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Finland — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Finland is

2012: 1,555,1001
2009: 1,738,0002 3 4
2005: 2,400,0005

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Finland is

2012: 29.001
2009: 32.616 7 4
2005: 45.75

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Finland, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 665,0008

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Finland, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 600,0009

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Finland, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 250,00010 1

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Finland ranked at No. 3311

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Finland ranked at No. 45

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 37.9%12
1999/2003: 23.7%
1995/98: 28.8%
1992: 25.2%13
1992/94: 25.4%12
1989: 25.5%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Finland, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 14.6%13

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Finland, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 18.4%13

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 6.3%12
1999/2003: 6.4%
1995/98: 6.0%
1992/94: 6.3%12 13
1989: 7.2%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Finland is reported to be 672,77214 15

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Finland is 12.626

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Finland is reported to be 1,580,00016

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Finland is 3017

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Finland there are estimated to be 158,0002 18 4

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Finland the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be 2.966

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Finland are reported to have 531,00019 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Finland are reported to have 18,99520 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 6921 22 23 24
2013: 7221 22 24
2012: 15721 22 23 25
2011: 18421 22 23
2010: 19526
2009: 20621 22 24
2008: 238
2007: 19721 22 23 24
2006: 206
2005: 184
2004: 253
2003: 255
2002: 229
2001: 270
2000: 23521 22 27 24
1999: 31321 22 23 24
1998: 295
1997: 346
1996: 323

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.276
2013: 1.33
2012: 2.906 25
2011: 3.426
2010: 3.6426
2009: 3.866
2008: 4.49
2007: 3.73
2006: 3.92
2005: 3.51
2004: 4.85
2003: 4.90
2002: 4.41
2001: 5.21
2000: 4.55
1999: 6.07
1998: 5.73
1997: 6.74
1996: 6.31

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 8928
2011: 11428 29 30
2010: 11628 29
2009: 120
2008: 133
2007: 130
2006: 119
2005: 117
2004: 146
2003: 105
2002: 132
2001: 156
2000: 148
1999: 14329
1998: 113
1997: 13929 31
1996: 153
1995: 146

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 1.628
2011: 2.128 29 30
2010: 2.228 29
2009: 2.2
2008: 2.5
2007: 2.5
2006: 2.3
2005: 2.2
2004: 2.8
2003: 2.0
2002: 2.5
2001: 3.0
2000: 2.9
1999: 2.829
1998: 2.2
1997: 2.7
1996: 3.0
1995: 2.9
1994: 3.2432

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 1121
2013: 15
2012: 1621 28 25
2011: 1821 28
2010: 14
2009: 2221 28 29
2008: 30
2007: 23
2006: 17
2005: 11
2004: 3021 29
2003: 18
2002: 2021
2001: 30
2000: 32
1999: 33
1998: 2221 29
1997: 4021
1996: 34

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2021
2013: 0.28
2012: 0.3021 6 25
2011: 0.3321 6
2010: 0.26
2009: 0.4121 6 29
2008: 0.56
2007: 0.43
2006: 0.32
2005: 0.21
2004: 0.5721 29
2003: 0.35
2002: 0.3821
2001: 0.58
2000: 0.62
1999: 0.64
1998: 0.4321 29
1997: 0.7821
1996: 0.66
1994: 0.8633

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 19%28
2011: 14%28 30
2010: 12%28
2009: 20%28
2008: 23%
2007: 19%
2006: 10%
2005: 25%
2004: 19.6%29
2003: 18%
1998: 19.5%

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 221
2013: 5
2012: 3
2011: 2
2010: 7
2009: 8
2008: 14
2007: 9
2006: 3
2005: 2
2004: 6
2003: 5
2002: 10
2001: 6
2000: 9
1999: 9
1998: 7
1997: 18
1996: 17

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0421
2013: 0.09
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.13
2009: 0.15
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.17
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.11
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.19
2001: 0.12
2000: 0.17
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.14
1997: 0.35
1996: 0.33

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual long gun homicides total

2014: 521
2013: 6
2012: 9
2011: 2
2010: 5
2009: 7
2008: 8
2007: 5
2006: 7
2005: 4
2004: 15
2003: 11
2002: 9
2001: 13
2000: 12
1999: 14
1998: 6
1997: 22
1996: 13

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0921
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.15
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.08
2004: 0.29
2003: 0.21
2002: 0.17
2001: 0.25
2000: 0.23
1999: 0.27
1998: 0.12
1997: 0.43
1996: 0.25

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Finland, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 421
2013: 4
2012: 4
2011: 14
2010: 2
2009: 7
2008: 8
2007: 9
2006: 7
2005: 5
2004: 9
2003: 2
2002: 1
2001: 11
2000: 11
1999: 10
1998: 9
1996: 4

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0721
2013: 0.07
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.26
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.15
2007: 0.17
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.10
2004: 0.17
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.21
2000: 0.21
1999: 0.19
1998: 0.17
1996: 0.08

Suicides (any method)

In Finland, annual suicides by any means total

1998: 1,22827

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1998: 23.5827
1994: 27.2634

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Finland, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 5622
2013: 55
2012: 13922 25
2011: 16522
2010: 179
2009: 181
2008: 207
2007: 172
2006: 183
2005: 169
2004: 219
2003: 232
2002: 205
2001: 234
2000: 200
1999: 268
1998: 267
1997: 302
1996: 278

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.0322
2013: 1.01
2012: 2.5722 25
2011: 3.0622
2010: 3.34
2009: 3.39
2008: 3.9
2007: 3.25
2006: 3.48
2005: 3.22
2004: 4.19
2003: 4.45
2002: 3.94
2001: 4.51
2000: 3.86
1999: 5.19
1998: 5.18
1997: 5.88
1996: 5.43
1994: 5.7835

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Finland, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 322
2013: 1
2012: 51
2011: 55
2010: 58
2009: 62
2008: 57
2007: 67
2006: 54
2005: 54
2004: 73
2003: 64
2002: 63
2001: 79
2000: 61
1999: 76
1998: 86
1997: 98
1996: 104

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0522
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.94
2011: 1.02
2010: 1.08
2009: 1.16
2008: 1.07
2007: 1.27
2006: 1.03
2005: 1.03
2004: 1.40
2003: 1.23
2002: 1.21
2001: 1.52
2000: 1.18
1999: 1.47
1998: 1.67
1997: 1.91
1996: 2.03

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Finland, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 4722
2013: 51
2012: 78
2011: 104
2010: 110
2009: 109
2008: 140
2007: 97
2006: 120
2005: 112
2004: 139
2003: 156
2002: 130
2001: 146
2000: 125
1999: 172
1998: 152
1997: 199
1996: 168

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.8622
2013: 0.94
2012: 1.44
2011: 1.93
2010: 2.05
2009: 2.04
2008: 2.63
2007: 1.83
2006: 2.28
2005: 2.13
2004: 2.66
2003: 2.99
2002: 2.50
2001: 2.81
2000: 2.41
1999: 3.33
1998: 2.95
1997: 3.87
1996: 3.28

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Finland, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 622
2013: 3
2012: 10
2011: 6
2010: 11
2009: 10
2008: 10
2007: 8
2006: 9
2005: 3
2004: 7
2003: 12
2002: 12
2001: 9
2000: 14
1999: 20
1998: 29
1997: 5
1996: 6

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1122
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.18
2011: 0.11
2010: 0.21
2009: 0.19
2008: 0.19
2007: 0.15
2006: 0.17
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.13
2003: 0.23
2002: 0.23
2001: 0.17
2000: 0.27
1999: 0.39
1998: 0.56
1997: 0.10
1996: 0.12

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 123
2012: 223 25
2011: 123
2010: 1
2007: 1
2006: 4
2005: 1
2004: 2
2003: 3
2002: 3
2001: 2
2000: 027
1999: 623
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 3

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0223
2012: 0.0423 6
2011: 0.0223
2010: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.0027
1999: 0.1223
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.06
1994: 0.1236

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2011: 123
2010: 1
2005: 1
2004: 1
2003: 2
2002: 1
1999: 1
1998: 1
1997: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0223
2010: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.02

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2014: 123
2012: 2
2007: 1
2006: 3
2004: 1
2003: 1
2002: 2
2001: 2
1999: 5
1998: 2
1997: 1
1996: 2

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0223
2012: 0.04
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.06
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.04
1999: 0.10
1998: 0.04
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.04

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

In Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2006: 123

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

In Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2006: 0.0223

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 124
2013: 2
2010: 1
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 2
2005: 3
2004: 2
2003: 2
2002: 1
2001: 4
2000: 3
1999: 6
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 8

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0224
2013: 0.04
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.06
1999: 0.12
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.16
1994: 0.1037

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 124
2009: 1
2008: 1
2006: 1
2003: 1
2001: 4
1999: 1
1998: 1
1997: 2
1996: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0224
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2001: 0.08
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.02

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 124
2009: 2
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 3
2000: 2
1999: 4
1998: 2
1996: 6

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0224
2009: 0.04
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.06
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.04
1996: 0.12

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 124
2010: 1
2004: 2
2003: 1
2002: 1
2000: 1
1999: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0224
2010: 0.02
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2000: 0.02
1999: 0.02
1996: 0.02

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Finland, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence38 39 40

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Finland was ranked 'small'41

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Finland, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Finland is reported by Customs to be US$65,099,23553 (2011)54 55

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Finland was categorized as 'major'56 57 58

Firearm Imports

In Finland, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law59 44 60 61 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Finland is reported by Customs to be US$22,321,55253 (2011)62 63 64 65

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Finland is low66

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Finland, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law67 68 69 70

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Finland include71 72 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Finland scored

2016: 14.7573
2014: 14.7574
2013: 14.2575
2012: 14.2576
2011: 14.0077
2010: 14.2578
2009: 15.0079
2008: 15.0080
2007: 14.7581
2006: 15.0082
2005: 15.5083
2004: 14.7584

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Finland is categorised as restrictive85

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Finland includes the Firearms Act and Decree of 1998,86 40 the Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel,87 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,88 89 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003,90 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms91

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Finland are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior and the local Police,92 93 and the European Commission89

Right to Possess Firearms

In Finland, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law94 95 96

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Finland, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, disguised firearms, armour piercing and incendiary ammunition97 98

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Finland, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited, with few exceptions99 97 98 100 30

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Finland, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence in some cases99 100 101 102 103

Regulation of Handguns

In Finland, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence in some cases99 97 104 101 102 103 30

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Finland, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law30

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Finland, only licensed gun owners44 105 106 107 104 101 30 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Finland are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, gun collecting, employment requirements108 99 109 110 111 112

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Finland is 18 years, or 15 years with parental consent109 112

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Finland must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental health113 112 30 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Finland, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required86 114

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Finland does not stipulate96 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Finland, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required (in the workplace)109 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Finland gun owners are licensed for an indefinite period115 116

Licensing Records

In Finland, authorities maintain a record117 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Finland are permitted to possess any number of firearms96

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Finland are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition96 118

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Finland, the law requires117 119 100 120 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Finland, licensed firearm dealers are required121 100 120 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Finland, licensed gun makers are required40 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Finland, State agencies are required119 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Finland, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without a permit122

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Finland, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful38 123 124 125 44 126 102

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Finland, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated96 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Finland include127 128 129 109 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Finland include130 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Finland include131 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Finland include127 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Finland, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law132 133 119 134 135 136

Firearm Tracing

In Finland, state authorities carry out132 133 135 120 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Finland, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not96 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Finland, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited, except for an authorised work assignment137 138 30

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Finland, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited, except for an authorised work assignment137 138 30

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Finland, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm139 is two years in prison140 141

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Finland are known to have142 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Finland, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2013: 3,149143
2012: 2,642
2011: 3,023
2010: 2,783

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Finland, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2011: 6,677144
2009: 6,338142

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Finland, it is state policy145 146 142 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Finland is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament147 148

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Finland is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Finland has submitted one or more national reports149 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006150 by Finland.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified151 by Finland

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified152 by Finland

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Finland committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects153

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Finland against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 9154 155 156 157 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Finland has submitted one or more national reports158 159 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Finland, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated160 159

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Finland, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated161

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Finland submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent160 159

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated159 by Finland to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Finland has declared162 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Finland has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1955163

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists164 Finland as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

To see where Finland ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Helsingin Sanomat (Finland). 2012. ‘Helsinki Region Has Lower Per-capita Gun Ownership Than Rest of Finland.’ 7 June. (N270) Full Citation

2.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms and of Privately Owned Firearms - Finland.’ Number of Registered Firearms, Finland.Sydney:GunPolicy.org,15 December. (Q13232)Full Citation

3.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Number of Privately Owned Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G1) Full Citation

4.

UNODC.2010.‘Value of the Global Firearms Market (Licit and Illicit).’ The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (TOCTA).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 June. (Q13189)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

6.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Finland.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,20 December. (Q4235)Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G6) Full Citation

8.

Finland.2010.‘Number of Registered Rifles in Civilian Possession.’ Personal communication from the Unit for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.Helsinki:Firearms Administration, National Police Board of Finland,13 October. (Q2876)Full Citation

9.

Finland.2010.‘Number of Registered Shotguns in Civilian Possession.’ Personal communication from the Unit for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.Helsinki:Firearms Administration, National Police Board of Finland,13 October. (Q2877)Full Citation

10.

Finland.2010.‘Number of Registered Handguns in Civilian Possession.’ Personal communication from the Unit for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.Helsinki:Firearms Administration, National Police Board of Finland,13 October. (Q2872)Full Citation

11.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

12.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11798)Full Citation

13.

Killias, Martin.1993.‘Gun Ownership, Suicide and Homicide: An International Perspective.’ Understanding Crime, Experiences of Crime and Crime Control - Acts of the International Conference, Rome, 18-20 Nov 1992.Rome:United Nations International Crime & Justice Research Institute (UNICRI),1 August. (Q1187)Full Citation

14.

Finland.2009.‘Weapon Statistics.’ Ministry of the Interior, Police Department, Lottery and Firearms Administration.Helsinki:Ministry of the Interior,23 January. (Q2049)Full Citation

15.

Finland.2010.‘Number of Licensed Gun Owners in Finland.’ Personal communication from the Unit for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.Helsinki:Firearms Administration, National Police Board of Finland,13 October. (Q2875)Full Citation

16.

Finland.2010.‘Number of Registered Guns in Finland.’ Personal communication from the Unit for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.Helsinki:Firearms Administration, National Police Board of Finland,13 October. (Q2873)Full Citation

17.

Finland.2010.‘Rate of Private Gun Ownership in Finland.’ Personal communication from the Unit for Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.Helsinki:Firearms Administration, National Police Board of Finland,13 October. (Q2874)Full Citation

18.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G14) Full Citation

19.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

20.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

21.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Finland.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,18 July. (Q6072)Full Citation

22.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Finland.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,18 July. (Q6142)Full Citation

23.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Finland.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,18 July. (Q6182)Full Citation

24.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Finland.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,18 July. (Q6443)Full Citation

25.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

26.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

27.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

28.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Finland.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10315)Full Citation

29.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Finland.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6217)Full Citation

30.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Finland.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9491)Full Citation

31.

Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares and Arsalaan Siddique.2001.‘Crimes Recorded by Police: Homicide.’ International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999.London:UK Home Office,1 May. (Q2143)Full Citation

32.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

33.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

34.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

35.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

36.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

37.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

38.

Finland.1998.‘Trade Permit for Dealing in Firearms.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2002)Full Citation

39.

Finland.1998.‘Private Manufacturing Permit.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2014)Full Citation

40.

Finland.2016.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Finland on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Finland to the United Nations,31 March. (Q12676)Full Citation

41.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

42.

Finland.1991.‘Section 2.’ Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel (242/1990; amendments up to 900/2002 included).Helsinki:Ministry of Defence,1 April. (Q2030)Full Citation

43.

Finland.1998.‘Commercial Export Permit and Commercial Transit Permit.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2009)Full Citation

44.

Finland.1998.‘Activities Subject to Authorisation.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2001)Full Citation

45.

Finland.1998.‘Private Transfer Licence.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Ministry of the Interior,1 March. (Q2021)Full Citation

46.

Finland.2016.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of Finland on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Finland to the United Nations,31 March. (Q12677)Full Citation

47.

Finland.2016.‘Record Keeping [Import and Export].’ National Report of Finland on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Finland to the United Nations,31 March. (Q12679)Full Citation

48.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

49.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

50.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

51.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

52.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

53.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

54.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

55.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

56.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

57.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

58.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

59.

Finland.1998.‘Commercial Import Permit.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2008)Full Citation

60.

Finland.1998.‘Transfer and Import to Finland under Permits Granted for Possession.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Ministry of the Interior,1 March. (Q2019)Full Citation

61.

Finland.1998.‘Transfer and Import to Finland and Possession Under a European Firearms Pass.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Ministry of the Interior,1 March. (Q2020)Full Citation

62.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

63.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

64.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

65.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

66.

Finland.2010.‘Firearm Amnesty Legislation.’ National Report of Finland on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (International Tracing Instrument) and the UNPoA.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Finland to the United Nations,1 January. (Q2040)Full Citation

67.

Finland.1991.‘Section 2a.’ Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel (242/1990; amendments up to 900/2002 included).Helsinki:Ministry of Defence,1 April. (Q2031)Full Citation

68.

Finland.2010.‘Arms Brokering Legislation (Defence Materiel).’ National Report of Finland on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (International Tracing Instrument) and the UNPoA.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Finland to the United Nations,1 January. (Q2046)Full Citation

69.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

70.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

71.

Finland.1991.‘Section 4.’ Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel (242/1990; amendments up to 900/2002 included).Helsinki:Ministry of Defence,1 April. (Q2032)Full Citation

72.

Finland.2010.‘Licensing Procedures and Documentation.’ National Report of Finland on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (International Tracing Instrument) and the UNPoA.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Finland to the United Nations,1 January. (Q2045)Full Citation

73.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

74.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

75.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

76.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

77.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

78.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

79.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

80.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

81.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

82.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

83.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

84.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

85.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

86.

Finland.1998.‘Scope of Application.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q1999)Full Citation

87.

Finland.1991.‘Section 1.’ Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel (242/1990; amendments up to 900/2002 included).Helsinki:Ministry of Defence,1 April. (Q2029)Full Citation

88.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

89.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

90.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

91.

UNGA.1969.‘Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks.’ Convention for the Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks on Small Arms of July 1, 1969.Brussels:United Nations General Assembly,1 July. (Q5999)Full Citation

92.

Finland.1998.‘Supervising Compliance with the Act.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Ministry of the Interior,1 March. (Q2026)Full Citation

93.

Finland.2010.‘Competent Authorities.’ National Report of Finland on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (International Tracing Instrument) and the UNPoA.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Finland to the United Nations,1 January. (Q2044)Full Citation

94.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

95.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

96.

Finland.1998.‘Scope of Application.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q4140)Full Citation

97.

Finland.1998.‘Specially Dangerous Firearm.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2000)Full Citation

98.

Finland.2010.‘Specially Dangerous Firearms, Cartridges and Shells.’ Finnish Police web site (www.poliisi.fi).Helsinki:Finnish Police,1 January. (Q2053)Full Citation

99.

Finland.1998.‘Requirements for a Firearm and Firearm Component to be Acquired.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2012)Full Citation

100.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5367)Full Citation

101.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

102.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

103.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

104.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

105.

Finland.1998.‘Acquisition Permit.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2010)Full Citation

106.

Finland.1998.‘Possession Permit.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Ministry of the Interior,1 March. (Q2015)Full Citation

107.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

108.

Finland.1998.‘Approved Purposes of Use.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2011)Full Citation

109.

Finland.1998.‘Requirements for an Acquisition Permit Application that is a Natural Person.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q2013)Full Citation

110.

Finland.2010.‘Approved Purposes of Use - Firearms.’ Finnish Police web site (www.poliisi.fi).Helsinki:Finnish Police,1 January. (Q2052)Full Citation

111.

Finland.2010.‘Indicating Purpose of Use.’ Finnish Police web site (www.poliisi.fi).Helsinki:Finnish Police,1 January. (Q2054)Full Citation

112.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

113.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5417)Full Citation

114.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

115.

Finland.1998.‘Validity and Terms of a Possession Permit.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Ministry of the Interior,1 March. (Q2016)Full Citation

116.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5437)Full Citation

117.

Finland.1998.‘Duty of the Police to Keep Files.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Ministry of the Interior,1 March. (Q2025)Full Citation

118.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

119.

Finland.2016.‘Marking and Record Keeping.’ National Report of Finland on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Finland to the United Nations,31 March. (Q12681)Full Citation

120.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

121.

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