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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Brunei — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Brunei is 5,4001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Brunei is 1.41

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Brunei ranked at No. 1742

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Brunei ranked at No. 1371

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Brunei are reported to have 9,6903 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Brunei are reported to have 2,4504 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Brunei, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 25
2012: 86
2006: 27
2005: 08
2004: 59
2003: 2

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Brunei, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.55
2012: 2.06
2006: 0.57
2005: 0.008 7
2004: 1.439 7
2003: 0.56
2000: 1.27
1999: 1.3
1998: 1.3
1997: 2.6
1996: 3.0

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Brunei, annual firearm homicides total

2006: 07
2005: 0

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brunei, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2006: 0.007
2005: 0.00

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Brunei, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2006: 0%6
2005: 0%

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Brunei, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence, but is not conducted in practice10 11

Home-made Guns

In Brunei, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be low12

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Brunei, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law13 14 15

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Brunei is reported by Customs to be US$016 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Brunei, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law13 17 15

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Brunei is reported by Customs to be US$1,758,07516 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Brunei is low11

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Brunei is categorised as restrictive18

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Brunei includes the Arms and Explosives Act19 and the Arms and Explosives Rules20

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Brunei are regulated by the Sultan of Brunei,13 the Prime Minister21 and the Commissioner of Police22

Right to Possess Firearms

In Brunei, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law23 24 13

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In Brunei, civilian possession of automatic weapons is regulated by law5

Law Regulates Handguns

In Brunei, civilian possession of handguns is regulated by law5

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Brunei, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law5

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Brunei, only licensed gun owners21 5 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Brunei are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example target shooting, collection (for military personnel only)25

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Brunei must pass a background check which considers undefined5 records

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Brunei, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful10

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Brunei do not include11 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Brunei do not include11 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Brunei, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law5

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Brunei, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm26 is five to 15 years in prison and three to 12 strokes of the whip27 28

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200829 by Brunei.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed30 by Brunei

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed31 by Brunei

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Brunei committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects32

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Brunei has yet to submit a national report33 34 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Brunei, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated34

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Brunei, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated34

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Brunei submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent34

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated34 by Brunei to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Brunei has not declared35 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Brunei has been a Member State of the United Nations since 198436

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list37 Brunei as a Participating State


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

5.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Brunei Darussalam.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9710)Full Citation

6.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Brunei.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10263)Full Citation

7.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Brunei.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6317)Full Citation

8.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

9.

UNODC.2006.‘Reported Overall Homicide Numbers and Rates per 100,000 Population for 64 Countries, 2003-04.’ Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2003 - 2004).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q9)Full Citation

10.

Brunei.1928.‘Licence to Manufacture etc. Guns and Arms.’ Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58) Arms and Explosives Rules, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,26 November. (Q5115)Full Citation

11.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

12.

United Nations.1998.‘Illegal Manufacture Frequency.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q47)Full Citation

13.

Brunei.1927.‘Arms and Explosives Act - Power to Make Rules.’ Laws of Brunei, 1 of 1927 (Cap. 58 of 1951), 1984 Ed. Cap. 58. Amended by S 99/59, S 7/91, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,8 April. (Q5091)Full Citation

14.

Brunei.1928.‘Exportation of Guns, Arms and Naval, Military and Air Force Stores.’ Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58) Arms and Explosives Rules, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,26 November. (Q5113)Full Citation

15.

Brunei.1928.‘Licence to Land or Tranship Guns or Arms.’ Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58) Arms and Explosives Rules, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,26 November. (Q5114)Full Citation

16.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

17.

Brunei.1928.‘Importation of Guns and Arms.’ Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58) Arms and Explosives Rules, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,26 November. (Q5112)Full Citation

18.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

19.

Brunei.1927.‘Arms and Explosives Act.’ Laws of Brunei, 1 of 1927 (Cap. 58 of 1951), 1984 Ed. Cap. 58. Amended by S 99/59, S 7/91, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,8 April. (Q76)Full Citation

20.

Brunei.1928.‘Subsidiary Legislation.’ Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58) Arms and Explosives Rules, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,26 November. (Q5110)Full Citation

21.

Brunei.1928.‘Firearms to be Licensed.’ Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58) Arms and Explosives Rules, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,26 November. (Q5111)Full Citation

22.

Brunei.1928.‘Licensing Officer.’ Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58) Arms and Explosives Rules, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,26 November. (Q5116)Full Citation

23.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

24.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

25.

Kramer, Katherine.2001.‘General Preconditions for Licence Applications.’ Legal Controls on Small Arms and Light Weapons in South East Asia.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva and Nonviolence International South East Asia,1 July. (Q75)Full Citation

26.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

27.

Brunei.2002.‘Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58): Arms and Explosives Rules.’ Laws of Brunei, B.R.O.N. 26.11.28 and Amendments - Subsidiary Legislation.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,30 November. (Q77)Full Citation

28.

Brunei.1928.‘Penalty.’ Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58) Arms and Explosives Rules, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,26 November. (Q5117)Full Citation

29.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

30.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

31.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

32.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

33.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

34.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

35.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

36.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

37.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation