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Canada — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Canada is 9,950,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Canada is 30.81 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Canada, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 3,500,0002

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Canada, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 2,600,0002

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Canada, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 1,100,0002

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Canada ranked at No. 123

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Canada ranked at No. 131

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Canada, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2004/05: 15.5%4
1999/2003: 17.0%
1995/98: 20.8%
1992: 24.2%5
1992/94: 26.0%4
1989: 31.0%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Canada, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 19.3%5

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Canada, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 15.4%5

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Canada, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2004/05: 2.9%4
1999/2003: 1.8%
1995/98: 2.3%
1992/94: 3.9%4 5
1989: 5.2%4

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Canada is reported to be

2016: 2,026,0116
2014: 1,989,1817
2013: 1,960,3808
2012: 1,938,080
2011: 1,902,815
2010: 1,848,000
2009: 1,843,913
2008: 1,859,501

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Canada is

2016: 5.739
2014: 5.947
2013: 5.679
2012: 5.65
2011: 5.59
2010: 5.47
2009: 5.51
2008: 5.60

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Canada is reported to be

2016: 978,3476
2014: 911,78910 11 12
2013: 847,31213 11 12
2012: 767,019
2011: 7,835,75313
2010: 7,621,15013 14
2009: 7,459,50413
2008: 7,313,247

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Canada is

2016: 2.779
2014: 2.7210 11 12
2013: 2.459 11 12
2012: 2.24
2011: 23.039
2010: 22.579 14
2009: 22.289
2008: 22.02

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Canada are reported to have 233,94915 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Canada are reported to have 125,05616 17 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 69818 19 20
2010: 77718 19
2009: 735
2008: 747
2007: 744
2006: 798
2005: 839
2004: 767
2003: 813
2002: 827
2001: 86018 19 21
2000: 89818 19

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 2.059 20
2010: 2.309
2009: 2.19
2008: 2.25
2007: 2.26
2006: 2.44
2005: 2.59
2004: 2.39
2003: 2.55
2002: 2.61
2001: 2.74
2000: 2.89

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual homicides by any means total

2014: 51622
2013: 50522 23
2012: 54323 24 25
2011: 59823 26 24 27
2010: 55423 26 24 27 28
2009: 61023 26 24 27 28 29
2008: 61123 26 24 27 28 29
2007: 59423 26 24 27 28 29 30
2006: 60623 26 24 27 28 29
2005: 663
2004: 624
2003: 549
2002: 582
2001: 553
2000: 546
1999: 53823 27
1998: 558
1997: 586
1996: 635
1995: 588
1994: 59622
1993: 627
1992: 732
1991: 754
1990: 660
1989: 657
1988: 576
1987: 644

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.4522
2013: 1.4423
2012: 1.5623 24 25
2011: 1.7423 24 27
2010: 1.6323 24 27 28
2009: 1.8123 24 27 28 29
2008: 1.84
2007: 1.8123 24 27 28 29 30
2006: 1.8623 24 27 28 29
2005: 2.06
2004: 1.95
2003: 1.74
2002: 1.86
2001: 1.78
2000: 1.78
1999: 1.7723 27
1998: 1.85
1997: 1.96
1996: 2.14
1995: 2.01
1994: 2.0623
1993: 2.19
1992: 2.58
1991: 2.69
1990: 2.38
1989: 2.41
1988: 2.15
1987: 2.43

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Canada, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 1566
2013: 13118
2012: 172
2011: 15818 24 20
2010: 17118 24 31
2009: 18218 24 27 31
2008: 201
2007: 18818 24 27 30 31
2006: 19018 24 27 31
2005: 223
2004: 17318 27 31
2003: 161
2002: 152
2001: 171
2000: 18418 27
1999: 165
1998: 151
1997: 18627
1996: 207
1995: 168

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.459
2013: 0.38
2012: 0.50
2011: 0.469 20
2010: 0.519 31
2009: 0.549 27 31 29
2008: 0.61
2007: 0.579 27 31 29 30
2006: 0.589 27 31 29
2005: 0.69
2004: 0.549 27 31 29
2003: 0.509 27 31
2002: 0.48
2001: 0.54
2000: 0.59
1999: 0.549 27
1998: 0.49
1997: 0.627
1996: 0.7
1995: 0.6
1992: 0.7632

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Canada, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 27%18
2012: 33%18 25
2011: 27%18 24
2010: 39%
2009: 31%
2008: 34%
2007: 33%
2006: 32%
2005: 34%
2004: 28%18
2003: 31%
2002: 27%
2001: 31%
2000: 34%
1999: 31%
1998: 27%
1997: 35.6%27
1996: 36.0%
1995: 31.2%

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Canada, annual handgun homicides total

2013: 8618
2012: 107
2011: 9418 19
2010: 101
2009: 113
2008: 124
2007: 126
2006: 110
2005: 130
2004: 112
2003: 110
2002: 98
2001: 110
2000: 107
1999: 8918
1998: 70

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.259
2012: 0.31
2011: 0.28
2010: 0.30
2009: 0.34
2008: 0.37
2007: 0.38
2006: 0.34
2005: 0.40
2004: 0.35
2003: 0.34
2002: 0.31
2001: 0.35
2000: 0.34
1999: 0.29
1998: 0.23

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Canada, annual long gun homicides total

2013: 3918
2012: 48
2011: 4518 19
2010: 50
2009: 46
2008: 52
2007: 49
2006: 63
2005: 70
2004: 52
2003: 45
2002: 46
2001: 53
2000: 69
1999: 6418
1998: 65

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.119
2012: 0.14
2011: 0.13
2010: 0.15
2009: 0.14
2008: 0.16
2007: 0.15
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.22
2004: 0.16
2003: 0.14
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.17
2000: 0.22
1999: 0.21
1998: 0.21

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Canada, annual gun homicides (other) total

2013: 618
2012: 17
2011: 1918 19
2010: 20
2009: 23
2008: 25
2007: 13
2006: 17
2005: 23
2004: 9
2003: 6
2002: 8
2001: 8
2000: 8
1999: 1218
1998: 16

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.029
2012: 0.05
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.06
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.07
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.04
1998: 0.05

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual suicides by any means total

2011: 3,72626
2010: 3,948
2009: 3,885
2008: 3,70026 33
2007: 3,60826 33 34
2006: 3,511
2005: 3,741
2004: 3,613
2003: 3,764
2002: 3,648
2001: 3,68826 33 34
2000: 3,605
1999: 4,07421

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 10.959
2010: 11.69
2009: 11.60
2008: 11.149 33
2007: 10.959 33 34
2006: 10.75
2005: 11.55
2004: 11.24
2003: 11.80
2002: 11.53
2001: 11.75
2000: 11.59
1999: 12.9321
1992: 13.1935

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Canada, annual firearm suicides total

2011: 51819 20
2010: 58719
2009: 531
2008: 518
2007: 534
2006: 586
2005: 593
2004: 568
2003: 618
2002: 633
2001: 651
2000: 685

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 1.529 20
2010: 1.749
2009: 1.59
2008: 1.60
2007: 1.62
2006: 1.79
2005: 1.83
2004: 1.77
2003: 1.94
2002: 2.00
2001: 2.079 21
2000: 2.209
1992: 3.7236

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Canada, annual handgun suicides total

2011: 2519
2010: 42
2009: 42
2008: 33
2007: 13
2006: 25
2005: 13
2004: 18
2003: 20
2002: 15
2001: 15
2000: 16

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.079
2010: 0.12
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.05

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Canada, the number of long gun suicides is

2011: 16619
2010: 242
2009: 215
2008: 243
2007: 125
2006: 129
2005: 120
2004: 125
2003: 107
2002: 127
2001: 123
2000: 131

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.499
2010: 0.72
2009: 0.64
2008: 0.73
2007: 0.38
2006: 0.40
2005: 0.37
2004: 0.39
2003: 0.36
2002: 0.40
2001: 0.39
2000: 0.42

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Canada, annual gun suicides (other) total

2011: 32719
2010: 303
2009: 274
2008: 242
2007: 396
2006: 432
2005: 460
2004: 425
2003: 491
2002: 491
2001: 513
2000: 538

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.969
2010: 0.90
2009: 0.82
2008: 0.73
2007: 1.20
2006: 1.31
2005: 1.42
2004: 1.32
2003: 1.54
2002: 1.55
2001: 1.63
2000: 1.73

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2011: 1619 20
2010: 1119
2009: 10
2008: 20
2007: 17
2006: 17
2005: 17
2004: 23
2003: 27
2002: 31
2001: 2819 21
2000: 2019

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.059
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.08
2002: 0.10
2001: 0.099 21
2000: 0.06
1992: 0.2237

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2011: 019
2010: 0
2009: 1
2008: 3
2007: 1
2006: 0
2005: 1
2004: 0
2003: 1
2002: 0
2001: 1
2000: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.009
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2011: 619
2010: 6
2009: 5
2008: 8
2007: 7
2006: 8
2005: 4
2004: 5
2003: 6
2002: 6
2001: 3
2000: 1

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.029
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2011: 1019
2010: 5
2009: 4
2008: 9
2007: 9
2006: 9
2005: 12
2004: 18
2003: 20
2002: 25
2001: 24
2000: 18

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.039
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.08
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.06

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 619 20
2010: 819
2009: 12
2008: 8
2007: 5
2006: 5
2005: 6
2004: 3
2003: 7
2002: 11
2001: 10
2000: 9

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.029
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.03
1992: 0.0738

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 019
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 0
2007: 1
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 1
2002: 0
2001: 0
2000: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.009
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 119
2010: 0
2009: 1
2008: 3
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 4
2004: 0
2003: 1
2002: 2
2001: 1
2000: 1

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.009
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 519
2010: 7
2009: 10
2008: 5
2007: 3
2006: 4
2005: 2
2004: 3
2003: 5
2002: 9
2001: 9
2000: 7

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.019
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.02

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Canada, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Canada was ranked 'small'53

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Canada, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Canada is reported by Customs to be US$91,375,68562 (2011)63 64 65 66 67

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Canada was categorized as 'major'68 69 67 70

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Canada, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law54 55 56 71 72 59 60 61 73 74

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Canada is reported by Customs to be US$274,795,49362 (2011)75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Canada is moderate83 84

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Canada, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law85 86 87 88 89

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Canada include55 90 72 91 92 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Canada scored

2016: 11.2593
2014: 10.2594
2013: 11.7595
2012: 12.2596
2011: 11.7597
2010: 12.2598
2009: 12.2599
2008: 12.00100
2007: 11.25101
2006: 10.25102
2005: 11.50103
2004: 11.50104

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Canada is categorised as restrictive105

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Canada includes the Firearms Act,106 Authorizations to Transport Restricted and Prohibited Firearms Regulations,107 Firearms Licences Regulations,108 Conditions of Transferring Firearms Regulations,109 Firearms Marking Regulations,110 Firearms Records Regulations,111 112 113 Criminal Code,114 115 Export and Import Permits Act,116 the Defence Production Act,117 118 and United Nations Act119

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Canada are regulated by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Justice,106 the Department of Public Works and Government Services,120 Chief Firearms Officers39 121 122 and the Firearms Registrar56

Right to Possess Firearms

In Canada, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law123 124 122

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Canada, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms except those registered before 1978,125 126 handguns with a barrel of 105mm or less in length, specifically modified handguns, rifles or shotguns,126 127 43 and certain types of ammunition128

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Canada, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited, except those registered before 1978125 126 25

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Canada, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence126 129

Regulation of Handguns

In Canada, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence125 126 130 131 25

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Canada, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law126 25

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Canada, only licensed gun owners122 132 133 25 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Canada are not required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm except when the licence concerns prohibited125 and restricted firearms134 130 126

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Canada is 18 years or 12 years, with limitations135 136

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Canada must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, addiction and domestic violence122 137 25 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Canada, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required138 137

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Canada, licensing authorities are required138 137 139 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Canada stipulates122 138 140 141 139 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Canada, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required129 142 143 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Canada, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years144 145

Licensing Records

In Canada, authorities maintain a record56 146 147 143 148 149 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Canada are permitted to possess any number of firearms87 88 89 150

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Canada are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition87 88 89 150

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Canada, the law requires (for prohibited and restricted firearms only126)151 113 152 153 154 56 146 147 155 156 157 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Canada, licensed firearm dealers are required158 56 159 160 161 52 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Canada, licensed gun makers are required56 160 52 162 163 149 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Canada, State agencies are required164 143 148 42 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Canada, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted158 159 161 160

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Canada, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful39 158 159 160 161

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Canada is not obliged158 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Canada is not obliged158 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Canada, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 28 days on first application for a licence, but none for subsequent acquisitions165 158

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Canada, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated166 167 168 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Canada include169 170 171 172 173 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Canada include174 175 176 177 173 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Canada include178 173 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Canada include168 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Canada, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law187 188 189 190 51 191

Firearm Tracing

In Canada, state authorities carry out192 162 163 193 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Canada, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not194 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Canada, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit.134 130 131 25 Such permits are rarely granted

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Canada, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm195 is five to 10 years in prison196 197 198 140 199 200 201 40 202 203 204 205 206

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Canada are known to have207 208 209 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Canada, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2014: 27,989210
2013: 30,877211
2012: 32,063212
2011: 48,904209 213
2010: 45,550209 214

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Canada, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2011: 32,267215 209
2010: 35,592
2009: 20,557216 16

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Canada, it is state policy217 218 215 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Canada adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified219 220 221 by Canada

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists222 Canada as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006223 by Canada.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed224 by Canada

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified225 by Canada

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Canada committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects226 219

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Canada against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 20227 228 229 230 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Canada has submitted one or more national reports231 232 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Canada, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated233 232

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Canada, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated233

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Canada submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent233 232

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated232 by Canada to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Canada has declared234 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Canada has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945235

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists236 219 Canada as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Canada, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Canada ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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