Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Colombia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Colombia is 3,200,0001 2 3

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Colombia is 6.91 3 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Colombia ranked at No. 304

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Colombia ranked at No. 913

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Colombia is reported to be 2009: 882,9285

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Colombia is 2009: 2.026

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Colombia is reported to be

2009: 1,247,6005 7
2006: 706,2108
2005: 706,2109 3

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Colombia is

2009: 2.866
2006: 1.648
2005: 1.706

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Colombia there are estimated to be 800,000 to 2,400,0002 7 9

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Colombia there are estimated to be 1.93 to 5.786 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Colombia are reported to have 430,00010 2 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In Colombia, police officers on routine patrol do not carry a firearm11

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Colombia are reported to have 285,00010 12 2 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Colombia, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 1999: 20,39513 14

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Colombia, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 1999: 52.896

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Colombia, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 15,74215
2011: 15,57216
2010: 15,45916 17
2009: 15,81716 17 18 19
2008: 16,140
2007: 17,198
2006: 17,479
2005: 18,111
2004: 20,210
2003: 23,523
2002: 28,837
2001: 27,84016 20 17 18 19
2000: 26,54016 17 18 19
1999: 24,35816 21 19
1998: 23,09616 21
1997: 25,379
1996: 26,64216
1995: 25,398

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Colombia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 34.0015
2011: 33.216
2010: 33.416 17
2009: 34.616 17 18
2008: 35.9
2007: 38.8
2006: 40.0
2005: 42.1
2004: 47.7
2003: 56.4
2002: 70.2
2001: 68.9
2000: 66.7
1999: 62.316 21
1998: 60.1
1997: 67.2
1996: 71.816
1995: 69.7

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Colombia, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 12,53916 22
2009: 12,80816 19 21 22
2008: 12,89616 19 22
2007: 13,818
2006: 13,195
2005: 14,763
2004: 16,979
2003: 11,30919 22
2002: 24,340
2001: 22,44319 20 22
2000: 21,89813 19 17
1999: 19,67813 19
1998: 18,91013

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Colombia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 27.116 22
2009: 28.1
2008: 28.7
2007: 31.216 22 18
2006: 31.816 22
2005: 34.3
2004: 40.1
2003: 28.036 22
2002: 61.15
2001: 57.09
2000: 51.7713 22
1999: 47.4213
1998: 46.35

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In Colombia, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be 2012: 78%15

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Colombia, annual suicides by any means total

2009: 1,84523
2008: 3,19624 23
2007: 3,105
2006: 3,016
2005: 2,841
2004: 3,095
2003: 2,922
2002: 2,630
2001: 2,66924 20 23
2000: 2,58524 23
1999: 2,08923
1998: 2,04614

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Colombia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 4.1023
2008: 7.124 23
2007: 7.0
2006: 6.9
2005: 6.6
2004: 7.3
2003: 7.0
2002: 6.4
2001: 6.6
2000: 6.5
1999: 5.2523
1998: 4.6314

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Colombia, annual firearm suicides total

2009: 38223
2001: 62720
1999: 64114

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Colombia, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.876
2001: 1.59
1999: 1.4514

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Colombia, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2001: 7020
1999: 6414

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Colombia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2001: 0.186
1999: 0.1414

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Colombia, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2001: 17820
1999: 1214

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Colombia, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2001: 0.456
1999: 0.0314

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

In Colombia, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries is 2001: 6,79725

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

In Colombia, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury per 100,000 population is 2001: 17.296

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Colombia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited, for all excluding official government manufacturers26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Colombia is ranked 'small'35

Home-made Guns

In Colombia, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be high36

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Colombia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law27 37 38 39 40 41 42

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Colombia is reported by Customs to be US$7,848,24343 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Colombia is categorized as 'minor'44

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Colombia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law26 27 37 38 39 40 41

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Colombia is reported by Customs to be US$53,773,86943 (2011)45

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Colombia is high46 47

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Colombia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law48 49

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Colombia include38 50 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, Colombia was ranked at No. 3551

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Colombia is categorised as restrictive52

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Colombia includes the Constitution, Article 223,26 the Decree 2535 of 1993,53 the Decree 1809 of 1994,54 the Decree 2685 of 1999,55 the Law 599 of 2000 (Penal Code), Articles 365 and 366, as amended by Articles 38 and 55 of the Law 1142 of 2007, and the Law 1119 of 200656

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Colombia are regulated by the Arms Committee of the Ministry of National Defence,57 58 the Head of the Department for the Trade Control of Arms, Ammunition and Explosives, the Chiefs of Staff of the Tactical Operations Units or their equivalent in the Navy or the Air Force and the Executive and Deputy-Heads of Tactical Units of the National Army, or their equivalents in the Navy and the Air Force59

Right to Possess Firearms

In Colombia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law60 26 61

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Colombia, civilians are not allowed to possess pistols and revolvers of calibre superior to 9.652mm, automatic arms, semi-automatic rifles and carbines over 22 caliber LR, arms with military-style devices (infrared and laser sights, grenade launchers and silencers),62 54 63 and explosive, toxic, expanding and fragmenting ammunition 64

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Colombia, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited with only narrow exemptions62 65 66 67 15

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Colombia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited with only narrow exemptions62 67

Regulation of Handguns

In Colombia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence68 62 65 66 67 15

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Colombia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law68 62 15

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Colombia, only licensed gun owners26 61 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 29 76 77 78 15 58 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Colombia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example personal protection, security, hunting, target shooting, collection79 75 70 80 73 76 77 78

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Colombia is 18 years78

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Colombia must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental, health and addiction75 81 78 15 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Colombia stipulates82 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Colombia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required (for surveillance or private security services)83 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Colombia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every ten years (for firearms not to be carried outside of the house or property),73 three years (for self-defence) and one year (for restricted weapons)84 85

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Colombia are permitted to possess two firearms for individuals74 66 and up to five firearms for legal persons and rural properties86 87 88

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Colombia, the law requires89 90 91 67 92 93 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Colombia, licensed gun makers are required31 94 89 90 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Colombia, State agencies are required89 90 91 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Colombia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited outside immediate family members27 95 96 97

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Colombia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful27 95 96 97 98 99 100 101

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Colombia include102 77 103 104 85 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Colombia include31 30 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Colombia include104 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Colombia include71 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Colombia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law33 105 106 107 108 109 92

Firearm Tracing

In Colombia, state authorities carry out91 110 111 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Colombia, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not107 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Colombia, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law26 61 112 84 74 85 15 7

Gun Free Zones

In Colombia, private guns are prohibited in political meetings, elections or public corporations' meetings26

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Colombia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm113 is 12 years prison114 115 85 116

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Colombia are known to have117 118 119 120 121 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Colombia, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 18,051122 (2003-06) and 250119 (2010 in Bogotá only)

Firearms Collected and Seized

ChartIn Colombia, firearms voluntarily surrendered for destruction, collected or seized in routine policing are reported to number

2013: 44,139123 124
2012: 75,213
2011: 42,062125
2009: 47,941126 127 128
2008: 45,725126
2007: 56,682129 120
2006: 70,036
2004: 71,937130
2003: 54,756

Small Arms Destroyed

In Colombia, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 15,026121 (2002), 28,103120 (2006/2007), 27,864 (2008), 26,014118 (2009),5 9,487119 (2010 in Bogotá only), 42,052 (2011),131 74,359 (2012) and 41,073 (2013)124

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Colombia, it is not state policy132 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Andean Community

As a member of the Andean Community, Colombia adopted Decision 552: The Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in June, 2003133

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Colombia adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified134 135 by Colombia

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2008136 by Colombia.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified137 by Colombia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed138 by Colombia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Colombia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects139

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Colombia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 36140 141 142 143 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Colombia has submitted one or more national reports144 145 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Colombia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated146 145

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Colombia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated146

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Colombia submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent147 146

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated145 by Colombia to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided145 to Colombia by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Colombia has declared148 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Colombia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945149

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list150 Colombia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Colombia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Colombia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Estimated Total Small Arms, Firearms, and Surpluses in Colombia, Rounded.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5304)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

Jimeno, Rafael Hani.2010.‘Registration System, Control and Traceability of Firearms and Ammunition in Colombia (Sistema de registro, control y trazabilidad de las armas y municiones en Colombia).’ IX Seminar: Control of Arms Transfers and Trafficking - Compilation (IX Seminario: Control del Tráfico y Transferencia de Armas de Fuego - Sistematización).Santa Marta:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,25 February. (Q8986)Full Citation

6.

GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Colombia.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,22 May. (Q4217)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Country Analyses: Columbia.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q9771)Full Citation

8.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Legally Registered Civilian Firearms.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9208)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Country Summaries - Colombia.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5305)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘State Firearms Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8973)Full Citation

11.

Colombia.2010.‘Registration and Marking of Government Firearms (Registro y Marcación de Armas del Estado).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q9774)Full Citation

12.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 2 - Examples of Police Firearms Per Officer in Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q6545)Full Citation

13.

UNODC.2004.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (1998-2000).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 March. (Q91)Full Citation

14.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

15.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Colombia.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9718)Full Citation

16.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Colombia.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6338)Full Citation

17.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

18.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

19.

Arias, Carlos Hernán Marín.2010.‘Impact of Firearm Injuries (Impacto de las Lesiones por Proyectiles de Armas de Fuego).’ IX Seminar: Control of Arms Transfers and Trafficking - Compilation (IX Seminario: Control del Tráfico y Transferencia de Armas de Fuego - Sistematización).Santa Marta:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,25 February. (Q8988)Full Citation

20.

Luz, Janeth Forero.2002.‘Mortality Statistics for Year 2001.’ National Violence Reference Center of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science (Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses de Colombia).Bogotá:National Violence Reference Center of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science (CRNV),24 April. (Q9939)Full Citation

21.

Acero, Andrea del Pilar.2010.‘Homicide 2009: Femicide, Feminicide and Homicide in Women (Homicidio 2009: Femicidio, Feminicidio y Homicidio en Mujeres).’ Forensis 2009: Data for Life.Bogotá:National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science,1 May. (Q3710)Full Citation

22.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide Committed by Firearms 2000-2010.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9210)Full Citation

23.

Valenzuela, Diana M.2010.‘Suicide Epidemiology, Colombia, 2009 (Epidemiología del Suicidio, Colombia, 2009).’ Forensis 2009: Data for Life.Bogotá:National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science,1 May. (Q3709)Full Citation

24.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Suicide 2000-2009.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9206)Full Citation

25.

Luz, Janeth Forero.2002.‘Injury Statistics for Year 2001.’ National Violence Reference Center of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science (Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses de Colombia).Bogotá:National Violence Reference Center of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science (CRNV),24 April. (Q9940)Full Citation

26.

Colombia.1991.‘Article 223 (Artículo 223).’ Political Constitution of Colombia (Constitución Política de Colombia).Bogotá:Presidency of Colombia,4 July. (Q5051)Full Citation

27.

Colombia.1993.‘Exclusivity (Exclusividad).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogotá:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q5223)Full Citation

28.

Colombia.1993.‘Functioning (Funcionamiento).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9748)Full Citation

29.

Colombia.1993.‘Repair of Firearms (Reparación de Armas).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9749)Full Citation

30.

Colombia.1993.‘Security Measures (Medidas de Seguridad).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9750)Full Citation

31.

Colombia.1994.‘Factories and Workshops (Fábricas y Talleres).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9765)Full Citation

32.

Colombia.2014.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,2 March. (Q9922)Full Citation

33.

Colombia.2014.‘Marking at Manufacture.’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,2 March. (Q9923)Full Citation

34.

Colombia.2006.‘Marking, Record-keeping and Tracing (Marcado, Mantenimiento de Registros y Localización).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,14 March. (Q9780)Full Citation

35.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

36.

Colombia.2010.‘Information Exchange (Intercambio de Información).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3415)Full Citation

37.

Colombia.1993.‘Import and Export of Firearms (Importación y Exportación de Armas).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9746)Full Citation

38.

Colombia.1994.‘Import and Export of Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives (Importación y Exportación de Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9763)Full Citation

39.

Colombia.1993.‘Temporary Import and Export (Importación y Exportación Temporal).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9747)Full Citation

40.

Colombia.1994.‘Temporary Export and Import Permits (Permisos de Exportación e Importación Temporal).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9764)Full Citation

41.

Colombia.2008.‘Export and Import Licences (Licencias de Exportación e Importación).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3574)Full Citation

42.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

43.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

44.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

45.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

46.

Peru.2010.‘Illicit Trafficking (Tráfico Ilícito).’ National Report of Peru on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Peru to the United Nations,1 June. (Q5747)Full Citation

47.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

48.

Colombia.2008.‘Brokering (Intermediación).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3559)Full Citation

49.

Colombia.2006.‘Brokering (Intermediación).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,14 March. (Q9781)Full Citation

50.

Colombia.2006.‘End User Certificate (Certificado de Uso Final).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 May. (Q3491)Full Citation

51.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

52.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

53.

Colombia.1993.‘Scope (Ambito).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogotá:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q5222)Full Citation

54.

Colombia.1994.‘Weapons of War or for the Restricted Use of the Armed Forces (Armas de Guerra o Uso Privativo de la Fuerza Pública).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9757)Full Citation

55.

Colombia.2005.‘Firearm Law (Legislación Sobre Armas de Fuego).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,30 April. (Q3416)Full Citation

56.

Colombia.2008.‘Firearm Law (Legislación Sobre Armas de Fuego).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3412)Full Citation

57.

Colombia.1994.‘Arms Committee of the Ministry of National Defence (Comité de Armas del Ministerio de Defensa Nacional).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9760)Full Citation

58.

Oxford Analytica.2014.‘Legal Firearms.’ Crime, Gun Demand form Vicious Circle in Latin America.Oxford:Oxford Analytica Daily Brief,3 September. (Q9770)Full Citation

59.

Colombia.1993.‘Competences (Competencias).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9739)Full Citation

60.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

61.

Colombia.1993.‘State Permit (Permiso del Estado).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogotá:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q5224)Full Citation

62.

Colombia.1993.‘Weapons of War (Armas de Guerra).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogotá:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q5225)Full Citation

63.

Colombia.1993.‘Prohibited Firearms (Armas Prohibidas).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9729)Full Citation

64.

Colombia.1993.‘Prohibition (Prohibición).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9745)Full Citation

65.

Colombia.1993.‘Restricted Firearms (Armas de Uso Restringido).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogotá:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q5226)Full Citation

66.

Colombia.1994.‘Authorisation to Carry Restricted Firearms (Porte de Armas de Uso Restringido).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9758)Full Citation

67.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5363)Full Citation

68.

Colombia.1993.‘Self Defence Arms (Armas de Defensa Personal).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogotá:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q5228)Full Citation

69.

Colombia.1993.‘Ownership of Firearms and Ammunition (Tenencia de Armas y Municiones).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9730)Full Citation

70.

Colombia.1994.‘Permits for Collectors and Sportsmen (Permisos para Coleccionistas y Deportistas).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9759)Full Citation

71.

Colombia.1993.‘Transport of Firearms (Transporte de Armas).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9732)Full Citation

72.

Colombia.1993.‘Permits (Permisos).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9733)Full Citation

73.

Colombia.1993.‘Ownership Permit (Permiso para Tenencia).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9734)Full Citation

74.

Colombia.1993.‘Authorisations for Individuals (Autorizaciones a Personas Naturales).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9736)Full Citation

75.

Colombia.1993.‘Requirements for the Request of an Ownership Permit (Requisitos para Solicitud de Permiso para Tenencia).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9740)Full Citation

76.

Colombia.1993.‘Firearm Collectors (Coleccionistas de Armas de Fuego).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9752)Full Citation

77.

Colombia.1994.‘Permits for Firearm Collectors (Permisos para Coleccionistas de Armas).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9767)Full Citation

78.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5410)Full Citation

79.

Colombia.1993.‘Classification (Clasificación).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogotá:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q5227)Full Citation

80.

Colombia.1993.‘Requirements for the Request of a Carrying Permit (Requisitos para Solicitud de Permiso para Porte).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9741)Full Citation

81.

Colombia.1994.‘Medical Certificate (Certificado Médico).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9761)Full Citation

82.

Colombia.2008.‘Protection Measures in Cases of Domestic Violence (Medidas de Protección en Casos de Violencia Intrafamiliar).’ Law 1257 of 2008 on Violence and Discrimination against Women (Ley 1257 de 2008 sobre Violencia y Discriminación contra las Mujeres).Bogotá:Congress of Colombia,4 December. (Q5143)Full Citation

83.

Colombia.1993.‘Fitness for the Use of Firearms (Idoneidad para el Uso de Armas).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9755)Full Citation

84.

Colombia.1993.‘Carrying Permit (Permiso para Porte).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9735)Full Citation

85.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5431)Full Citation

86.

Colombia.1993.‘Authorisations for Legal Persons (Autorizaciones para Personas Jurídicas).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9737)Full Citation

87.

Colombia.1993.‘Authorisations for Rural Properties (Autorizaciones para Inmuebles Rurales).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9738)Full Citation

88.

Colombia.1993.‘Use of Firearms by Private Security and Surveillance Services (Uso de Armas para Servicios de Vigilancia y Seguridad Privada).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9754)Full Citation

89.

Colombia.2014.‘Record-keeping.’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,2 March. (Q9928)Full Citation

90.

Colombia.2008.‘Marking (Marcación).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3493)Full Citation

91.

Colombia.2010.‘Marking, Registration and Tracing (Marcado, Registro y Localización).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3411)Full Citation

92.

OAS CICAD.2010.‘Control Measures - Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and other Related Materials.’ Evaluation of Progress in Drug Control 2007-2009 - Colombia.Washington, DC:Organization of American States / OAS, Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM),1 January. (Q9777)Full Citation

93.

Colombia.2006.‘Control on the Carrying and Ownership of Firearms.’ Act No. 1119 of December 27, 2006 on Firearm Registration and Permits (Ley 1119 de Diciembre 27, 2006).Bogota:Congress of the Republic of Colombia,27 December. (Q9853)Full Citation

94.

Colombia.2014.‘Record-keeping by Manufacturers.’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,2 March. (Q9924)Full Citation

95.

Colombia.1993.‘Request for the Transfer of the Use of Firearms (Solicitud para la Cesión del Uso de Armas).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9742)Full Citation

96.

Colombia.1993.‘Transfer Process (Procedencia de la Cesión).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9743)Full Citation

97.

Colombia.1994.‘Transfer of Firearms for Restricted Purposes (Cesión de Armas de Uso Restringido).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9762)Full Citation

98.

Colombia.1993.‘Ammunition Sales (Venta de Municiones).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9744)Full Citation

99.

Colombia.1993.‘Sales to Club Members (Venta a Socios).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9751)Full Citation

100.

Colombia.1994.‘Ammunition Sales to Club Members (Venta de Municiones a Socios de Clubes).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9766)Full Citation

101.

Colombia.1994.‘Ammunition Sale for Private Security (Venta de Munición para Seguridad Privada).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9769)Full Citation

102.

Colombia.1993.‘Storage (Depósito).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9753)Full Citation

103.

Colombia.1994.‘Security Measures for Firearm Collectors (Medidas de Seguridad para Coleccionistas).’ Decree No. 1809 of 1994, Firearms Regulation.Bogota:President of the Republic of Colombia,3 August. (Q9768)Full Citation

104.

Colombia.2008.‘Stockpile Management (Gestión de los Arsenales).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3558)Full Citation

105.

Colombia.2002.‘Firearm Marking - Act 737 of 2002 (Ley 737 de 2002).’ Act No. 737 of 2002, on the Implementation of the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials.Bogota:Republic of Colombia,5 March. (Q9851)Full Citation

106.

Colombia.2002.‘Firearm Marking (Marcaje de Armas de Fuego).’ Act No. 737 of 2002, on the Implementation of the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials.Bogota:Republic of Colombia,5 March. (Q9852)Full Citation

107.

Colombia.2006.‘Marking (Marcación).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 May. (Q3494)Full Citation

108.

Colombia.2006.‘Marking, Record-keeping and Tracing (Marcado, Mantenimiento de Registros y Localización).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,14 March. (Q9779)Full Citation

109.

Colombia.2003.‘Marking, Tracing and Record Keeping (Marcaje, Rastreo y Archivo).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,30 April. (Q3495)Full Citation

110.

OAS CICAD.2010.‘Control Measures - Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and other Related Materials.’ Evaluation of Progress in Drug Control 2007-2009 - Colombia.Washington, DC:Organization of American States / OAS, Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM),1 January. (Q9775)Full Citation

111.

OAS CICAD.2010.‘Control Measures - Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and other Related Materials.’ Evaluation of Progress in Drug Control 2007-2009 - Colombia.Washington, DC:Organization of American States / OAS, Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM),1 January. (Q9776)Full Citation

112.

Colombia.1993.‘Carrying Firearms and Ammunition (Porte de Armas y Municiones).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9731)Full Citation

113.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

114.

Colombia.2000.‘Manufacture, Trafficking, Carrying and Ownership of Firearms (Fabricación, Tráfico, Porte o Tenencia de Armas de Fuego).’ Act No. 599 of July 24, 2000; Criminal Code.Bogota:Republic of Colombia,24 July. (Q9854)Full Citation

115.

Colombia.2000.‘Manufacture, Trafficking and Carrying of Firearms of Restricted Use (Fabricación, Tráfico y Porte de Armas de Uso Restringido).’ Act No. 599 of July 24, 2000; Criminal Code.Bogota:Republic of Colombia,24 July. (Q9855)Full Citation

116.

Colombia.1993.‘Reasons for Confiscation (Causal de incautación).’ Decree 2535 of 1993 on Arms, Ammunition and Explosives (Decreto 2535 de 1993 sobre Armas, Municiones y Explosivos).Bogota:Presidency of Colombia,17 December. (Q9756)Full Citation

117.

Prensa Latina (Havana). 2014. ‘Thousands of Colombians Arrested for Illegally Carrying Weapons.’ 13 January. (N319) Full Citation

118.

Colombia.2010.‘Handling of Guns (Manejo de Armas).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3413)Full Citation

119.

CERAC.2010.‘Collection and Destruction.’ Centro de Recursos para el Analsis de Conflictos.Bogotá:Centro de Recursos para el Analsis de Conflictos / CERAC,3 December. (Q3362)Full Citation

120.

Colombia.2008.‘Seizure Data (Cifras por Decomiso).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3496)Full Citation

121.

Colombia.2003.‘Seizure and Destruction (Confiscación, Decomiso y Destrucción).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,30 April. (Q3492)Full Citation

122.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Summary of Disarmament Outcomes in 45 DDR Programmes.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,9 July. (Q2941)Full Citation

123.

Colombia.2014.‘Confiscation and Seizure.’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,2 March. (Q9926)Full Citation

124.

Colombia.2014.‘Collection of Historical Firearms (Colecciones de Armas Históricas).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,2 March. (Q9927)Full Citation

125.

Colombia.2012.‘Confiscation and Seizure (Confiscación y Expropiación).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,2 March. (Q9929)Full Citation

126.

Colombia.2010.‘Seized Firearms in 2008, 2009 and 2010 (Armas Incautadas en 2008, 2009 y 2010).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q9772)Full Citation

127.

Rodríguez, Cesar Mauricio.2010.‘Multicriminal Symbiosis of Arms Trafficking (Simbiosis multicriminal del tráfico de armas).’ IX Seminar: Control of Arms Transfers and Trafficking - Compilation (IX Seminario: Control del Tráfico y Transferencia de Armas de Fuego - Sistematización).Santa Marta:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,25 February. (Q8985)Full Citation

128.

Colombia.2010.‘Information Exchange (Intercambio de Información).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q9773)Full Citation

129.

Colombia.2008.‘Types of Seized Firearms 2006–2007 (Incautación de Armas según Clase 2006-2007).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q9778)Full Citation

130.

Colombia.2006.‘Seized Firearms and Ammunition 2003-2004 (Armas de Fuego Incautadas 2003-2004).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,14 March. (Q9782)Full Citation

131.

Colombia.2012.‘Collection (Recogida).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,2 March. (Q9930)Full Citation

132.

Colombia.2014.‘Surplus.’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,2 March. (Q9925)Full Citation

133.

UNODA.2003.‘Decision 552: Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its Aspects.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Andean Community / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,11 April. (Q3220)Full Citation

134.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

135.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington, DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

136.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

137.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

138.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

139.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

140.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

141.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

142.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

143.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

144.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

145.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

146.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

147.

Colombia.2008.‘Civil Society Involvement (Cooperación con la Sociedad Civil).’ National Report of Colombia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations,1 March. (Q3417)Full Citation

148.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

149.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

150.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation