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France — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in France is 19,000,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in France is 31.21 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, France ranked at No. 52

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, France ranked at No. 121

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in France is reported to be 2,802,0572

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in France is 4.453

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of France are reported to have 1,300,0004 5 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in France are reported to have 217,7476 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In France, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2009: 1,8647

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In France, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2009: 3.007

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn France, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 7438
2010: 675
2009: 682
2008: 839
2007: 826
2006: 879
2005: 976
2004: 990
2003: 987
2002: 1,119
2001: 1,046
2000: 1,051
1999: 953
1998: 961
1997: 9638 9
1996: 1,171
1995: 1,336

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn France, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 1.28
2010: 1.1
2009: 1.1
2008: 1.4
2007: 1.3
2006: 1.4
2005: 1.6
2004: 1.6
2003: 1.6
2002: 1.9
2001: 1.8
2000: 1.8
1999: 1.6
1998: 1.6
1997: 1.7
1996: 2.0
1995: 2.3
1994: 1.1210

Gun Homicides

ChartIn France, annual firearm homicides total

2009: 13411
2008: 142
2007: 9911 8
2006: 11111
2005: 124
2004: 132
2003: 123
2002: 156
2001: 163
2000: 155
1999: 155
1998: 170
1997: 214

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.2211
2008: 0.23
2007: 0.1611 8
2006: 0.1811
2005: 0.2
2004: 0.22
2003: 0.2
2002: 0.26
2001: 0.28
2000: 0.26
1999: 0.26
1998: 0.29
1997: 0.37
1994: 0.4412

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn France, annual handgun homicides total

2005: 111
2003: 2
2001: 1
2000: 2

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2005: 0.0011
2003: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn France, annual long gun homicides total

2009: 611
2008: 7
2007: 5
2006: 5
2005: 9
2004: 7
2003: 11
2002: 11
2001: 9
2000: 11

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0111
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.02
2000: 0.02

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn France, annual gun homicides (other) total

2009: 12811
2008: 135
2007: 94
2006: 106
2005: 114
2004: 125
2003: 110
2002: 145
2001: 153
2000: 142

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.2111
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.15
2006: 0.17
2005: 0.19
2004: 0.21
2003: 0.18
2002: 0.24
2001: 0.26
2000: 0.24

Suicides (any method)

In France, annual suicides by any means total 1998: 10,53413

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn France, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1998: 17.5113
1994: 20.7914

Gun Suicides

ChartIn France, annual firearm suicides total

2009: 1,44615
2008: 1,548
2007: 1,406
2006: 1,578
2005: 1,653
2004: 1,604
2003: 1,742
2002: 1,713
2001: 1,887
2000: 2,053
1999: 2,029
1998: 2,386
1997: 2,556

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 2.3315
2008: 2.49
2007: 2.27
2006: 2.56
2005: 2.71
2004: 2.65
2003: 2.9
2002: 2.87
2001: 3.19
2000: 3.49
1999: 3.46
1998: 4.05
1997: 4.36
1994: 5.1416

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn France, annual handgun suicides total

2009: 1615
2008: 16
2007: 12
2006: 13
2005: 17
2004: 10
2003: 9
2002: 14
2001: 17
2000: 21

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0315
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.04

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn France, the number of long gun suicides is

2009: 9715
2008: 96
2007: 108
2006: 111
2005: 126
2004: 116
2003: 153
2002: 150
2001: 161
2000: 203

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.1615
2008: 0.15
2007: 0.17
2006: 0.18
2005: 0.21
2004: 0.19
2003: 0.25
2002: 0.25
2001: 0.27
2000: 0.34

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn France, annual gun suicides (other) total

2009: 1,33315
2008: 1,436
2007: 1,286
2006: 1,454
2005: 1,510
2004: 1,478
2003: 1,580
2002: 1,549
2001: 1,709
2000: 1,829

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 2.1515
2008: 2.31
2007: 2.08
2006: 2.36
2005: 2.48
2004: 2.44
2003: 2.63
2002: 2.60
2001: 2.89
2000: 3.11

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn France, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2009: 2917
2008: 40
2007: 32
2006: 53
2005: 36
2004: 19
2003: 26
2002: 19
2001: 33
2000: 43
1999: 100
1998: 68
1997: 86

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0517
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.09
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.07
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.12
1997: 0.15
1994: 0.1118

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn France, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2009: 1217
2008: 14
2007: 8
2006: 13
2005: 20
2004: 8
2003: 23
2002: 13
2001: 25
2000: 25

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0217
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.04

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn France, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2009: 1717
2008: 26
2007: 24
2006: 40
2005: 16
2004: 11
2003: 3
2002: 6
2001: 8
2000: 18

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0317
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.03

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2009: 25519
2008: 226
2007: 299
2006: 299
2005: 292
2004: 308
2003: 372
2002: 331
2001: 257
2000: 228
1998: 34013

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.4119
2008: 0.36
2007: 0.48
2006: 0.49
2005: 0.48
2004: 0.51
2003: 0.62
2002: 0.55
2001: 0.43
2000: 0.39
1998: 0.5713
1994: 0.6520

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2007: 219
2003: 1
2002: 5
2001: 1
2000: 3

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2007: 0.0019
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2009: 2319
2008: 10
2007: 29
2006: 28
2005: 28
2004: 32
2003: 33
2002: 33
2001: 27
2000: 20

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0419
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.05
2003: 0.05
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.03

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2009: 23219
2008: 216
2007: 267
2006: 271
2005: 264
2004: 276
2003: 338
2002: 293
2001: 229
2000: 205

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.3719
2008: 0.35
2007: 0.43
2006: 0.44
2005: 0.43
2004: 0.46
2003: 0.56
2002: 0.49
2001: 0.39
2000: 0.35

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In France, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, France is ranked 'medium'35

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In France, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from France is reported by Customs to be US$71,435,16383 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, France is categorized as 'mid-level'84

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In France, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law85 86 87 38 39 40 88 89 90 46 91 37 92 93 94 95 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to France is reported by Customs to be US$139,034,02783 (2011)96

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in France is moderate97 98

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In France, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law22 99 100 101 102 103

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in France include41 43 44 45 47 76 78 80 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, France was ranked at No. 16104

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in France is categorised as restrictive105

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in France includes the Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995 on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939 on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition,106 the Defence Code,107 the Order of November 15, 2000 on Modalities for Destruction by Gunsmiths of Firearms,108 the Order of October 2, 1992 on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials,109 and the Ordinance 2004-1374 of 20 December 2004 concerning the legislative part of the Defence Code that repealed the Decree-Law of 18 April, 1939 on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition,110 [Legislative changes approved in February, 2012 will be described here once enacted] the Council Directive of 18 June, 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,111 112 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003113 and the Convention of 1 July, 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms114

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in France are regulated by the Ministers of Defence,115 Interior, Industry, Customs,28 Youth,116 Sports,117 the Prefect,118 Police and Gendarmerie,22 and the European Commission112

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In France, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition119 120 121 122

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In France, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited with only narrow exemptions123 124 125 117 126 121 122

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In France, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited with only narrow exemptions123 124 125 117 126 127 128 122

Regulation of Handguns

In France, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited with only narrow exemptions123 124 125 117 126 129 116 121 127 128 122

Gun Ownership and Possession

In France, only licensed gun owners (for certain arms)123 124 125 117 126 129 116 130 131 132 133 134 36 135 136 137 138 139 89 140 141 40 142 41 46 119 120 143 121 127 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in France are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, hunting, target shooting, personal protection, security124 117 129 116 130 144

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in France is 18 years117 129 133 145 146 144

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in France must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental and health123 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 34 144 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In France, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required154 155

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In France, licensing authorities are not required154 155 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in France does not stipulate154 155 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In France gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three to five years156 157 142 41

Licensing Records

In France, authorities maintain a record131 123 158 159 100 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in France are permitted to possess a limited number of firearms117 129

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in France are permitted to possess a limited quantity of ammunition160 161

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In France, the law requires131 100 162 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In France, licensed firearm dealers are required99 163 164 165 100 162 166 167 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In France, licensed gun makers are required99 163 100 166 167 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In France, State agencies are required168 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In France, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted136 137 169 170 32 33 171 172 173

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In France, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful22 174 23 24 25 26 27 136 137 29 30 32 33 34 175 128

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In France, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined154 155

Regulation of Gun Shows

In France, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated176 32 33 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in France include138 177 178 179 180 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in France include181 176 182 183 184 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in France include168 185 186 187 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in France include188 189 190 37 191 192 193 194 39 195 196 197 198 199 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In France, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law200 201 202 203 204

Firearm Tracing

In France, state authorities carry out205 203 204 162 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In France, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited206 207 208 209 210 211 212

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In France, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit206 207 208 209 210 211 212

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In France, the maximum penalty for illicit firearm possession is 7 years prison and a fine213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 145 146 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in France are known to have98 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In France, it is not state policy232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, France is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament245 246

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, France is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that France has submitted one or more national reports247 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006248 by France.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified249 by France

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed250 by France

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, France committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects251

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, France has submitted one or more national reports252 253 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In France, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated254 253

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In France, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated254

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of France submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent253

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated253 by France to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, France has declared255 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, France has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945256

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists257 France as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in France, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where France ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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25.

France.1995.‘Article 11 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5875)Full Citation

26.

France.1995.‘Article 17 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5882)Full Citation

27.

France.1995.‘Article 18 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5883)Full Citation

28.

France.1995.‘Article 19 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5884)Full Citation

29.

France.2011.‘Article L. 2332-1 - Manufacturers and Dealers (Entreprises de fabrication ou de commerce).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,16 September. (Q5870)Full Citation

30.

France.2012.‘Article L. 2332-1 - Manufacturers and Dealers (Entreprises de fabrication ou de commerce).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,2 April. (Q6121)Full Citation

31.

France.2011.‘Article L. 2332-1-1 - Manufacturers and Dealers (Entreprises de fabrication ou de commerce).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,16 September. (Q6014)Full Citation

32.

France.2011.‘Article L. 2332-2 - Manufacturers and Dealers (Entreprises de fabrication ou de commerce).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,16 September. (Q6001)Full Citation

33.

France.2012.‘Article L. 2332-2 - Manufacturers and Dealers (Entreprises de fabrication ou de commerce).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,2 April. (Q6123)Full Citation

34.

France.2011.‘Article L. 2332-11 - Manufacturers and Dealers (Entreprises de fabrication ou de commerce).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,16 September. (Q6007)Full Citation

35.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

36.

France.1995.‘Article 46-3 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5910)Full Citation

37.

France.1995.‘Article 62 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5932)Full Citation

38.

France.1995.‘Article 79 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5945)Full Citation

39.

France.1995.‘Article 80 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5947)Full Citation

40.

France.1995.‘Article 86 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5952)Full Citation

41.

France.1995.‘Article 87 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5954)Full Citation

42.

France.1995.‘Article 89 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5956)Full Citation

43.

France.1995.‘Article 90 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5955)Full Citation

44.

France.1995.‘Article 92 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5959)Full Citation

45.

France.1995.‘Article 93 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5958)Full Citation

46.

France.1995.‘Article 99 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5963)Full Citation

47.

France.1995.‘Article 101 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5965)Full Citation

48.

France.2011.‘Article L. 2335-2 - Imports and Exports (Importations et exportations).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,16 September. (Q5877)Full Citation

49.

France.2011.‘Article L. 2335-3 - Imports and Exports (Importations et exportations).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,16 September. (Q5878)Full Citation

50.

France.2012.‘Article L. 2335-3 - Imports and Exports (Importations et exportations).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,2 April. (Q6125)Full Citation

51.

France.1992.‘Article 3 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6031)Full Citation

52.

France.1992.‘Article 4 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6032)Full Citation

53.

France.1992.‘Article 5 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6033)Full Citation

54.

France.1992.‘Article 6 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6034)Full Citation

55.

France.1992.‘Article 6-1 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6035)Full Citation

56.

France.1992.‘Article 7 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6036)Full Citation

57.

France.1992.‘Article 8 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6037)Full Citation

58.

France.1992.‘Article 8-1 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6038)Full Citation

59.

France.1992.‘Article 8-2 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6039)Full Citation

60.

France.1992.‘Article 9 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6040)Full Citation

61.

France.1992.‘Article 10 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6041)Full Citation

62.

France.1992.‘Article 11 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6042)Full Citation

63.

France.1992.‘Article 12 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6043)Full Citation

64.

France.1992.‘Article 12 bis - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6044)Full Citation

65.

France.1992.‘Article 13 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6045)Full Citation

66.

France.1992.‘Article 14 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6046)Full Citation

67.

France.1992.‘Article 17 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6047)Full Citation

68.

France.1992.‘Article 18 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6048)Full Citation

69.

France.1992.‘Article 19 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6049)Full Citation

70.

France.1992.‘Article 20 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6050)Full Citation

71.

France.1992.‘Article 21 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6051)Full Citation

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France.1992.‘Article 27 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6057)Full Citation

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France.1992.‘Article 28 - Arrêté du 2 octobre 1992 relatif à la procédure d'importation, d'exportation et de transfert des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions et des matériels assimilés.’ Order of October 2, 1992, on Import, Export and Transfer Procedure of Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition and Similar Materials.Paris:Ministers of the French Republic,2 October. (Q6058)Full Citation

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European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

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European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

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European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

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111.

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European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

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117.

France.1995.‘Article 28 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5892)Full Citation

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119.

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120.

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France.1995.‘Article 23 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5889)Full Citation

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125.

France.1995.‘Article 27 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5891)Full Citation

126.

France.1995.‘Article 30 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5894)Full Citation

127.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

128.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

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130.

France.1995.‘Article 39 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5900)Full Citation

131.

France.1995.‘Article 41 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5904)Full Citation

132.

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France.1995.‘Article 46-1 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5908)Full Citation

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France.1995.‘Article 47 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5911)Full Citation

136.

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137.

France.1995.‘Article 47-3 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5914)Full Citation

138.

France.1995.‘Article 48-1 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5915)Full Citation

139.

France.1995.‘Article 81 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5948)Full Citation

140.

France.1995.‘Article 82 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5950)Full Citation

141.

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142.

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143.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

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European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

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France.2011.‘Article L. 2339-2 and 2339-3 - Criminal Provisions (Dispositions pénales).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,16 September. (Q6008)Full Citation

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148.

France.1995.‘Article 47-2 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5913)Full Citation

149.

France.2011.‘Article L. 2336-3 - Purchase and Possession (Acquisition et détention).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,16 September. (Q5899)Full Citation

150.

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France.1995.‘Article 71-7 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5941)Full Citation

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171.

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France.2011.‘Article L. 2337-1 - Storage, Loss and Transfer of Property (Conservation, perte et transfert de propriété).’ Defence Code (Code de la Défense).Paris:President of the French Republic,16 September. (Q6004)Full Citation

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France.1995.‘Article 60 – Décret No 95-589 du 6 mai 1995 relatif à l'application du décret du 18 avril 1939 fixant le régime des matériels de guerre, armes et munitions.’ Decree No 95-589 of May 6, 1995, on the Implementation of the Decree of April 18, 1939, on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition.Paris:Prime Minister of the French Republic,6 May. (Q5930)Full Citation

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