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Finland — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Finland is

2017: 1,793,0001
2015: 1,542,3962
2012: 1,555,1003
2009: 1,738,0004 5 6
2005: 2,400,0007

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Finland is

2017: 32.401
2012: 29.003
2009: 32.618 9 6
2005: 45.77

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

ChartIn Finland, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2015: 424,1442
2010: 665,00010

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

ChartIn Finland, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2015: 579,5002
2010: 600,00011

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

ChartIn Finland, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2015: 226,9682
2010: 250,00012 3

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Finland ranked at No. 3313

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Finland ranked at No. 47

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 37.9%14
1999/2003: 23.7%
1995/98: 28.8%
1992: 25.2%15
1992/94: 25.4%14
1989: 25.5%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Finland, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 14.6%15

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Finland, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 18.4%15

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 6.3%14
1999/2003: 6.4%
1995/98: 6.0%
1992/94: 6.3%14 15
1989: 7.2%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Finland is reported to be 672,77216 17

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Finland is 12.628

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Finland is reported to be

2017: 1,542,3961
2010: 1,580,00018

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Finland is 3019

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Finland there are estimated to be

2017: 250,6041

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Finland the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be 2.968

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Finland are reported to have 474,03020 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Finland are reported to have 14,00021 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 13522
2013: 177
2012: 15723 24 25 26
2011: 18423 24 25
2010: 19527
2009: 20623 24 28
2008: 238
2007: 19723 24 25 28
2006: 206
2005: 184
2004: 253
2003: 255
2002: 229
2001: 270
2000: 23523 24 29 28
1999: 31323 24 25 28
1998: 295
1997: 346
1996: 323

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 2.4822
2013: 3.26
2012: 2.90
2011: 3.42
2010: 3.64
2009: 3.868
2008: 4.49
2007: 3.73
2006: 3.92
2005: 3.51
2004: 4.85
2003: 4.90
2002: 4.41
2001: 5.21
2000: 4.55
1999: 6.07
1998: 5.73
1997: 6.74
1996: 6.31

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 12722
2013: 165
2012: 143
2011: 172
2010: 187

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 822
2013: 12
2012: 14
2011: 12
2010: 8

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 8330
2015: 8831
2014: 7522
2013: 77
2012: 72
2011: 99
2010: 101
2009: 120
2008: 133
2007: 130
2006: 119
2005: 117
2004: 146
2003: 105
2002: 132
2001: 156
2000: 148
1999: 14332
1998: 113
1997: 13932 33
1996: 153
1995: 146

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 1.5030
2015: 1.6031
2014: 2.4822
2013: 3.26
2012: 2.90
2011: 3.42
2010: 3.64
2009: 2.2
2008: 2.5
2007: 2.5
2006: 2.3
2005: 2.2
2004: 2.8
2003: 2.0
2002: 2.5
2001: 3.0
2000: 2.9
1999: 2.832
1998: 2.2
1997: 2.7
1996: 3.0
1995: 2.9
1994: 3.2434

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 7135
2014: 4822
2013: 58
2012: 36
2011: 64
2010: 79

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 1735
2014: 27
2013: 19
2012: 36
2011: 35
2010: 22

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 1123
2013: 15
2012: 16
2011: 18
2010: 14
2009: 2223 36 32
2008: 30
2007: 23
2006: 17
2005: 11
2004: 3023 32
2003: 18
2002: 2023
2001: 30
2000: 32
1999: 33
1998: 2223 32
1997: 4023
1996: 34

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2022
2013: 0.28
2012: 0.30
2011: 0.33
2010: 0.26
2009: 0.4123 8 32
2008: 0.56
2007: 0.43
2006: 0.32
2005: 0.21
2004: 0.5723 32
2003: 0.35
2002: 0.3823
2001: 0.58
2000: 0.62
1999: 0.64
1998: 0.4323 32
1997: 0.7823
1996: 0.66
1994: 0.8637

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 19%36
2011: 14%36 38
2010: 12%36
2009: 20%36
2008: 23%
2007: 19%
2006: 10%
2005: 25%
2004: 19.6%32
2003: 18%
1998: 19.5%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 722
2014: 7
2013: 9
2012: 7
2011: 10
2010: 11

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 422
2014: 4
2013: 6
2012: 9
2011: 8
2010: 3

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 223
2013: 5
2012: 3
2011: 2
2010: 7
2009: 8
2008: 14
2007: 9
2006: 3
2005: 2
2004: 6
2003: 5
2002: 10
2001: 6
2000: 9
1999: 9
1998: 7
1997: 18
1996: 17

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0423
2013: 0.09
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.13
2009: 0.15
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.17
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.11
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.19
2001: 0.12
2000: 0.17
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.14
1997: 0.35
1996: 0.33

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual long gun homicides total

2014: 523
2013: 6
2012: 9
2011: 2
2010: 5
2009: 7
2008: 8
2007: 5
2006: 7
2005: 4
2004: 15
2003: 11
2002: 9
2001: 13
2000: 12
1999: 14
1998: 6
1997: 22
1996: 13

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0923
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.15
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.08
2004: 0.29
2003: 0.21
2002: 0.17
2001: 0.25
2000: 0.23
1999: 0.27
1998: 0.12
1997: 0.43
1996: 0.25

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Finland, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 423
2013: 4
2012: 4
2011: 14
2010: 2
2009: 7
2008: 8
2007: 9
2006: 7
2005: 5
2004: 9
2003: 2
2002: 1
2001: 11
2000: 11
1999: 10
1998: 9
1996: 4

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0723
2013: 0.07
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.26
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.15
2007: 0.17
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.10
2004: 0.17
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.21
2000: 0.21
1999: 0.19
1998: 0.17
1996: 0.08

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 78322
2013: 887
2012: 872
2011: 908
2010: 951
1998: 1,22829

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 14.3622
2013: 16.33
2012: 16.13
2011: 16.88
2010: 17.76
1998: 23.5829
1994: 27.2639

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 59522
2013: 666
2012: 654
2011: 708
2010: 716

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 18822
2013: 221
2012: 218
2011: 200
2010: 235

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Finland, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 12222
2013: 160
2012: 13924 26
2011: 16524
2010: 179
2009: 181
2008: 207
2007: 172
2006: 183
2005: 169
2004: 219
2003: 232
2002: 205
2001: 234
2000: 200
1999: 268
1998: 267
1997: 302
1996: 278

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 2.2422
2013: 2.95
2012: 2.57
2011: 3.07
2010: 3.34
2009: 3.39
2008: 3.9
2007: 3.25
2006: 3.48
2005: 3.22
2004: 4.19
2003: 4.45
2002: 3.94
2001: 4.51
2000: 3.86
1999: 5.19
1998: 5.18
1997: 5.88
1996: 5.43
1994: 5.7840

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 11822
2013: 154
2012: 134
2011: 161
2010: 174

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 422
2013: 6
2012: 5
2011: 4
2010: 5

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Finland, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 324
2013: 1
2012: 51
2011: 55
2010: 58
2009: 62
2008: 57
2007: 67
2006: 54
2005: 54
2004: 73
2003: 64
2002: 63
2001: 79
2000: 61
1999: 76
1998: 86
1997: 98
1996: 104

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0524
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.94
2011: 1.02
2010: 1.08
2009: 1.16
2008: 1.07
2007: 1.27
2006: 1.03
2005: 1.03
2004: 1.40
2003: 1.23
2002: 1.21
2001: 1.52
2000: 1.18
1999: 1.47
1998: 1.67
1997: 1.91
1996: 2.03

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Finland, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 4724
2013: 51
2012: 78
2011: 104
2010: 110
2009: 109
2008: 140
2007: 97
2006: 120
2005: 112
2004: 139
2003: 156
2002: 130
2001: 146
2000: 125
1999: 172
1998: 152
1997: 199
1996: 168

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.8624
2013: 0.94
2012: 1.44
2011: 1.93
2010: 2.05
2009: 2.04
2008: 2.63
2007: 1.83
2006: 2.28
2005: 2.13
2004: 2.66
2003: 2.99
2002: 2.50
2001: 2.81
2000: 2.41
1999: 3.33
1998: 2.95
1997: 3.87
1996: 3.28

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Finland, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 624
2013: 3
2012: 10
2011: 6
2010: 11
2009: 10
2008: 10
2007: 8
2006: 9
2005: 3
2004: 7
2003: 12
2002: 12
2001: 9
2000: 14
1999: 20
1998: 29
1997: 5
1996: 6

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1124
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.18
2011: 0.11
2010: 0.21
2009: 0.19
2008: 0.19
2007: 0.15
2006: 0.17
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.13
2003: 0.23
2002: 0.23
2001: 0.17
2000: 0.27
1999: 0.39
1998: 0.56
1997: 0.10
1996: 0.12

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 125
2013: 0
2012: 225 26
2011: 125
2010: 1
2007: 1
2006: 4
2005: 1
2004: 2
2003: 3
2002: 3
2001: 2
2000: 029
1999: 625
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 3

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0222
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.0029
1999: 0.1225
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.06
1994: 0.1241

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 122
2013: 0
2012: 2
2011: 1
2010: 1

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 022
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2011: 125
2010: 1
2005: 1
2004: 1
2003: 2
2002: 1
1999: 1
1998: 1
1997: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0225
2010: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.02

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2014: 125
2012: 2
2007: 1
2006: 3
2004: 1
2003: 1
2002: 2
2001: 2
1999: 5
1998: 2
1997: 1
1996: 2

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0225
2012: 0.04
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.06
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.04
1999: 0.10
1998: 0.04
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.04

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

In Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2006: 125

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

In Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2006: 0.0225

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 128
2013: 2
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 1
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 2
2005: 3
2004: 2
2003: 2
2002: 1
2001: 4
2000: 3
1999: 6
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 8

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0228
2013: 0.04
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.06
1999: 0.12
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.16
1994: 0.1042

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 122
2013: 2
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 1

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 022
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 128
2009: 1
2008: 1
2006: 1
2003: 1
2001: 4
1999: 1
1998: 1
1997: 2
1996: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0228
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2001: 0.08
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.02

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 128
2009: 2
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 3
2000: 2
1999: 4
1998: 2
1996: 6

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0228
2009: 0.04
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.06
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.04
1996: 0.12

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 128
2010: 1
2004: 2
2003: 1
2002: 1
2000: 1
1999: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0228
2010: 0.02
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2000: 0.02
1999: 0.02
1996: 0.02

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Finland, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence43 44 45

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Finland was ranked 'small'46

Home-made Guns

In Finland, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be low4748

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Finland, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Finland is reported by manufacturers to be

2017: 1,41160
2016: 1,448
2015: 1,042
2014: 2,728
2013: 1,752
2012: 802
2011: 757
2010: 171
2009: 239
2008: 765
2007: 255
2006: 445

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Finland is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 174,251,38261
2015: 171,441,511
2014: 185,765,370
2013: 186,203,354
2012: 141,144,84661 62
2011: 65,099,23563
2010: 1,300,00064

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Finland was categorized as 'major'65 66 67

Firearm Imports

In Finland, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law68 51 69 70 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Finland is reported to be

2017: 9860
2016: 1,095
2015: 86
2014: 90
2013: 994
2012: 275
2011: 66
2010: 93
2009: 75
2008: 568
2007: 1,621
2006: 732

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Finland is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 25,446,32261
2015: 21,909,154
2014: 26,043,128
2013: 24,366,701
2012: 22,896,51761 71 72
2011: 22,321,55263 73
2010: 21,000,00074

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Finland is low75

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Finland, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law76 77 78 79

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Finland include80 81 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Finland scored

2016: 14.7582
2014: 14.7583
2013: 14.2584
2012: 14.2585
2011: 14.0086
2010: 14.2587
2009: 15.0088
2008: 15.0089
2007: 14.7590
2006: 15.0091
2005: 15.5092
2004: 14.7593

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Finland is categorised as restrictive94

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Finland includes the Firearms Act and Decree of 1998,95 45 the Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel,96 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,97 98 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003,99 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms100

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Finland are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior and the local Police,101 102 and the European Commission98

Right to Possess Firearms

In Finland, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law103 104 105

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Finland, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, disguised firearms, armour piercing and incendiary ammunition106 107

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Finland, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited, with few exceptions108 106 107 109 38

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Finland, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence in some cases108 109 110 111 112

Regulation of Handguns

In Finland, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence in some cases108 106 113 110 111 112 38

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Finland, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law38

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Finland, only licensed gun owners51 114 115 116 113 110 38 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Finland are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, gun collecting, employment requirements117 108 118 119 120 121

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Finland is 18 years, or 15 years with parental consent118 121

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Finland must pass a background check which considers criminal background122 121 38 123 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Finland, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required95 124

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Finland does not stipulate105 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Finland, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required (in the workplace)118 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Finland gun owners are licensed for an indefinite period125 126

Licensing Records

In Finland, authorities maintain a record127 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Finland are permitted to possess up to a maximum of 10 firearms105 128

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Finland are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition105 129

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Finland, the law requires127 130 109 131 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Finland, licensed firearm dealers are required132 109 131 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Finland, licensed gun makers are required45 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Finland, State agencies are required130 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Finland, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without a permit133

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Finland, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful43 134 135 136 51 137 111

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Finland, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated105 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Finland include138 139 140 118 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Finland include141 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Finland include142 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Finland include138 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Finland, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law143 144 130 145 146 147

Firearm Tracing

In Finland, state authorities carry out143 144 146 131 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Finland, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not105 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Finland, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited, except for an authorised work assignment148 149 38

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Finland, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited, except for an authorised work assignment148 149 38

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Finland, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm150 is two years in prison151 152

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Finland are known to have153 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Finland, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2016: 5,384128
2015: 3,675
2013: 3,149154
2012: 2,642
2011: 3,023
2010: 2,783

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Finland, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2011: 6,677155
2009: 6,338153

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Finland, it is state policy156 157 153 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Finland is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament158 159

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Finland is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Finland has submitted one or more national reports160 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006161 by Finland.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified162 by Finland

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified163 by Finland

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Finland committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects164

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Finland against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 9165 166 167 168 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Finland has submitted one or more national reports169 170 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Finland, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated171 170

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Finland, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated172

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Finland submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent171 170

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated170 by Finland to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Finland has declared173 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Finland has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1955174

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists175 Finland as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Finland, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Finland ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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