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Canada — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Canada is

2011: 8,619,3281 2 3
2010: 8,383,265
2009: 8,205,454
2008: 8,044,572
2005: 9,950,0004

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Canada is

2011: 25.335 6 3
2010: 24.83
2009: 24.50
2008: 24.22
2005: 30.84

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Canada, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 3,500,0007

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Canada, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 2,600,0007

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Canada, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 1,100,0007

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Canada ranked at No. 128

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Canada ranked at No. 134

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Canada, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 15.5%9
1999/2003: 17.0%
1995/98: 20.8%
1992: 24.2%10
1992/94: 26.0%9
1989: 31.0%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Canada, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 19.3%10

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Canada, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 15.4%10

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Canada, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 2.9%9
1999/2003: 1.8%
1995/98: 2.3%
1992/94: 3.9%9 10
1989: 5.2%9

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Canada is reported to be

2015: 2,026,01111
2014: 1,989,18112
2013: 1,960,38013
2012: 1,938,080
2011: 1,902,815
2010: 1,848,00013 14
2009: 1,843,91313
2008: 1,859,501
2006: 1,908,01114

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Canada is

2015: 5.775
2014: 5.9412
2013: 5.675
2012: 5.65
2011: 5.59
2010: 5.47
2009: 5.51
2008: 5.60
2006: 5.84

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Canada is reported to be

2015: 978,34711
2014: 911,78912 15 16
2013: 847,31217 15 16
2012: 767,019
2011: 7,835,75317
2010: 7,646,69914 17 18
2009: 7,459,50417
2008: 7,313,247
2006: 7,102,46614

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Canada is

2016: 2.775
2014: 2.7212 15 16
2013: 2.455 15 16
2012: 2.24
2011: 23.035
2010: 22.575 18
2009: 22.285
2008: 22.02
2006: 21.74

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

ChartUnlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Canada there are estimated to be

2011: 783,5751 19 3
2010: 762,115
2009: 745,950
2008: 731,325

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

ChartUnlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Canada the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2011: 2.305
2010: 2.26
2009: 2.23
2008: 2.20

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Canada are reported to have 233,94920 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Canada are reported to have 125,05621 22 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 69823 24 25
2010: 77723 24
2009: 735
2008: 747
2007: 744
2006: 798
2005: 839
2004: 767
2003: 813
2002: 827
2001: 86023 24 26
2000: 89823 24

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 2.055 25
2010: 2.305
2009: 2.19
2008: 2.25
2007: 2.26
2006: 2.44
2005: 2.59
2004: 2.39
2003: 2.55
2002: 2.61
2001: 2.74
2000: 2.89

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual homicides by any means total

2014: 51627
2013: 50527 28
2012: 54328 29 30
2011: 59828 31 29 32
2010: 55428 31 29 32 33
2009: 61028 31 29 32 33 34
2008: 61128 31 29 32 33 34
2007: 59428 31 29 32 33 34 35
2006: 60628 31 29 32 33 34
2005: 663
2004: 624
2003: 549
2002: 582
2001: 553
2000: 546
1999: 53828 32
1998: 558
1997: 586
1996: 635
1995: 588
1994: 59627
1993: 627
1992: 732
1991: 754
1990: 660
1989: 657
1988: 576
1987: 644

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.4527
2013: 1.4428
2012: 1.5628 29 30
2011: 1.7428 29 32
2010: 1.6328 29 32 33
2009: 1.8128 29 32 33 34
2008: 1.84
2007: 1.8128 29 32 33 34 35
2006: 1.8628 29 32 33 34
2005: 2.06
2004: 1.95
2003: 1.74
2002: 1.86
2001: 1.78
2000: 1.78
1999: 1.7728 32
1998: 1.85
1997: 1.96
1996: 2.14
1995: 2.01
1994: 2.0628
1993: 2.19
1992: 2.58
1991: 2.69
1990: 2.38
1989: 2.41
1988: 2.15
1987: 2.43

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Canada, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 15611
2013: 13123
2012: 172
2011: 15823 29 25
2010: 17123 29 36
2009: 18223 29 32 36
2008: 201
2007: 18823 29 32 35 36
2006: 19023 29 32 36
2005: 223
2004: 17323 32 36
2003: 161
2002: 152
2001: 171
2000: 18423 32
1999: 165
1998: 151
1997: 18632
1996: 207
1995: 168

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.455
2013: 0.38
2012: 0.50
2011: 0.465 25
2010: 0.515 36
2009: 0.545 32 36 34
2008: 0.61
2007: 0.575 32 36 34 35
2006: 0.585 32 36 34
2005: 0.69
2004: 0.545 32 36 34
2003: 0.505 32 36
2002: 0.48
2001: 0.54
2000: 0.59
1999: 0.545 32
1998: 0.49
1997: 0.632
1996: 0.7
1995: 0.6
1992: 0.7637

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Canada, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 27%23
2012: 33%23 30
2011: 27%23 29
2010: 39%
2009: 31%
2008: 34%
2007: 33%
2006: 32%
2005: 34%
2004: 28%23
2003: 31%
2002: 27%
2001: 31%
2000: 34%
1999: 31%
1998: 27%
1997: 35.6%32
1996: 36.0%
1995: 31.2%

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Canada, annual handgun homicides total

2013: 8623
2012: 107
2011: 9423 24
2010: 101
2009: 113
2008: 124
2007: 126
2006: 110
2005: 130
2004: 112
2003: 110
2002: 98
2001: 110
2000: 107
1999: 8923
1998: 70

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.255
2012: 0.31
2011: 0.28
2010: 0.30
2009: 0.34
2008: 0.37
2007: 0.38
2006: 0.34
2005: 0.40
2004: 0.35
2003: 0.34
2002: 0.31
2001: 0.35
2000: 0.34
1999: 0.29
1998: 0.23

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Canada, annual long gun homicides total

2013: 3923
2012: 48
2011: 4523 24
2010: 50
2009: 46
2008: 52
2007: 49
2006: 63
2005: 70
2004: 52
2003: 45
2002: 46
2001: 53
2000: 69
1999: 6423
1998: 65

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.115
2012: 0.14
2011: 0.13
2010: 0.15
2009: 0.14
2008: 0.16
2007: 0.15
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.22
2004: 0.16
2003: 0.14
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.17
2000: 0.22
1999: 0.21
1998: 0.21

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Canada, annual gun homicides (other) total

2013: 623
2012: 17
2011: 1923 24
2010: 20
2009: 23
2008: 25
2007: 13
2006: 17
2005: 23
2004: 9
2003: 6
2002: 8
2001: 8
2000: 8
1999: 1223
1998: 16

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.025
2012: 0.05
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.06
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.07
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.04
1998: 0.05

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual suicides by any means total

2011: 3,72631
2010: 3,948
2009: 3,885
2008: 3,70031 38
2007: 3,60831 38 39
2006: 3,511
2005: 3,741
2004: 3,613
2003: 3,764
2002: 3,648
2001: 3,68831 38 39
2000: 3,605
1999: 4,07426

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 10.955
2010: 11.69
2009: 11.60
2008: 11.145 38
2007: 10.955 38 39
2006: 10.75
2005: 11.55
2004: 11.24
2003: 11.80
2002: 11.53
2001: 11.75
2000: 11.59
1999: 12.9326
1992: 13.1940

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Canada, annual firearm suicides total

2011: 51824 25
2010: 58724
2009: 531
2008: 518
2007: 534
2006: 586
2005: 593
2004: 568
2003: 618
2002: 633
2001: 651
2000: 685

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 1.525 25
2010: 1.745
2009: 1.59
2008: 1.60
2007: 1.62
2006: 1.79
2005: 1.83
2004: 1.77
2003: 1.94
2002: 2.00
2001: 2.075 26
2000: 2.205
1992: 3.7241

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Canada, annual handgun suicides total

2011: 2524
2010: 42
2009: 42
2008: 33
2007: 13
2006: 25
2005: 13
2004: 18
2003: 20
2002: 15
2001: 15
2000: 16

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.075
2010: 0.12
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.05

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Canada, the number of long gun suicides is

2011: 16624
2010: 242
2009: 215
2008: 243
2007: 125
2006: 129
2005: 120
2004: 125
2003: 107
2002: 127
2001: 123
2000: 131

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.495
2010: 0.72
2009: 0.64
2008: 0.73
2007: 0.38
2006: 0.40
2005: 0.37
2004: 0.39
2003: 0.36
2002: 0.40
2001: 0.39
2000: 0.42

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Canada, annual gun suicides (other) total

2011: 32724
2010: 303
2009: 274
2008: 242
2007: 396
2006: 432
2005: 460
2004: 425
2003: 491
2002: 491
2001: 513
2000: 538

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.965
2010: 0.90
2009: 0.82
2008: 0.73
2007: 1.20
2006: 1.31
2005: 1.42
2004: 1.32
2003: 1.54
2002: 1.55
2001: 1.63
2000: 1.73

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2011: 1624 25
2010: 1124
2009: 10
2008: 20
2007: 17
2006: 17
2005: 17
2004: 23
2003: 27
2002: 31
2001: 2824 26
2000: 2024

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.055
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.08
2002: 0.10
2001: 0.095 26
2000: 0.06
1992: 0.2242

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2011: 024
2010: 0
2009: 1
2008: 3
2007: 1
2006: 0
2005: 1
2004: 0
2003: 1
2002: 0
2001: 1
2000: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.005
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2011: 624
2010: 6
2009: 5
2008: 8
2007: 7
2006: 8
2005: 4
2004: 5
2003: 6
2002: 6
2001: 3
2000: 1

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.025
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2011: 1024
2010: 5
2009: 4
2008: 9
2007: 9
2006: 9
2005: 12
2004: 18
2003: 20
2002: 25
2001: 24
2000: 18

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.035
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.08
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.06

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 624 25
2010: 824
2009: 12
2008: 8
2007: 5
2006: 5
2005: 6
2004: 3
2003: 7
2002: 11
2001: 10
2000: 9

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.025
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.03
1992: 0.0743

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 024
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 0
2007: 1
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 1
2002: 0
2001: 0
2000: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.005
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 124
2010: 0
2009: 1
2008: 3
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 4
2004: 0
2003: 1
2002: 2
2001: 1
2000: 1

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.005
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 524
2010: 7
2009: 10
2008: 5
2007: 3
2006: 4
2005: 2
2004: 3
2003: 5
2002: 9
2001: 9
2000: 7

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.015
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.02

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Canada, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Canada was ranked 'small'58

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Canada, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Canada is reported by Customs to be US$91,375,68567 (2011)68 69 70 71 72

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Canada was categorized as 'major'73 74 72 75

Firearm Imports

In Canada, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law59 60 61 76 77 64 65 66 78 79

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Canada is reported by Customs to be US$274,795,49367 (2011)80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Canada is moderate88 89

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Canada, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law90 91 92 93 94

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Canada include60 95 77 96 97 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Canada scored

2016: 11.2598
2014: 10.2599
2013: 11.75100
2012: 12.25101
2011: 11.75102
2010: 12.25103
2009: 12.25104
2008: 12.00105
2007: 11.25106
2006: 10.25107
2005: 11.50108
2004: 11.50109

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Canada is categorised as restrictive110

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Canada includes the Firearms Act,111 Authorizations to Transport Restricted and Prohibited Firearms Regulations,112 Firearms Licences Regulations,113 Conditions of Transferring Firearms Regulations,114 Firearms Marking Regulations,115 Firearms Records Regulations,116 117 118 Criminal Code,119 120 Export and Import Permits Act,121 the Defence Production Act,122 123 and United Nations Act124

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Canada are regulated by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Justice,111 the Department of Public Works and Government Services,125 Chief Firearms Officers44 126 127 and the Firearms Registrar61

Right to Possess Firearms

In Canada, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law128 129 127

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Canada, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms except those registered before 1978,130 131 handguns with a barrel of 105mm or less in length, specifically modified handguns, rifles or shotguns,131 132 48 and certain types of ammunition133

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Canada, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited, except those registered before 1978130 131 30

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Canada, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence131 134

Regulation of Handguns

In Canada, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence130 131 135 136 30

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Canada, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law131 30

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Canada, only licensed gun owners127 137 138 30 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Canada are not required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm except when the licence concerns prohibited130 and restricted firearms139 135 131

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Canada is 18 years or 12 years, with limitations140 141

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Canada must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, addiction and domestic violence127 142 30 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Canada, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required143 142

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Canada, licensing authorities are required143 142 144 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Canada stipulates127 143 145 146 144 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Canada, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required134 147 148 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Canada, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years149 150

Licensing Records

In Canada, authorities maintain a record61 151 152 148 153 154 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Canada are permitted to possess any number of firearms92 93 94 155

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Canada are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition92 93 94 155

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Canada, the law requires (for prohibited and restricted firearms only131)156 118 157 158 159 61 151 152 160 161 162 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Canada, licensed firearm dealers are required163 61 164 165 166 57 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Canada, licensed gun makers are required61 165 57 167 168 154 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Canada, State agencies are required169 148 153 47 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Canada, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted for non-restricted firearms and prohibited, without authorisation from the chief firearms officer, for restricted or prohibited firearms163 164 166 165

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Canada, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful44 163 164 165 166

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Canada is not obliged163 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Canada is not obliged163 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Canada, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 28 days on first application for a licence, but none for subsequent acquisitions170 163

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Canada, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated171 172 173 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Canada include174 175 176 177 178 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Canada include179 180 181 182 178 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Canada include183 178 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Canada include173 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Canada, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law192 193 194 195 56 196

Firearm Tracing

In Canada, state authorities carry out197 167 168 198 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Canada, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not199 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Canada, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit.139 135 136 30 Such permits are rarely granted

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Canada, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm200 is five to 10 years in prison201 202 203 145 204 205 206 45 207 208 209 210 211

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Canada are known to have212 213 214 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Canada, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2014: 27,989215
2013: 30,877216
2012: 32,063217
2011: 48,904214 218
2010: 45,550214 219

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Canada, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2011: 32,267220 214
2010: 35,592
2009: 20,557221 21

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Canada, it is state policy222 223 220 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Canada adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified224 225 226 by Canada

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists227 Canada as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006228 by Canada.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed229 by Canada

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified230 by Canada

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Canada committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects231 224

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Canada against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 20232 233 234 235 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Canada has submitted one or more national reports236 237 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Canada, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated238 237

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Canada, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated238

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Canada submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent238 237

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated237 by Canada to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Canada has declared239 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Canada has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945240

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists241 224 Canada as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Canada, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Canada ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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