16
2012: 20
2011: 11
2010: 26
2009: 23
2008: 24
2007: 25
2006: 32
2005: 34
2004: 59
2003: 28
2002: 45
2001: 47
2000: 76
1999: 41
1998: 37

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0215
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.09
1999: 0.05
1998: 0.05

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 615
2013: 4
2012: 6
2011: 2
2010: 4
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 5
2006: 9
2005: 4
2004: 5
2003: 8
2002: 7
2001: 7
2000: 7
1999: 3
1998: 8

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0115
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 3215
2013: 45
2012: 36
2011: 47
2010: 37
2009: 54
2008: 56
2007: 57
2006: 34
2005: 41
2004: 63
2003: 69
2002: 70
2001: 78
2000: 69
1999: 80
1998: 76

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0415
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.08
2002: 0.08
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.10
1998: 0.09

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Germany, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence28 29

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Germany was ranked 'medium'30 31

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Germany, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Germany is reported by Customs to be US$387,920,29842 (2011)43 44 45 46 47

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Germany was categorized as 'major'48 49 50 51 47 52

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Germany, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law28 53 37 38 39 40

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Germany is reported by Customs to be US$156,548,48442 (2011)54 48 55 56 50 57 58 59

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Germany, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law60 61 62

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Germany scored

2016: 19.7563
2014: 19.7564
2013: 20.5065
2012: 18.5066
2011: 18.7567
2010: 18.2568
2009: 18.0069
2008: 17.2570
2007: 17.2571
2006: 16.7572
2005: 17.2573
2004: 17.0074

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Germany is categorised as restrictive75 76

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Germany includes the Basic Law (War Weapons Control Act),77 the Weapons Act of 2002,78 79 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,80 81 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003,82 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms83

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Germany are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior84 and the Federal States,85 and the European Commission81

Right to Possess Firearms

In Germany, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law86 87 4 5

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Germany, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition88 89

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Germany, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited5 88 89 20

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Germany, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation5 90 91 89

Regulation of Handguns

In Germany, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation88 90 91 89 20

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Germany, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law20

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Germany, only licensed gun owners92 5 93 88 90 94 20 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Germany are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection and security5 76 95 96 4

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Germany is 18 years5 96 4

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Germany must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and addiction5 4 96 20 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Germany does not stipulate (unless reflected in a criminal record)7 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Germany, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required5 for a firearm licence

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Germany are permitted to possess one firearm per licence5 95 97

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Germany are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm98

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Germany, the law requires99 100 4 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Germany, licensed firearm dealers are required99 100 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Germany, licensed gun makers are required99 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Germany, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful28 101 29 102 91

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Germany include92 4 5 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Germany include103 104 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Germany include92 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Germany, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law105 106 107 108

Firearm Tracing

In Germany, state authorities carry out109 107 100 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Germany, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law5 20

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Germany, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm110 is 10 years in prison79 29 111

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Germany are known to have112 113 114 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Germany, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be 43,543115 (2010-2013) 4

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Germany, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

1991/2004: 1,781,696116
1990/2009: 2,303,252112 113 114

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Germany, it is state policy117 118 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Germany is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament119 120

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Germany is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Germany has submitted one or more national reports121 on its arms transfers

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists122 Germany as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006123 by Germany.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified124 by Germany

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified125 by Germany

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Germany committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects126

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Germany against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 5127 128 129 130 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Germany has submitted one or more national reports131 132 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Germany, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated133 132

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Germany, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated133 132

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Germany submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent133 132

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated132 by Germany to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Germany has declared134 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Germany has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1973135

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists136 Germany as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

To see where Germany ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

3.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11801)Full Citation

4.

Erik Kirschbaum. 2016. ‘After its Own Mass Shootings, Germany Beefed Up Gun Control Laws. The Number of Shootings Dropped..’ Los Angeles Times. 15 June. (N636) Full Citation

5.

Emma Anderson. 2016. ‘Five Things to Know About Guns in Germany.’ Local (Germany). 16 June. (N637) Full Citation

6.

John Miller, Caroline Copley, Violette Goarant, Matthias Blamont, Michel Rose, Giled Elgood, Francois Murphy. 2016. ‘Ownership of Guns, Scare Devices in Europe.’ Reuters. 23 August. (N665) Full Citation

7.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

8.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Germany.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,1 August. (Q4238)Full Citation

9.

Gounev, Philip, Marko Hajdinjak and Janosch Witte.2006.‘Gun Ownership Levels.’ The Rifle Has the Devil Inside: Study on Gun Culture in South Eastern Europe.Belgrade:South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) / Centre for the Study of Democracy (CSD),22 June. (Q3918)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

11.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

12.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,14 July. (Q6106)Full Citation

13.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,14 July. (Q6145)Full Citation

14.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,14 July. (Q6185)Full Citation

15.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Germany.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,14 July. (Q6446)Full Citation

16.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

17.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Germany.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10341)Full Citation

19.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Germany.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6214)Full Citation

20.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Germany.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9494)Full Citation

21.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

22.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

23.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

24.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

25.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

26.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

27.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

28.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures - War Weapons.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1722)Full Citation

29.

European Commission.2014.‘Germany.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12318)Full Citation

30.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

31.

Batchelor, Peter.2002.‘A Sick or Dying Industry? Products and Producers.’ Small Arms Survey 2002: Counting the Human Cost.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q2110)Full Citation

32.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1697)Full Citation

33.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1698)Full Citation

34.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls - Licenses.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1699)Full Citation

35.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls - Licenses.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1700)Full Citation

36.

Germany.2010.‘Export Controls and Brokering Controls - Exemptions.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1701)Full Citation

37.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

38.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

39.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

40.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

41.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

42.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

43.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

44.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

45.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

46.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

47.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

48.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11068)Full Citation

49.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

50.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Major Exporters and Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11036)Full Citation

51.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

52.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

53.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

54.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Imports per Top Importer and for All Importers, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11072)Full Citation

55.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

56.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

57.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

58.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

59.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Importing States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 November. (Q5997)Full Citation

60.

Germany.2010.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1702)Full Citation

61.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

62.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

63.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

64.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

65.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

66.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

67.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

68.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

69.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

70.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

71.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

72.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

73.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

74.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

75.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

76.

Faltas, Sami, and Vera Chrobok.2004.‘Firearm Possession in Germany.’ Disposal of Surplus Small Arms: A survey of policies and practices in OSCE countries.Bonn:Bonn International Center for Conversion, BASIC, Saferworld, and the Small Arms Survey,1 January. (Q2137)Full Citation

77.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1690)Full Citation

78.

European Commission.2014.‘Weapons Act - Germany.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12340)Full Citation

79.

Germany.2010.‘Law Enforcement and Criminalisation.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1693)Full Citation

80.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

81.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

82.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

83.

UNGA.1969.‘Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks.’ Convention for the Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks on Small Arms of July 1, 1969.Brussels:United Nations General Assembly,1 July. (Q5999)Full Citation

84.

Germany.2010.‘National Coordination Agency.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1689)Full Citation

85.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures - War Weapons.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q2138)Full Citation

86.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

87.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

88.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

89.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

90.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

91.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

92.

US Army.2006.‘Acquisition and Possession of Privately Owned Firearms in Germany.’ US Army Family, Morale, Welfare and Recreation / FMWR.Heidelberg:United States Military Command Europe,3 January. (Q2140)Full Citation

93.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

94.

Craig Lord. 2009. ‘Strict German Gun Law Framed After 2002 School Massacre.’ Times (UK). 11 March. (N193) Full Citation

95.

US Army.2006.‘Acquisition and Possession of Privately Owned Firearms in Germany.’ US Army Family, Morale, Welfare and Recreation / FMWR.Heidelberg:United States Military Command Europe,3 January. (Q2141)Full Citation

96.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

97.

US Army.2006.‘Acquisition and Possession of Privately Owned Firearms in Germany.’ US Army Family, Morale, Welfare and Recreation / FMWR.Heidelberg:United States Military Command Europe,3 January. (Q2142)Full Citation

98.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

99.

Germany.2010.‘Marking, Recordkeeping and Tracing - Registration.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1703)Full Citation

100.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

101.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures - War Weapons.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1723)Full Citation

102.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

103.

Germany.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1724)Full Citation

104.

Germany.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1725)Full Citation

105.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures - Manufacture.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1691)Full Citation

106.

Germany.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations and Administrative Procedures - Possession.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1692)Full Citation

107.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation

108.

European Commission.2014.‘Marking Requirement in National Illicit Firearms Trafficking Legislation.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12315)Full Citation

109.

Germany.2010.‘Marking, Recordkeeping and Tracing - Tracing.’ National Report of Germany on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations,22 February. (Q1704)Full Citation

110.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

111.

European Commission.2014.‘Sanctions.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12307)Full Citation

112.

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