Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

England & Wales — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

For combined British figures and legislation, see 'United Kingdom'

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in England & Wales is 3,400,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in England & Wales is 6.21 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

ChartIn England & Wales, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 539,1942
2012: 477,8883
2011: 464,839
2010: 451,131
2009: 435,383
2006: 368,600
2005: 358,300
2004: 342,200
2003: 316,700
2002: 311,000
2001: 301,000
2000: 296,800
1999: 296,400
1998: 295,000
1997: 305,000
1996: 418,300
1995: 413,600

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

ChartIn England & Wales, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 1,330,0002
2012: 1,328,6474
2011: 1,336,701
2010: 1,358,522
2009: 1,366,082
2006: 1,360,800
2005: 1,384,000
2004: 1,372,700
2003: 1,325,400
2002: 1,314,600
2001: 1,307,600
2000: 1,320,900
1999: 1,327,800
1998: 1,343,100
1997: 1,343,900
1996: 1,335,000
1995: 1,325,800

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, England & Wales ranked at No. 225

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, England & Wales ranked at No. 881

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn England & Wales, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2004/05: 6.1%6
1999/2003: 3.1%
1995/98: 3.9%
1992: 4.4%7
1992/94: 4.2%6
1989: 4.7%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In England & Wales, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 0.6%7

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In England & Wales, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 3.1%7

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn England & Wales, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2004/05: 0.5%6
1999/2003: 0.1%
1995/98: 0.5%
1992/94: 0.6%6 7
1989: 0.4%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in England & Wales is reported to be

2014: 734,3368
2011/12: 704,5164 3

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in England & Wales is

2014: 1.289
2011/12: 1.25

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in England & Wales is reported to be

2014: 1,837,2438
2011/12: 1,806,5354 3

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in England & Wales is

2014: 3.209
2011/12: 3.22

Government Guns

Routine Arming of Police

In England & Wales, police officers on routine patrol do not carry a firearm10 11 12

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in England & Wales are reported to have 35,00013 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2012: 9814
2011: 12415
2010: 13116
2009: 12617
2008: 13018
2007: 9819
2006: 17020
2005: 12021
2004: 11422
2003: 13223
2002: 13524
2001: 13325
2000: 16226
1999: 15927
1998: 13528
1997: 13429
1996: 15430
1995: 19831

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.214
2011: 0.229
2010: 0.24
2009: 0.23
2008: 0.24
2007: 0.18
2006: 0.32
2005: 0.22
2004: 0.21
2003: 0.25
2002: 0.26
2001: 0.25
2000: 0.31
1999: 0.31
1998: 0.26
1997: 0.26
1996: 0.30
1995: 0.39

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual homicides by any means total

2011/12: 54032 33
2010/11: 63634 35 33
2009/10: 60834 35 36 33
2008/09: 64034 36 33
2007/08: 734
2006/07: 712
2005/06: 708
2004/05: 780
2003/04: 772
2002/03: 942
2001/02: 793
2000/01: 764
1999/00: 671
1998/99: 640
1997/98: 604
1997: 60834 37 33
1996: 586
1995: 662

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011/12: 0.9732 33
2010/11: 1.1534 33
2009/10: 1.11
2008/09: 1.18
2007/08: 1.36
2006/07: 1.33
2005/06: 1.33
2004/05: 1.47
2003/04: 1.46
2002/03: 1.79
2001/02: 1.52
2000/01: 1.44
1999/00: 1.27
1998/99: 1.22
1997: 1.18
1997/98: 1.16
1996: 1.14
1995: 1.30
1992: 0.5538

Gun Homicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual firearm homicides total

2012: 414
2011: 3115
2010: 2816 39
2009: 2017 39 33
2008: 2718 39 40 33
2007: 319 39 40 33
2006: 4320 39 40 33
2005: 2021 39 40 33
2004: 1822 39 40 33
2003: 1823 39 40 33
2002: 3324 39 40
2001: 3125 39 40 33
2000: 2926 39 40
1999: 2327 40 33
1998: 1028 40 33
1997: 2829 41 33
1996: 2530 33
1995: 2631 33

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.014
2011: 0.0615
2010: 0.0516
2009: 0.0417 33
2008: 0.0518 33
2007: 0.0119 33
2006: 0.0820 33
2005: 0.0421 33
2004: 0.0322 33
2003: 0.0323 33
2002: 0.0624
2001: 0.0625 33
2000: 0.0626
1999: 0.0427 33
1998: 0.0228 33
1997: 0.0529 33
1996: 0.0530 33
1995: 0.0531 33
1992: 0.0742 33

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn England & Wales, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 7%43
2010: 10%
2009: 7%43
2008: 6%
2007: 7%
2006: 8%
2001: 10.8%33
2000/01: 9%44
1999: 8.1%
1998: 6.5%
1997: 8.0%
1996: 7.2%
1995: 9.3%

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual handgun homicides total

2010/11: 4445
2009/10: 3446
2008: 118 47
2007/08: 4148
2006: 120 49
2005/06: 2950
1999: 127

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.089
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.0018
2007: 0.089
2006: 0.0020
2005: 0.059
1999: 0.0027

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual long gun homicides total

2011: 1015
2010: 616 45
2009: 217 46
2008: 318 47
2007: 319 48
2006: 520 49
2005: 221 50
2004: 522
2003: 523
2002: 624
2001: 725
2000: 726
1999: 527

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0215
2010: 0.0116
2009: 0.0017
2008: 0.0118
2007: 0.0119
2006: 0.0120
2005: 0.0021
2004: 0.0122
2003: 0.0123
2002: 0.0124
2001: 0.0125
2000: 0.0126
1999: 0.0127

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual gun homicides (other) total

2011: 2115
2010: 2216 45
2009: 1817 46
2008: 2318 47
2007/08: 048
2006: 3720 49
2005: 1821 50
2004: 1322
2003: 1323
2002: 2724
2001: 2425
2000: 2226
1999: 1727
1997: 2229
1996: 1930
1995: 2031

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0415
2010: 0.0416
2009: 0.0317
2008: 0.0418
2007: 0.009
2006: 0.0720
2005: 0.0321
2004: 0.0222
2003: 0.0223
2002: 0.0524
2001: 0.0525
2000: 0.0426
1999: 0.0327
1997: 0.0429
1996: 0.0430
1995: 0.0431

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual suicides by any means total

2011: 4,87151
2010: 4,517
2009: 4,675
2008: 4,587
2007: 4,306
2006: 4,504
2005: 4,702
2004: 4,871
2003: 4,796
2002: 4,751
2001: 4,891
2000: 5,069
1999: 5,233
1998: 5,332
1997: 4,814
1996: 4,898
1995: 5,111
1994: 5,068
1993: 5,165
1992: 5,458
1991: 5,467
1990: 5,523

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 10.751
2010: 10.0
2009: 10.4
2008: 10.3
2007: 9.7
2006: 10.2
2005: 10.8
2004: 11.2
2003: 11.1
2002: 11.1
2001: 11.5
2000: 12.0
1999: 12.4
1998: 12.8
1997: 11.5
1996: 11.7
1995: 12.3
1994: 12.1
1993: 12.5
1992: 13.2
1991: 13.3
1990: 13.4

Gun Suicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual firearm suicides total

2012: 7814
2011: 8315
2010: 8316
2009: 8417
2008: 8918
2007: 8419
2006: 11020
2005: 8821
2004: 8122
2003: 10223
2002: 8324
2001: 9325
2000: 10726
1999: 11527 52
1998: 10728
1997: 10629
1996: 10730
1995: 13431

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.114
2011: 0.1515
2010: 0.1516
2009: 0.1517
2008: 0.1618
2007: 0.1519
2006: 0.2020
2005: 0.1621
2004: 0.1522
2003: 0.1923
2002: 0.1624
2001: 0.1825
2000: 0.2026
1999: 0.2227 52
1998: 0.2128
1997: 0.2129
1996: 0.2130
1995: 0.2631
1992: 0.3353

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual handgun suicides total

2008: 318
2007: 119
2006: 120
2003: 323
2002: 124
2001: 125
2000: 226

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.0118
2007: 0.0019
2006: 0.0020
2003: 0.0123
2002: 0.0024
2001: 0.0025
2000: 0.0026

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn England & Wales, the number of long gun suicides is

2011: 3715
2010: 4416
2009: 4217
2008: 4618
2007: 4419
2006: 6120
2005: 4121
2004: 4122
2003: 5023
2002: 4024
2001: 5025
2000: 5826
1999: 7527
1998: 5928
1997: 5029
1996: 5530
1995: 6431

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0715
2010: 0.0816
2009: 0.0817
2008: 0.0818
2007: 0.0819
2006: 0.1120
2005: 0.0821
2004: 0.0822
2003: 0.0923
2002: 0.0824
2001: 0.1025
2000: 0.1126
1999: 0.1427
1998: 0.1128
1997: 0.1029
1996: 0.1130
1995: 0.1231

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual gun suicides (other) total

2011: 4615
2010: 3916
2009: 4217
2008: 4018
2007: 3919
2006: 4820
2005: 4721
2004: 4022
2003: 4923
2002: 4224
2001: 4225
2000: 4626
1999: 4027
1998: 4628
1997: 5529
1996: 5030
1995: 6431

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0815
2010: 0.0716
2009: 0.0817
2008: 0.0718
2007: 0.0719
2006: 0.0920
2005: 0.0921
2004: 0.0822
2003: 0.0923
2002: 0.0824
2001: 0.0825
2000: 0.0926
1999: 0.0827
1998: 0.0928
1997: 0.1129
1996: 0.1030
1995: 0.1231

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2012: 514
2011: 115
2010: 816
2009: 1117
2008: 518
2007: 219
2006: 320
2005: 121
2004: 222
2003: 323
2002: 124
2001: 225
2000: 1126
1999: 627 52
1995: 1031

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.019
2011: 0.0015
2010: 0.0116
2009: 0.0217
2008: 0.0118
2007: 0.0019
2006: 0.0120
2005: 0.0021
2004: 0.0022
2003: 0.0123
2002: 0.0024
2001: 0.0025
2000: 0.0226
1999: 0.0127 52
1995: 0.0231
1992: 0.0154

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2006: 120
2000: 226

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2006: 0.0020
2000: 0.0026

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2010: 316
2009: 517
2008: 318
2005: 121
2003: 123
2002: 124
2001: 125
2000: 326
1999: 227

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0116
2009: 0.0117
2008: 0.0118
2005: 0.0021
2003: 0.0023
2002: 0.0024
2001: 0.0025
2000: 0.0126
1999: 0.0027

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2011: 115
2010: 516
2009: 617
2008: 218
2007: 219
2006: 220
2004: 222
2003: 223
2001: 125
2000: 426
1999: 427

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0015
2010: 0.0116
2009: 0.0117
2008: 0.0018
2007: 0.0019
2006: 0.0020
2004: 0.0022
2003: 0.0023
2001: 0.0025
2000: 0.0126
1999: 0.0127

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 1114
2011: 715
2010: 816
2009: 817
2008: 718
2007: 919
2006: 1220
2005: 1021
2004: 1322
2003: 923
2002: 1824
2001: 725
2000: 1526
1999: 1527
1998: 1828
1996: 2230
1995: 2831

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.029
2011: 0.0115
2010: 0.0116
2009: 0.0117
2008: 0.0118
2007: 0.0219
2006: 0.0220
2005: 0.0221
2004: 0.0222
2003: 0.0223
2002: 0.0324
2001: 0.0125
2000: 0.0326
1999: 0.0352
1998: 0.0328
1996: 0.0430
1995: 0.0531
1992: 0.0455

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2003: 123
2002: 124

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2003: 0.0023
2002: 0.0024

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 515
2010: 416
2009: 417
2008: 318
2007: 119
2006: 320
2005: 621
2004: 622
2003: 323
2002: 1224
2001: 625
2000: 426
1999: 727
1996: 1230

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0115
2010: 0.0116
2009: 0.0117
2008: 0.0118
2007: 0.0019
2006: 0.0120
2005: 0.0121
2004: 0.0122
2003: 0.0123
2002: 0.0224
2001: 0.0125
2000: 0.0126
1999: 0.0127
1996: 0.0230

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 215
2010: 416
2009: 417
2008: 418
2007: 819
2006: 920
2005: 421
2004: 722
2003: 523
2002: 524
2001: 125
2000: 1126
1999: 727
1998: 1028
1996: 1030
1995: 1831

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0015
2010: 0.0116
2009: 0.0117
2008: 0.0118
2007: 0.0119
2006: 0.0220
2005: 0.0121
2004: 0.0122
2003: 0.0123
2002: 0.0124
2001: 0.0025
2000: 0.0226
1999: 0.0127
1998: 0.0228
1996: 0.0230
1995: 0.0431

Justifiable Gun Homicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2011: 215
2010: 416
2009: 317
2008: 218
2006: 220
2005: 121

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries56 is

2010/11: 1,89157
2009/10: 1,874
2008/09: 1,722
2007/08: 3,188
2006/07: 2,955
2005/06: 3,773
2004/05: 3,828
2003/04: 2,299
2002/03: 2,099
2001/02: 1,783
2000/01: 1,310

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury56 per 100,000 population is

2010: 3.409
2009: 3.39
2008: 3.14
2007: 5.86
2006: 5.48
2005: 7.04
2004: 7.20
2003: 4.35
2002: 3.99
2001: 3.41
2000: 2.51

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in England & Wales includes the Firearms Act 1968 (see United Kingdom)58

Right to Possess Firearms

In England & Wales, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law59 60

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In England & Wales, the law requires4 3 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Sales and Transfers

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

ChartThe number of licensed firearm dealers in England & Wales is reported to be

2011/12: 3,41761
2010/11: 3,205
2008/09: 2,840
2007/08: 2,792
2005/06: 2,030
2004/05: 1,970
2003/04: 1,950
2002/03: 1,970
2001: 1,960
2000: 2,070
1999: 2,090
1998: 2,180
1997: 2,400
1996: 2,490
1995: 2,470

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In England & Wales, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 40,50762 (2003)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In England & Wales, it is state policy63 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

John Miller, Caroline Copley, Violette Goarant, Matthias Blamont, Michel Rose, Giled Elgood, Francois Murphy. 2016. ‘Ownership of Guns, Scare Devices in Europe.’ Reuters. 23 August. (N665) Full Citation

3.

UK.2012.‘Table 1: Firearm Certificates: Applications, Certificates on Issue and Firearms Covered by Certificates: 1995 to 2011/12.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales, 1995 to 2011/12 - Data tables.London:Office for National Statistics,16 August. (Q6617)Full Citation

4.

UK.2012.‘Table 3: Shotgun Certificates: Applications, Certificates on Issue and Shotguns Covered by Certificates: 1995 to 2011/12.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales, 1995 to 2011/12 - Data tables.London:Office for National Statistics,16 August. (Q6616)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11796)Full Citation

7.

Killias, Martin.1993.‘Gun Ownership, Suicide and Homicide: An International Perspective.’ Understanding Crime, Experiences of Crime and Crime Control - Acts of the International Conference, Rome, 18-20 Nov 1992.Rome:United Nations International Crime & Justice Research Institute (UNICRI),1 August. (Q1187)Full Citation

8.

UK.2015.‘Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales, 2014.’ Targeting the Risk: An Inspection of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Firearms Licensing in Police Forces in England and Wales.London:Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary,1 September. (Q11760)Full Citation

9.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - England and Wales.’ Historical Population Data - UK Office for National Statistics.Fareham, UK:Population Estimates Unit / ONS Centre for Demography,21 July. (Q4230)Full Citation

10.

UK.2003.‘Armed Support of Police Operations.’ Code of Practice on Police Use of Firearms and Less Lethal Weapons.London:UK Home Office,1 November. (Q6778)Full Citation

11.

BBC News. 2010. ‘Q&A: Armed Police in the UK.’ 8 June. (N287) Full Citation

12.

Keating, Joshua E.. 2011. ‘When Are British Cops Allowed to Carry Guns?.’ Foreign Policy (USA). 10 August. (N288) Full Citation

13.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 2 - Examples of Police Firearms Per Officer in Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q6545)Full Citation

14.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

15.

UK.2012.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2011.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2011.London:Office for National Statistics,6 November. (Q6728)Full Citation

16.

UK.2011.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2010.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2010.London:Office for National Statistics,28 October. (Q6729)Full Citation

17.

UK.2010.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2009.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2009.London:Office for National Statistics,26 October. (Q6730)Full Citation

18.

UK.2009.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2008.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2008.London:Office for National Statistics,29 October. (Q6731)Full Citation

19.

UK.2008.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2007.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2007.London:Office for National Statistics,20 November. (Q6732)Full Citation

20.

UK.2008.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2006.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2006.London:Office for National Statistics,19 March. (Q6727)Full Citation

21.

UK.2006.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2005.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2005.London:Office for National Statistics,19 December. (Q6736)Full Citation

22.

UK.2005.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2004.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2004.London:Office for National Statistics,16 December. (Q6737)Full Citation

23.

UK.2004.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2003.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2003.London:Office for National Statistics,17 December. (Q6738)Full Citation

24.

UK.2003.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2002.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2002.London:Office for National Statistics,18 December. (Q6739)Full Citation

25.

UK.2002.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2001.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2001.London:Office for National Statistics,17 December. (Q6740)Full Citation

26.

UK.2001.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2000.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2000.London:Office for National Statistics,17 December. (Q6741)Full Citation

27.

UK.2000.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1999.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1999.London:Office for National Statistics,18 December. (Q6742)Full Citation

28.

UK.1999.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1998.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1998.London:Office for National Statistics,1 December. (Q6817)Full Citation

29.

UK.1998.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1997.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1997.London:Office for National Statistics,1 December. (Q6818)Full Citation

30.

UK.1997.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1996.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1996.London:Office for National Statistics,1 December. (Q6819)Full Citation

31.

UK.1996.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1995.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1995.London:Office for National Statistics,1 December. (Q6820)Full Citation

32.

UK.2013.‘Table 2.01: Offences Initially Recorded as Homicide by Current Classification, 1961 to 2011/12.’ Crime Statistics, Focus on: Violent Crime and Sexual Offences, 2011/12.London:Office for National Statistics,7 February. (Q6868)Full Citation

33.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - England and Wales.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6221)Full Citation

34.

UK.2012.‘Table 1.01: Offences Initially Recorded by the Police as Homicide by Current Classification: England and Wales, 1961 to 2010/11.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2010/11: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2010/11 - Data Tables.London:Office for National Statistics,19 January. (Q6612)Full Citation

35.

Osborne, Sarah. In: Kevin Smith, Ed..2012.‘Homicides in England and Wales during 2010/11.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2010/11: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2010/11.London:Home Office Statistical Bulletin,1 January. (Q6615)Full Citation

36.

Flatley, John, Chris Kershaw, Kevin Smith, Rupert Chaplin and Debbie Moon.2010.‘Recorded Crime by Offence, 1997 to 2009/10 and percentage change between 2008/09 and 2009/10: Homicide.’ Crime in England and Wales 2009/10: Findings from the British Crime Survey and Police Recorded Crime.London:UK Home Office,1 July. (Q2081)Full Citation

37.

Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares and Arsalaan Siddique.2001.‘Crimes Recorded by Police: Homicide.’ International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999.London:UK Home Office,1 May. (Q2143)Full Citation

38.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

39.

Lau, Ivy. In: Kevin Smith, Ed.2012.‘Table 2.08: Offences Recorded by the Police in Which Firearms Were Reported to Have Been Used, by Offence Group, 2000/01 to 2010/11.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2010/11: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2010/11.London:Home Office Statistical Bulletin,1 January. (Q6614)Full Citation

40.

Smith, Kevin, John Flatley, Kathryn Coleman, Sarah Osborne, Peter Kaiza and Stephen Roe.2010.‘Offences recorded by the police in England and Wales in which firearms were reported to have been used, by offence group, 1998/99 to 2008/09 - Homicide.’ Home Office Statistical Bulletin.London:UK Home Office,21 January. (Q2131)Full Citation

41.

Coleman, Kathryn, Krista Jansson, Peter Kaiza and Emma Reed.2007.‘Crimes recorded by the police in England and Wales in which firearms (including air weapons) were reported to have been used, by offence group - Homicide.’ Home Office Statistical Bulletin.London:UK Home Office,25 January. (Q2130)Full Citation

42.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

43.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in the United Kingdom.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10322)Full Citation

44.

Mauser, Gary A.2003.‘An International Comparison of the Use of Guns in Violent Crime.’ The Failed Experiment: Gun Control and Public Safety in Canada, Australia, England and Wales.Vancouver BC:Public Policy Sources,1 November. (Q11336)Full Citation

45.

Lau, Ivy. In: Kevin Smith, Ed.2012.‘Table 2.07: Offences Recorded by the Police in Which Firearms Were Reported to Have Been Used, by Offence Group and Principal Firearm.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2010/11: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2010/11.London:Home Office Statistical Bulletin,1 January. (Q6608)Full Citation

46.

Eder, Simon. In: Kevin Smith, Ed.2011.‘Table 2.06: Offences Recorded by the Police in Which Firearms Were Reported to Have Been Used, by Offence Group and Principal Firearm.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2009/10: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2009/10.London:Home Office Statistical Bulletin,20 January. (Q6622)Full Citation

47.

Kaiza, Peter. In: Kevin Smith, Ed.2010.‘Table 2.04: Offences Recorded by the Police in Which Firearms Were Reported to Have Been Used, by Offence Group and Principal Firearm.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2008/09: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2008/09.London:Home Office Statistical Bulletin,21 January. (Q6623)Full Citation

48.

Kaiza, Peter. In: David Povey, Ed.2009.‘Table 2.04: Offences Recorded by the Police in Which Firearms Were Reported to Have Been Used, by Offence Group and Principal Firearm.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2007/08: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2007/08.London:Home Office Statistical Bulletin,22 April. (Q6624)Full Citation

49.

Kaiza, Peter. In: David Povey, Ed.2008.‘Table 2.04: Offences Recorded by the Police in Which Firearms Were Reported to Have Been Used, by Offence Group and Principal Firearm.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2006/07: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2006/07.London:Home Office Statistical Bulletin,31 January. (Q6625)Full Citation

50.

Coleman, Kathryn, Krista Jansson, Peter Kaiza and Emma Reed.2007.‘Table 2.04: Offences Recorded by the Police in Which Firearms Were Reported to Have Been Used, by Offence Group and Principal Firearm.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2005/06: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2005/06.London:Home Office Statistical Bulletin,25 January. (Q6626)Full Citation

51.

UK.2013.‘Table 8: Age-standardised Suicide Rates: by Sex and Age Group, England and Wales, 1981 to 2011.’ Suicides in the United Kingdom, 1981 to 2011.London:Office for National Statistics,22 January. (Q6605)Full Citation

52.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

53.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

54.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

55.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

56.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Airgun-related Death and Injury in the United Kingdom and Its Countries.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 16 January.
(G185) Full Citation

57.

UK.2012.‘Table 2.02: Offences Recorded by the Police in which Firearms Were Used Resulting In Injury, By Degree of Injury, 2000/01 to 2010/11.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2010/11: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2010/11 - Data Tables.London:Office for National Statistics,19 January. (Q6613)Full Citation

58.

UK.1968.‘An Act to Consolidate the Firearms Acts - Geographical Extent: E+W+S.’ Firearms Act 1968.London:Parliament of the United Kingdom,30 May. (Q1382)Full Citation

59.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

60.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

61.

UK.2012.‘Table 6: Firearm Dealers: Applications for Registration and Renewal, Granted, and Refused; Dealers Registered, 1995 to 2011/12.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales, 1995 to 2011/12 - Data tables.London:Office for National Statistics,16 August. (Q6861)Full Citation

62.

UK.2003.‘Great Britain - England & Wales and Scotland.’ Firearms and Ammunition Handed In During the Firearms Amnesty 2003.London:UK Home Office,11 July. (Q6816)Full Citation

63.

Stavrianakis, Ann, In: Faltas, Sami and Vera Chrobok (Eds.).2004.‘Storage and Destruction of Surplus Small Arms.’ Disposal of Surplus Small Arms: A survey of policies and practices in OSCE countries.Bonn:Bonn International Center for Conversion, BASIC, Saferworld, and the Small Arms Survey,1 February. (Q3926)Full Citation