Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Costa Rica — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Costa Rica is 400,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Costa Rica is 8.61 2 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Costa Rica ranked at No. 873

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Costa Rica ranked at No. 642

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Costa Rica is reported to be

2015: 230,8314
1999: 152,9235

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Costa Rica is

2015: 4.796
1999: 4.02

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Costa Rica is reported to be

2015: 230,8314
2005: 149,4232 7

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Costa Rica is

2015: 4.796
2005: 3.55

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Costa Rica are reported to have 08 9 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Costa Rica are reported to have 5,0008 10 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Costa Rica, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2010: 33111
2002: 18712 13

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Costa Rica, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 7.336
2002: 4.65

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Costa Rica, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 41114
2012: 40714 15 16
2011: 47414 15 12
2010: 52714 15 12 17
2009: 52515 12 17 18
2008: 512
2007: 369
2006: 351
2005: 335
2004: 280
2003: 300
2002: 258
2001: 257
2000: 249
1999: 24512
1998: 224
1997: 210
1996: 189
1995: 184

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Costa Rica, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 8.7414
2012: 8.7614 15 16
2011: 10.2714 15 12
2010: 11.5514 15 12 17
2009: 11.415 12 17 18
2008: 11.3
2007: 8.3
2006: 8.0
2005: 7.8
2004: 6.6
2003: 7.2
2002: 6.3
2001: 6.4
2000: 6.4
1999: 6.412
1998: 6.0
1997: 5.8
1996: 5.3
1995: 5.3

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Costa Rica, annual firearm homicides total

2013: 27814
2012: 26114 15
2011: 300
2010: 349
2009: 33615
2008: 348
2007: 225
2006: 21815 12 19
2005: 19612 19
2004: 150
2003: 147
2002: 131
2001: 134
1999: 12612
1998: 118
1997: 108
1996: 95
1995: 87

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Costa Rica, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 5.926
2012: 5.63
2011: 6.56
2010: 7.73
2009: 7.54
2008: 7.92
2007: 5.19
2006: 5.116 12 19 18
2005: 4.512 19 18
2004: 3.5
2003: 3.512 19
2002: 3.2
2001: 3.3
1999: 3.312
1998: 3.2
1997: 3.0
1996: 2.7
1995: 2.5

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Costa Rica, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 68%14
2012: 65%14 15 16
2011: 64%14 15
2010: 66%
2009: 64%15
2008: 68%
2007: 61%
2006: 62%
2005: 58.5%12
2004: 53.6%
2003: 49.0%
2002: 50.8%
2001: 52.1%
1999: 51.4%
1998: 52.7%
1997: 51.4%
1996: 50.3%
1995: 47.3%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Costa Rica, annual suicides by any means total

2009: 27920
2008: 262
2007: 272
2006: 30820 21
2005: 27320
2004: 277
2003: 280
2002: 246
2001: 181
2000: 244
1995: 21113

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Costa Rica, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 6.120
2008: 5.8
2007: 6.120 21
2006: 7.0
2005: 6.3
2004: 6.520
2003: 6.7
2002: 6.0
2001: 4.5
2000: 6.2
1995: 5.0613

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Costa Rica, annual firearm suicides total

2010: 5111
2002: 5313

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Costa Rica, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 1.136
2002: 1.2713

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Costa Rica, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2010: 411
2002: 313

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Costa Rica, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.096
2002: 0.0713

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Costa Rica, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 511
2000: 1013

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Costa Rica, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.116
2000: 0.2413

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Costa Rica, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence22 23 24 25 26

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Costa Rica, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law22 27 23 28 25 29

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Costa Rica is reported by Customs to be US$33630 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Costa Rica, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law22 31 32 23 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 25 29 40

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Costa Rica is reported by Customs to be US$3,619,98030 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Costa Rica is moderate5

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Costa Rica, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law41

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Costa Rica do not include41 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Costa Rica is categorised as restrictive42

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Costa Rica includes the Arms and Explosives Law No. 7530 of 1995,43 26 its Regulation No. 3798544 and the Regulation for the Administration, Use, and Control of Firearms by the Ministry of Public Works and Transport45

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Costa Rica are regulated by the Ministry of Public Security, the Armaments Directorate, the Arms Registry, the National Arsenal, and the Arms and Explosives Control Department46 47 48 49 50

Right to Possess Firearms

In Costa Rica, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law51 52 53 54

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Costa Rica, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, machine guns, sub-machine guns, semi-automatic rifles and carbine with magazines that hold more than ten bullets (except rimfire cartridges), silencers, and armour-piercing, tracer, explosive and incendiary ammunition55

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Costa Rica, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited55 56 57 58 16

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Costa Rica, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence,59 60 with some restrictions

Regulation of Handguns

In Costa Rica, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence,59 60 57 with some restrictions16

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Costa Rica, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law59 60 57 16

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Costa Rica, only the owners of licensed (registered) guns61 54 62 63 64 25 16 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Costa Rica are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example personal protection, security, hunting, sports shooting and collection53 54 62 63 65 66 67 68

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Costa Rica is 18 years to possess and carry, or 14 years for hunting and target shooting while under the immediate supervision of an appropriately licensed adult69 70 71 72

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Costa Rica must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental73 74 75 65 76 77 78 79 80 16 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Costa Rica, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required41

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Costa Rica does not stipulate41 81 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Costa Rica, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required82 83 76 84 79 85 26 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Costa Rica, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every year, only for a special licence to carry a firearm for self-defence54

Licensing Records

In Costa Rica, authorities maintain a record61 82 73 86 85 26 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Costa Rica are permitted to possess no more than three firearms intended for personal protection, but there is no limit on firearms for hunting and target shooting61 87 88 89

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Costa Rica are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition41

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Costa Rica, the law requires61 82 74 26 73 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Costa Rica, licensed firearm dealers are required90 91 92 89 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Costa Rica, State agencies are required46 93 94 95 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Costa Rica, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful22 96 23 97 98 40

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Costa Rica is obliged73 74 40 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Costa Rica, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined41

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Costa Rica include53 99 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Costa Rica include96 100 101 40 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Costa Rica include102 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Costa Rica include33 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Costa Rica, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law103

Firearm Tracing

In Costa Rica, state authorities carry out73 104 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Costa Rica, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not89 73 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Costa Rica, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited105 16

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Costa Rica, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit105 54 16

Gun Free Zones

In Costa Rica, private guns are prohibited in State facilities, public institutions, health and educational institutions, and in demonstrations or public meetings106

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Costa Rica, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm107 is 5 years prison108 109

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Costa Rica are known to have110 111 112 113 50 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Collected and Seized

In Costa Rica, firearms voluntarily surrendered for destruction, collected or seized in routine policing are reported to number 38,000114 (2010-2014),115 116 3,241 117(2004), 1,002 (2003), and 1,047 (2002)

Small Arms Destroyed

In Costa Rica, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 10,974112 (2006-2008) and 32,000114 (2012-2014)116

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Costa Rica, it is not state policy118 119 120 111 89 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Central American Integration System

As a member of the Central American Integration System (SICA), Costa Rica is party to the 2007 Central American Programme on Small Arms Control and the Code of Conduct of Central American States on the Transfer of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Material121

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Costa Rica adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified122 123 by Costa Rica

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006124 by Costa Rica.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified125 by Costa Rica

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified126 by Costa Rica

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Costa Rica committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects127

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Costa Rica against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 115128 129 130 131 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Costa Rica has submitted one or more national reports132 133 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Costa Rica, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated134 133

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Costa Rica, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated134

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Costa Rica submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent135

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated133 by Costa Rica to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided133 to Costa Rica by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Costa Rica has not declared136 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Costa Rica has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945137

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list138 Costa Rica as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Costa Rica, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Costa Rica ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

Aguilar, Luigi Calvo.2015.‘Number of Registered Firearms; Number of Licensed Firearm Owners.’ Personal E-mail correspondence.San José:Ministry of Public Security of Costa Rica, Arms and Explosives Department,6 February. (Q9181)Full Citation

5.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

6.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Costa Rica.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,1 February. (Q4219)Full Citation

7.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Legally Registered Civilian Firearms.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9208)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘State Firearms Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8973)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

11.

Fleitas, Diego Manuel, Germán Lodola and Hernán Flom.2014.‘Country Profiles on Crime and Violence: Costa Rica.’ Crime and Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: Regional Country Profiles.Buenos Aires:Asociación para Políticas Públicas (APP) and Action on Armed Violence (AOAV),1 January. (Q11445)Full Citation

12.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Costa Rica.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6349)Full Citation

13.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

14.

Igarapé Institute.2015.‘Homicides and Homicide Rates 2000 to 2014 - Costa Rica.’ Homicide Monitor 2015.Rio de Janeiro:Igarapé Institute,24 June. (Q11104)Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Costa Rica.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10161)Full Citation

16.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Costa Rica.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9720)Full Citation

17.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

18.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

19.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide Committed by Firearms 2000-2010.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9210)Full Citation

20.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Suicide 2000-2009.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9206)Full Citation

21.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Suicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5680)Full Citation

22.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Manufacture, Storage, Trade, Import and Export (Fabricación, Almacenamiento, Comercio, Importación y Exportación).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4165)Full Citation

23.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Features of the Licence (Características del Permiso).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4171)Full Citation

24.

Costa Rica.2006.‘Free Zone Regime (Régimen de Zonas Francas).’ Directive No. 10 on Free Zones and Firearms Manufacture.San José:The Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,17 October. (Q11460)Full Citation

25.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Classes of Permits (Clases de permisos).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11480)Full Citation

26.

Costa Rica.2003.‘National Report 2003 - Registration (Informe Nacional 2003 - Registro).’ National Report of Costa Rica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations,27 June. (Q3692)Full Citation

27.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Export Requirements (Requisitos para Exportar).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4162)Full Citation

28.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Temporary Permit to Export Firearms (Permiso temporal de exportación de armas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11472)Full Citation

29.

Costa Rica.2003.‘National Report 2003 - Import and Export Controls (Informe Nacional 2003 - Importación y Exportación).’ National Report of Costa Rica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations,27 June. (Q3689)Full Citation

30.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

31.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Licence to Import Ammunition (Permiso para Importar Tiros).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4132)Full Citation

32.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Permit to Foreigners to Import Arms and Ammunition (Permiso a Extranjeros para Ingresar Armas y Tiros).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4139)Full Citation

33.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Safety Requirements to Import Arms (Requerimientos de Seguridad para Importar Armas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4173)Full Citation

34.

Costa Rica.2014.‘Import of Prohibited Firearms (Importación de Armas de Fuego Prohibidas).’ Agreement No. 180 on the Import of Firearms Similar to Prohibited Firearms.San José:Ministry of Public Security,11 August. (Q11461)Full Citation

35.

Costa Rica.2014.‘Import Permits for Firearms that Resemble Prohibited Firearms (Permisos de Importación de Armas de Fuego que Simulan Armas Prohibidas).’ Agreement No. 180 on the Import of Firearms Similar to Prohibited Firearms.San José:Ministry of Public Security,11 August. (Q11462)Full Citation

36.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Permit to Import Ammunition (Permiso para importar munición).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11473)Full Citation

37.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Occasional Permit to Import Permitted Firearms (Permiso de importación ocasional de armas permitidas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11474)Full Citation

38.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Requirements of the Permit to Import Firearms (Solicitud del permiso de importación de armas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11475)Full Citation

39.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Permit to Regularly Import Firearms and Ammunition (Permiso para la importación habitual de armas y municiones).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11476)Full Citation

40.

Costa Rica.2003.‘National Report 2003 - Regulation of Firearm Sales (Informe Nacional 2003 - Regulación de la Venta de Armas).’ National Report of Costa Rica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations,27 June. (Q3687)Full Citation

41.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Scope (Campo de Aplicación).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4318)Full Citation

42.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

43.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Scope (Campo de Aplicación).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4317)Full Citation

44.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Scope of Application (Ámbito de aplicación).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11458)Full Citation

45.

Costa Rica.2014.‘Scope of the Application (Ámbito de Aplicación).’ Regulation No. 38256 for the Administration, Use, and Control of Firearms by the Ministry of Public Works and Transport.San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,14 March. (Q11466)Full Citation

46.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Creation (Creación).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4056)Full Citation

47.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Definitions (Definiciones).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11467)Full Citation

48.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Control and Monitoring (Control y fiscalización).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11507)Full Citation

49.

Costa Rica.2003.‘National Report 2003 - Regulation Authority (Informe Nacional 2003 - Autoridad Reguladora).’ National Report of Costa Rica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations,27 June. (Q3686)Full Citation

50.

Godnick, William and Helena Vasquez.2003.‘Costa Rica: Small Arms Control.’ Small Arms Control in Central America: Monitoring the Implementation of Small Arms Control Projects (MISAC).London:International Alert, Security and Peacebuilding Programme,1 June. (Q5566)Full Citation

51.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

52.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

53.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Possession and Use of Permitted Firearms (Posesión y Uso de Armas Permitidas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4109)Full Citation

54.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Special Licence (Permiso Especial).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4130)Full Citation

55.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Prohibited Firearms (Armas Prohibidas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4107)Full Citation

56.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Prohibited Firearm Collections (Colección de Armas Prohibidas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4179)Full Citation

57.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Permitted Firearms (Armas permitidas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11504)Full Citation

58.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Prohibited Firearms (Armas prohibidas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11505)Full Citation

59.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Permitted Firearms (Armas Permitidas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4110)Full Citation

60.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Sporting Arms (Armas para Deportistas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4135)Full Citation

61.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Firearm Registration by Individuals (Inscripción de Armas por Parte de Personas Físicas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4106)Full Citation

62.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Scope of the Licence (Alcances del Permiso de Inscripción).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4136)Full Citation

63.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Firearm Collectors (Poseedores de Colecciones).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4177)Full Citation

64.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Permit to Carry Firearms for Individuals (Permiso de portación de armas para personas físicas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11479)Full Citation

65.

Costa Rica.2015.‘Firearms Carrying for Private Security Agents, Amended (Porte de Armas para Agentes de Seguridad Privada, Modificado).’ Agreement No. 122 on the Carrying of Firearms by Private Security Agents.San José:Ministry of Public Security,23 June. (Q11463)Full Citation

66.

Costa Rica.2015.‘Firearms Carrying for Private Security Agents (Porte de Armas para Agentes de Seguridad Privada).’ Agreement No. 112 on Carrying of Firearms by Private Security Agents.San José:Ministry of Public Security,23 June. (Q11464)Full Citation

67.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Registration of Firearms for Hunting or Sports Shooting Purposes (Inscripción de armas para el tiro deportivo o cacería).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11471)Full Citation

68.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Special Carrying Permit (Permiso especial de portación).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11477)Full Citation

69.

Costa Rica.1995.‘People Who Cannot Carry Arms (Personas Inhibidas para Portar Armas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4055)Full Citation

70.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4108)Full Citation

71.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Licence for Minors (Permisos a Menores).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4138)Full Citation

72.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Permits for Minors (Permisos a menores).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11470)Full Citation

73.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Intervention of the Department (Intervención del Departamento).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4111)Full Citation

74.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Registering a Firearm (Solicitudes de Inscripción).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4131)Full Citation

75.

Costa Rica.2012.‘Assessment of Mental Fitness to Carry Firearms (Evaluación de Idoneidad Mental para Portar Armas).’ Regulation No. 3 Amending the Professional Association of Psychologists Regulation.San José:Psychologists Association of Costa Rica,11 October. (Q11459)Full Citation

76.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Application and Requirements to Obtain a Carrying Permit for Individuals (Solicitud y requisitos para obtener el permiso de portación para personas físicas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11478)Full Citation

77.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Background Check (Certificación de antecedentes).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11485)Full Citation

78.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Mental Health Certificate (Dictamen de idoneidad mental).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11486)Full Citation

79.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Requirements for the Registration of Permitted Firearms (Requisitos de inscripción de armas permitidas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11502)Full Citation

80.

Costa Rica.2012.‘Mental and Physical Fitness to Carry Firearms (Idoneidad Física y Mental para Portar Armas).’ Directive No. 0 Amending the Directive No. 1 of January 10, 2012: Administrative Provisions for the Control and Monitoring of Firearms.San José:Ministry of Public Security,13 February. (Q11508)Full Citation

81.

Costa Rica.2012.‘Registration of Firearms (Inscripción de Armas).’ Directive No. 0 Amending the Directive No. 1 of January 10, 2012: Administrative Provisions for the Control and Monitoring of Firearms.San José:Ministry of Public Security,13 February. (Q11509)Full Citation

82.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Requirements to Register Firearms (Requisitos para Inscribir Armas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4105)Full Citation

83.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Requirements for the Firearm Carrying Licence (Requisitos para Permisos de Portación de Armas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4299)Full Citation

84.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Theory - Practice Exam (Examen teórico - práctico).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11484)Full Citation

85.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Compulsory Registration (Obligatoriedad de inscribir).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11503)Full Citation

86.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Ownership Documents for Permitted Firearms (Documentos de propiedad de armas permitidas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11501)Full Citation

87.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Number of Permitted Arms (Cantidad de Armas Permitidas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4137)Full Citation

88.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Quantity of Permitted Firearms (Cantidad de armas permitidas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11510)Full Citation

89.

Godnick, William and Helena Vasquez.2003.‘Costa Rica: Domestic Arms Control Laws.’ Small Arms Control in Central America: Monitoring the Implementation of Small Arms Control Projects (MISAC).London:International Alert, Security and Peacebuilding Programme,1 June. (Q5567)Full Citation

90.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Information Sent by Dealers (Información de los Comerciantes).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4163)Full Citation

91.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Monthly Report (Reporte mensual).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11481)Full Citation

92.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Firearms Sales Report (Reporte de venta de arma de fuego).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11487)Full Citation

93.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Control of State Arms (Control de Armas en Poder del Estado).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4057)Full Citation

94.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Firearms Inventory of Public Institutions (Inventario de armas de las instituciones públicas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11506)Full Citation

95.

Costa Rica.2003.‘National Report 2003 - Government Firearms (Informe Nacional 2003 - Armas en Manos del Estado).’ National Report of Costa Rica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations,27 June. (Q3682)Full Citation

96.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Registration of Businesses (Inscripción de Establecimientos).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4164)Full Citation

97.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Registration of Firearms and Ammunition Dealers (Inscripción de los establecimientos comerciales para la venta habitual de armas permitidas y su munición).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11483)Full Citation

98.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Sales Permit (Permiso de venta).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11488)Full Citation

99.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Security of Firearm Collections (Seguridad para las Colecciones).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4178)Full Citation

100.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Storage Restrictions (Restricciones para el Almacenamiento).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4172)Full Citation

101.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Inspection of Businesses (Inspección del establecimiento).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11482)Full Citation

102.

Costa Rica.2003.‘National Report 2003 - Stockpile Managment (Informe Nacional 2003 - Manejo de Arsenal).’ National Report of Costa Rica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations,27 June. (Q3691)Full Citation

103.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Marking of Government Arms (Identificación de Armas Gubernamentales).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4054)Full Citation

104.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Traceability and Consultation of the System (Trazabilidad y consulta del sistema).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11469)Full Citation

105.

Costa Rica.1995.‘How to Carry Firearms (Forma de Portar Armas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4129)Full Citation

106.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Firearm Carrying in State Institutions (Ingreso de Armas a Instituciones Estatales).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4133)Full Citation

107.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

108.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Possession of Prohibited Firearms (Tenencia de Armas Prohibidas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4175)Full Citation

109.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Possession and Carrying of Permitted Firearms (Tenencia y Portación de Armas Permitidas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4176)Full Citation

110.

UNDPI.2006.‘Major Review at United Nations to Assess Progress Made, Actions Needed to Further Stem Illegal Small Arms Trade.’ Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, Peace and Security Section.New York, NY:United Nations,20 June. (Q5075)Full Citation

111.

Costa Rica.2005.‘National Report 2005 - Seizure and Destruction (Informe Nacional 2005 - Incautación y Destrucción).’ National Report of Costa Rica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations,8 July. (Q3681)Full Citation

112.

Espinoza, Ana Yancy.2010.‘Seized and Destroyed Arms (Armas Decomisadas y Destruidas).’ IX Seminar: Control of Arms Transfers and Trafficking - Compilation (IX Seminario: Control del Tráfico y Transferencia de Armas de Fuego - Sistematización).Santa Marta:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,25 February. (Q5508)Full Citation

113.

REDCEPAZ.2006.‘Seized Firearms (Decomiso de Armas).’ The Problem of Illegal Arms in Central America (El problema de las Armas Ilegales en Centroamérica).Guatemala City:REDCEPAZ (Red Centroamericana para la Construcción de la Paz y la Seguridad Humana),1 March. (Q5509)Full Citation

114.

Zach Dyer. 2014. ‘Public Security Ministry Destroys Record Number Of Guns.’ Tico Times (Costa Rica). 28 March. (N365) Full Citation

115.

Karp, Aaron, Nicholas Marsh and Giorgio Ravagli.2015.‘Number of Firearms Reported Seized by Police, 2010-2013.’ UNODC Study on Firearms 2015.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),3 July. (Q10542)Full Citation

116.

Latin American Herald Tribune (Venezuela). 2013. ‘Costa Rica Has Seized More Than 8,000 Illegal Firearms Since 2010.’ 3 December. (N366) Full Citation

117.

CICAD.2005.‘Number of Confiscated Firearms (2002, 2003 and 2004).’ Costa Rica: Evaluation of Progress in Drug Control 2003-2004.Washington, DC:Organization of American States, Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD),10 August. (Q8890)Full Citation

118.

Costa Rica.1995.‘Firearm Seizure (Comiso de Armas).’ Arms and Explosives Law 7530 of 1995 (Ley de Armas y Explosivos, Ley 7530 de 1995).San Jose:Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica,10 July. (Q4174)Full Citation

119.

Costa Rica.2014.‘Reiteration of Circular N°6-11 (Reiteración de la Circular Nº 6-11).’ Circular No. 214-2014 on the Management of Firearms Under Custody of the National Arsenal.San José:Superior Council of Judicial Power of Costa Rica,8 October. (Q11465)Full Citation

120.

Costa Rica.2013.‘Use of Seized Firearms (Destino de las armas decomisadas).’ Regulation of the Arms and Explosives Act No. 37985-SP (Reglamento a la Ley de Armas y Explosivos Nº 37985-SP).San José:Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica,12 September. (Q11468)Full Citation

121.

UNODA.2007.‘Central American Programme on Small Arms Control.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Central American Integration System / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 January. (Q3221)Full Citation

122.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

123.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington, DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

124.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

125.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

126.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

127.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

128.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

129.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

130.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

131.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

132.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

133.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

134.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

135.

Costa Rica.2005.‘National Report 2005 - International Cooperation (Informe Nacional 2005 - Cooperación Internacional).’ National Report of Costa Rica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Costa Rica to the United Nations,8 July. (Q3684)Full Citation

136.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

137.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

138.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation