Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Ecuador — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Ecuador is 350,0001 2 3

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Ecuador is 2.51 3 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Ecuador, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 100,0004

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 100,0004 handguns in civilian possession in Ecuador

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Ecuador ranked at No. 965

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Ecuador ranked at No. 1423

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Ecuador is reported to be 117,0006

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Ecuador is 0.867

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Ecuador is reported to be

2012: 167,1028
2006: 117,0009
2005: 117,0003

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Ecuador is

2012: 1.107
2006: 0,899
2005: 0.867

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Ecuador there are estimated to be 250,0002

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Ecuador there are estimated to be 1.837 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Ecuador are reported to have 240,00010 2 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Ecuador are reported to have 42,00010 11 2 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Ecuador, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2000: 1,64812

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Ecuador, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2000: 13.247

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Ecuador, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 1,92413
2011: 2,34513 14
2010: 2,63813 15 16 17
2009: 2,625
2008: 2,607
2007: 2,273
2006: 2,385
2005: 2,121
2004: 2,390
2003: 1,937
2002: 1,906
2001: 1,658
2000: 1,833
1999: 2,15015
1998: 1,830
1997: 1,472
1996: 1,865
1995: 1,526

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ecuador, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 12.413
2011: 15.413 14
2010: 17.613 15 16
2009: 17.813 15 16 17
2008: 18.0
2007: 15.9
2006: 17.0
2005: 15.4
2004: 17.7
2003: 14.6
2002: 14.6
2001: 13.0
2000: 14.6
1999: 17.715 18
1998: 15.315
1997: 12.5
1996: 16.1
1995: 13.4

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Ecuador, annual firearm homicides total

2008: 1,79015 19
2006: 1,64613 15 19
2005: 1,718
2004: 1,47215 19
2000: 1,32112

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Ecuador, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 12.715 19
2006: 11.837 15 19
2005: 12.57
2004: 11.115 19
2000: 10.1612

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Ecuador, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 63%14
2006: 69%13
2005: 81%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Ecuador, annual suicides by any means total

2009: 1,17220
2008: 1,105
2007: 1,227
2006: 1,09620 21
2005: 1,12320
2004: 1,034
2003: 881
2002: 707
2001: 711
2000: 64020 12

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ecuador, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 8.620
2008: 8.2
2007: 9.2
2006: 8.320 21
2005: 8.6
2004: 8.020
2003: 6.9
2002: 5.6
2001: 5.7
2000: 5.220 12

Gun Suicides

In Ecuador, annual firearm suicides total 2000: 9512

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Ecuador, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.7312

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Ecuador, annual unintentional shooting deaths total 2000: 3112

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Ecuador, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is 2000: 0.2412

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Ecuador, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total 2000: 20112

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Ecuador, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is 2000: 1.5512

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Ecuador, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Home-made Guns

In Ecuador, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be high8 35

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Ecuador, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law36 37 38 39

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Ecuador is reported by Customs to be US$040 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Ecuador was categorized as 'unknown'41

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Ecuador, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law36 42 43 44 45 46 32 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 39

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Ecuador is reported by Customs to be US$128,89940 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Ecuador is high4 8 54

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Ecuador, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law25 50 55 39 56

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Ecuador include57 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Ecuador is categorised as restrictive58

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Ecuador includes the Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories of 198059 and its Regulations (Executive Decree No. 169 of 1997)60

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Ecuador are regulated by the National Defence Ministry, through the Joint Command of the Armed Forces,61 62 63 8 and the Police64

Right to Possess Firearms

In Ecuador, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law65

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Ecuador, civilians are not allowed to possess weapons of war,66 67 68 69 automatic firearms, pistols with a calibre greater than or equal to 9 mm.70 The possession of revolvers with a calibre not greater than .38 inches, semi-automatic pistols and sub-machine guns with a caliber not greater than 9 mm, and repeating or semi-automatic shotguns is restricted71

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Ecuador, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited70 14

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Ecuador, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is restricted71

Regulation of Handguns

In Ecuador, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited, with some exceptions70 71 14

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Ecuador, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law14

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Ecuador, only licensed gun owners72 73 74 75 76 77 8 14 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Ecuador are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security78 79

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Ecuador is 18 years4

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Ecuador must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental80 81 14 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Ecuador, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required4

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Ecuador does not stipulate4 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Ecuador, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every year for certificates of firearm possession74 and every two years for licences to carry firearms82

Licensing Records

In Ecuador, authorities maintain a record76 83 84 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Ecuador are permitted to possess one firearm for personal defence and another one for sporting or hunting purposes78

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Ecuador, the law requires76 63 43 85 86 35 87 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Ecuador, licensed firearm dealers are required76 83 88 84 89 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Ecuador, licensed gun makers are required76 88 84 33 89 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Ecuador, State agencies are required76 90 89 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Ecuador, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted91 92 93 94 95

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Ecuador, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful23 96 84 97 92 93 95 98 99 31

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Ecuador include23 100 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Ecuador include23 100 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Ecuador include90 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Ecuador include23 30 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Ecuador, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law27 33 101 34 86 87

Firearm Tracing

In Ecuador, state authorities carry out86 87 102 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Ecuador, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit75 77 8 14

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Ecuador, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit75 77 8 14

Gun Free Zones

In Ecuador, private guns are prohibited in public demonstrations, meetings, assemblies, councils and any other sort of public acts103 77

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Ecuador, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm104 is 6 years prison and a fine105 106 107 108

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Ecuador are not known to have109 110 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Collected and Seized

In Ecuador, firearms voluntarily surrendered for destruction, collected or seized in routine policing are reported to number 6,000111 90 (2011) 109 and 4,530110 (2013 and the first three months of 2014)

Small Arms Destroyed

In Ecuador, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 7,00090 (2011) 109

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Ecuador, it is state policy90 8 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Andean Community

As a member of the Andean Community, Ecuador adopted Decision 552: The Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in June, 2003112

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Ecuador adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified113 114 by Ecuador

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2007115 by Ecuador.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed116 by Ecuador

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified117 by Ecuador

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Ecuador committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects118

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Ecuador against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 15119 120 121 122 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Ecuador has submitted one or more national reports123 56 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Ecuador, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated124 56

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Ecuador, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated124 56

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Ecuador submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is not apparent124 56

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated56 by Ecuador to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Ecuador has not declared125 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Ecuador has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945126

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list127 Ecuador as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Ecuador, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Ecuador ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Estimated Total Small Arms, Firearms, and Surpluses in Ecuador, Rounded.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5306)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

4.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Country Summaries - Ecuador.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5307)Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Ecuador.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,10 June. (Q4225)Full Citation

8.

Staff writer.2013.‘What Is Gun Control Like in Ecuador?.’ El Telégrafo.Guayaquil:El Telégrafo,8 May. (Q6723)Full Citation

9.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Legally Registered Civilian Firearms.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9208)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘State Firearms Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8973)Full Citation

11.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 2 - Examples of Police Firearms Per Officer in Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q6545)Full Citation

12.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

13.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Ecuador.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10240)Full Citation

14.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Ecuador.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9338)Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Ecuador.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6332)Full Citation

16.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

17.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

18.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3817)Full Citation

19.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide Committed by Firearms 2000-2010.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9210)Full Citation

20.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Suicide 2000-2009.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9206)Full Citation

21.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Suicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5680)Full Citation

22.

Ecuador.1980.‘Firearm Factories (Fábricas de Armas).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9273)Full Citation

23.

Ecuador.1980.‘People Authorised to Own, Transport and Trade Firearms (Personas Autorizadas para Tener, Transportar o Comercializar Armas de Fuego).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9283)Full Citation

24.

Ecuador.1997.‘Authorisation for the Establishment of Firearm Manufacture (Autorización para la Instalación de Fábricas de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9316)Full Citation

25.

Ecuador.1997.‘Domestic Firearm Manufacturers (Fábricas Nacionales de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9317)Full Citation

26.

Ecuador.1997.‘Authorisation for Firearm Manufacture (Autorización para la Producción de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9318)Full Citation

27.

Ecuador.1997.‘Establishment of Firearm Manufacturers (Instalación de Fábricas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9319)Full Citation

28.

Ecuador.1997.‘Manufacturing of Weapons for Military Use (Fabricación de Armas para uso Militar).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9320)Full Citation

29.

Ecuador.1997.‘Modification of Firearms (Modificación de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9321)Full Citation

30.

Ecuador.1997.‘Transport of Firearms (Transportación de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9322)Full Citation

31.

Ecuador.1997.‘Sites for the Manufacturing, Trade and Storage of Weapons (Lugares para la Fabricación, Comercialización y Almacenamiento de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9336)Full Citation

32.

Ecuador.1997.‘Requirements for Importers with Non-commercial Purposes (Requisitos para los Importadores con Fines No Comerciales).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9291)Full Citation

33.

Ecuador.2012.‘Manufacture (Fabricación).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q10230)Full Citation

34.

Ecuador.2012.‘Marking (Marcaje).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q10236)Full Citation

35.

Ecuador.2008.‘Curbing the Illicit Traffic in Small Arms.’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4750)Full Citation

36.

Ecuador.1980.‘Import and Export of Firearms for Civil Use (Importación y Exportación de Armas de Uso Civil).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9275)Full Citation

37.

Ecuador.1997.‘Export of Firearms for Civil Use (Exportación de Armas de Uso Civil).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9308)Full Citation

38.

Ecuador.1997.‘Export of Firearms for Military or Police Use (Exportación de Armas de Uso Militar o Policial).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9309)Full Citation

39.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

40.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

41.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

42.

Ecuador.1980.‘Authorisation for the Import of Firearms for Civil Use (Autorización para la Importación de Armas de Uso Civil).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9276)Full Citation

43.

Ecuador.1980.‘Import of Firearms for Non-Commercial Purposes (Importación de Armas con Fines No Comerciales).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9277)Full Citation

44.

Ecuador.1980.‘Quantity of Firearms to be Imported (Cantidad de Armas Para la Importación).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9278)Full Citation

45.

Ecuador.1980.‘Confiscation and Seizure of Firearms (Confiscación y Decomisación de Armas).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9279)Full Citation

46.

Ecuador.1980.‘Firearm Imports for the Armed Forces and National Police (Importaciones de Armas para las Fuerzas Armadas y Policía Nacional).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9284)Full Citation

47.

Ecuador.1997.‘Firearm Imports (Importación de Armas de Fuego).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9300)Full Citation

48.

Ecuador.1997.‘Customs Clearance (Despacho Aduanero).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9301)Full Citation

49.

Ecuador.1997.‘Import Procedures (Trámites de la Importación).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9302)Full Citation

50.

Ecuador.1997.‘Importation of Firearms for Civil Use (Importación de Armas de Uso Civil).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9304)Full Citation

51.

Ecuador.1997.‘Imports Without Intermediaries (Importación sin Intermediarios).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9305)Full Citation

52.

Ecuador.1997.‘Quantities Allowed for Importation (Cantidades Permitidas para la Importación).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9306)Full Citation

53.

Ecuador.1997.‘Introduction of Firearms into the Country (Introducción de Armas de Fuego en el País).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9307)Full Citation

54.

Ecuador.1980.‘Seizure of Smuggled Firearms (Decomisación de Armas de Contrabando).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9285)Full Citation

55.

Ecuador.2012.‘Brokering (Intermediación).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q10233)Full Citation

56.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

57.

Ecuador.2012.‘End-user Certificate (Certificado del usuario final).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q10231)Full Citation

58.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

59.

Ecuador.1980.‘Object (Objeto).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9267)Full Citation

60.

Ecuador.1997.‘Purpose and Scope (Finalidad y Alcance).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9287)Full Citation

61.

Ecuador.1980.‘Control of the National Defence Ministry (Control del Ministerio de Defensa Nacional).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9268)Full Citation

62.

Ecuador.1980.‘Weapons Under Control of the the Ministry of National Defence (Armas Sometidas a Control del Ministerio de Defensa Nacional).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9269)Full Citation

63.

Ecuador.1980.‘Authority Responsible for the Registration and Issuance of Licences (Autoridad Facultada para el Registro y Extensión de Permisos).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9281)Full Citation

64.

Ecuador.1997.‘Control Agencies (Organismos de Control).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9288)Full Citation

65.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

66.

Ecuador.1980.‘Prohibited Weapons (Armas Prohibidas).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9270)Full Citation

67.

Ecuador.1980.‘Purchase of Weapons for Military and Police Use (Adquisición de Armas para Uso Militar y Policial).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9271)Full Citation

68.

Ecuador.1997.‘Purchase of Firearms for Military and Police Purposes (Adquisición de Armas para Uso Militar y Policial).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9303)Full Citation

69.

Ecuador.1997.‘Licence to Carry Firearms for Military Personnel (Permiso de Porte de Armas para el Personal Militar).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9327)Full Citation

70.

Ecuador.1997.‘Weapons of War (Armas de Guerra).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9294)Full Citation

71.

Ecuador.1997.‘Restricted Firearms (Armas de Fuego de Uso Restringido).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9295)Full Citation

72.

Ecuador.1980.‘Authorisation to Possess and Carry Firearms (Autorización de Tenencia y Porte de Armas de Fuego).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9280)Full Citation

73.

Ecuador.1997.‘Classification of Firearms (Clasificación de Armas de Fuego).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9293)Full Citation

74.

Ecuador.1997.‘Possession of Firearms (Tenencia de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9323)Full Citation

75.

Ecuador.1997.‘Licence to Carry Firearms - Definition (Permiso de Porte de Armas - Definición).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9324)Full Citation

76.

Ecuador.1997.‘Obligation to Register Firearms (Obligación de Registrar Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9325)Full Citation

77.

Ecuador.1997.‘Licence to Carry Firearms (Permiso de Porte de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9334)Full Citation

78.

Ecuador.1997.‘Licence to Carry Firearms for Individuals (Permisos de Porte para Personas Naturales).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9326)Full Citation

79.

Ecuador.1997.‘Firearms for Civil Use (Armas de Fuego de Uso Civil).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9296)Full Citation

80.

Ecuador.1997.‘Obtaining a Licence to Carry Firearms (Obtención del Permiso de Porte de Armas de Fuego).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9328)Full Citation

81.

Ecuador.1997.‘Prohibition on Carrying Firearms (Prohibición de Porte de Armas de Fuego).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9331)Full Citation

82.

Ecuador.1997.‘Licensing Period (Validez de Permisos).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9329)Full Citation

83.

Ecuador.1997.‘Registration of Business Transactions (Registración de Transacciones Comerciales).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9312)Full Citation

84.

Ecuador.1997.‘Registers for Dealers and Importers (Registros para Comerciantes y Importadores).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9289)Full Citation

85.

Ecuador.2012.‘Record-keeping (Registro).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q10237)Full Citation

86.

Ecuador.2010.‘Report on the Programme of Action (Informe sobre el Programa de Acción).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4749)Full Citation

87.

Ecuador.2006.‘Marking, Registration and Tracing (Marcado, Mantenimiento de Registros y Localización).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 February. (Q4751)Full Citation

88.

Ecuador.1997.‘Records of Quarterly Transfers (Demonstración de los Movimientos Trimestral).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9313)Full Citation

89.

Ecuador.2003.‘Report on the Programme of Action.’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,7 July. (Q4752)Full Citation

90.

Ecuador.2012.‘Stockpile Management (Gestión de las existencias).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q10234)Full Citation

91.

Ecuador.1997.‘Donation and Transfer of Firearms (Donación y Trapaso de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9310)Full Citation

92.

Ecuador.1980.‘Purchase of Weapons for State, Institutions and Companies Use and Civilian Use (Adquisición de Armas para uso del Estado, Instituciones y Empresas y para Uso Civil).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9272)Full Citation

93.

Ecuador.1980.‘Firearm Transfers (Trapasos de Armas).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9274)Full Citation

94.

Ecuador.1997.‘Transfers of Firearms for Personal Use (Traspasos de Armas de Uso Particular).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9311)Full Citation

95.

Ecuador.1997.‘Firearm Sales (Venta de Armas).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9314)Full Citation

96.

Ecuador.1997.‘Requirements for Dealers Who Import (Requisitos para los Comerciantes Importadores).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9292)Full Citation

97.

Ecuador.1997.‘Requirements for Dealers Who Do Not Import (Requisitos para los Comerciantes No Importadores).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9290)Full Citation

98.

Ecuador.1997.‘Licence of Dealers Who Do Not Import (Permiso de Comerciante No-Importador).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9315)Full Citation

99.

Ecuador.1997.‘Purchase of Ammunition for Firearms (Adquisición de Munición para Armas de Fuego).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9330)Full Citation

100.

Ecuador.1997.‘Safety Measures (Medidas de Seguridad).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9337)Full Citation

101.

Ecuador.2012.‘Marking at Import (Marcaje de importación).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q10232)Full Citation

102.

Ecuador.2012.‘International Tracing (Localización internacional).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q10238)Full Citation

103.

Ecuador.1980.‘Prohibition on Carrying Firearms (Prohibición de Porte de Armas de Fuego).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9282)Full Citation

104.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

105.

Ecuador.1980.‘Penalties for Violations of this Act (Sanciones a las Violaciones a esta Ley).’ Act on the Manufacture, Import, Export, Trade and Possession of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories.Quito:Official Registry of the Republic of Ecuador, No. 311,7 November. (Q9286)Full Citation

106.

Ecuador.1997.‘Confiscation of Firearms Without Licence (Decomiso de Armas sin Permiso).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9332)Full Citation

107.

Ecuador.1997.‘Firearms Used to Commit a Crime (Armas de Fuego Utilizadas en Infracciones Penales).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9333)Full Citation

108.

Ecuador.1997.‘Seizure (Decomiso).’ Regulations to the Act on Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Accessories, Executive Decree No. 169. RO/32.Quito:Ministry of the Attorney General of the Republic of Ecuador,27 March. (Q9335)Full Citation

109.

Ronan Graham. 2011. ‘Ecuador Destroys 4,000 Illegal Weapons.’ InSight Crime (Bogota). 15 December. (N358) Full Citation

110.

Mimi Yagoub. 2014. ‘Crime, Conflict, Illegal Mining Fuel Ecuador Arms Trafficking.’ InSight Crime (Bogota). 13 May. (N357) Full Citation

111.

Ecuador.2012.‘Confiscation and Seizure (Confiscación y expropiación).’ National Report of Ecuador on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Ecuador to the United Nations,1 January. (Q10235)Full Citation

112.

UNODA.2003.‘Decision 552: Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its Aspects.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Andean Community / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,11 April. (Q3220)Full Citation

113.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

114.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington, DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

115.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

116.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

117.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

118.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

119.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

120.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

121.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

122.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

123.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

124.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

125.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

126.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

127.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation