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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

European Union — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

The European Council Weapons Directive (below) sets minimum standards agreed by the European Union. For individual EU countries, select from the 'Go To' menu

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the European Union is 79,800,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in the European Union is 15.71 firearms per 100 people

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in the European Union is reported to be

2013: 25,000,0002

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in the European Union is

2013: 4.943

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in the European Union is reported to be 80,000,0004

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in the European Union is 15.823

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In the European Union, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2000/12: 87,0005

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In the European Union, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 17.413

Gun Homicides

In the European Union, annual firearm homicides total

2000/12: 13,2006

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

In the European Union, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 2.643

Gun Suicides

In the European Union, annual firearm suicides total

2000/12: 5,0007

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In the European Union, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 1.003

ProductionGun Industry

Number of Small Arms Manufactured

The reported annual number of small arms manufactured in the European Union is

2011: 1,974,1568

Home-made Guns

In the European Union, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate4 9

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In the European Union, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law10 11 12 13 14

Firearm Exports (Number) - Manufacturers

The annual number of firearms exported from the European Union is reported by manufacturers to be

2011: 1,200,94115

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the European Union is reported by Customs to be US$1,258,435,76516 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In the European Union, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law10 11 12 13

Firearm Imports (Number) - Customs

The annual number of firearms imported to the European Union is reported to be

2011: 195,38217

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the European Union is high18 4 19

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the European Union, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law20 21

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the European Union is categorised as restrictive22

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the European Union includes the European Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,23 24 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012 and the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200325

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the European Union are regulated by the European Commission24

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the European Union, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition26 27

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the European Union, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited26 27

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the European Union, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation28 29 27

Regulation of Handguns

In the European Union, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation26 28 29 27

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the European Union, only licensed gun owners30 26 28 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in the European Union are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, shooting31

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the European Union is 18 years31

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in the European Union must pass a background check which considers criminal and various other31 9 records

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in the European Union are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm32

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the European Union, the law requires33 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In the European Union, licensed firearm dealers are required33 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the European Union, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful34 29

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In the European Union, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law35

Firearm Tracing

In the European Union, state authorities carry out35 33 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

MeasuresInternational Controls

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified by the European Union


Short References

1.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Expert Estimates [Civilian Gun Ownership in EU, 2007].’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q12041)Full Citation

2.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Number of Gun Owners in the European Union (2013).’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q12047)Full Citation

3.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - European Union.’ Historical Population Data - Eurostat Data Base.Brussels:Eurostat,9 June. (Q8272)Full Citation

4.

European Commission.2013.‘Firearms and the Internal Security of the EU: Protecting Citizens and Disrupting Illegal Trafficking.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8227)Full Citation

5.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Gun-Related Deaths in Europe, 2000-2012.’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q12042)Full Citation

6.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Number of Gun Homicides in EU, 2000-2012.’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q12044)Full Citation

7.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Number of Gun Suicides in EU, 2000-2012.’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q12043)Full Citation

8.

European Commission.2013.‘2011 Production of Civilian Firearms in EU.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8221)Full Citation

9.

European Commission.2013.‘Firearms and the Internal Security of the EU: Protecting Citizens and Disrupting Illegal Trafficking.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8225)Full Citation

10.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

11.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

12.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

13.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

14.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

15.

European Commission.2013.‘2011 Production of Civilian Firearms in EU.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8222)Full Citation

16.

European Commission.2013.‘2011 Production of Civilian Firearms in EU.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8224)Full Citation

17.

European Commission.2013.‘2011 Production of Civilian Firearms in EU.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8223)Full Citation

18.

European Commission.2013.‘Firearms and the Internal Security of the EU: Protecting Citizens and Disrupting Illegal Trafficking.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8226)Full Citation

19.

European Commission.2013.‘Reducing Gun Violence: The Way Forward.’ Europa - Press Release.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8322)Full Citation

20.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

21.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

22.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

23.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

24.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

25.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

26.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

27.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

28.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

29.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

30.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

31.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

32.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

33.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

34.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

35.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation