Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

This Page is No
Longer Updated

More recent armed violence data and policy changes from this region will be published if resources become available

Switch Language

Brazil — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Brazil is 14,800,0001 to 17,600,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Brazil is 8.01 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Brazil ranked at No. 83

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Brazil ranked at No. 751

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Brazil is reported to be 1,300,0004

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Brazil is 0.755

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Brazil is reported to be 5,200,0003 6 to 5,370,5007

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Brazil is 3.095

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Brazil there are estimated to be 3,800,0008 6 to 9,499,8479

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Brazil there are estimated to be 4.725 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Brazil are reported to have 1,300,00010 6 11 12 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Brazil are reported to have 803,20013 14 15 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Brazil, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2000: 32,52316 17

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Brazil, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2000: 18.665

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 42,78518
2010: 43,684
2009: 43,90918 19
2008: 57,271
2007: 55,611
2006: 58,643
2005: 54,308
2004: 57,185
2003: 60,121
2002: 57,910
2001: 55,539
2000: 51,804
1999: 52,26918
1998: 49,976
1997: 47,891
1996: 44,372
1995: 41,595

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 21.818
2010: 22.4
2009: 22.718 19
2008: 29.9
2007: 29.3
2006: 31.2
2005: 29.2
2004: 31.1
2003: 33.1
2002: 32.3
2001: 31.4
2000: 29.7
1999: 30.418
1998: 29.5
1997: 28.7
1996: 27.0
1995: 25.7
1993: 19.0420

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Brazil, annual firearm homicides total

2008: 34,67818
2007: 34,147
2006: 34,921
2005: 33,419
2004: 34,187
2002: 34,08521
2000: 30,85516

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 18.118 19
2007: 18.0
2006: 18.6
2005: 18.018
2004: 18.6
2002: 21.7021
2000: 17.705
1993: 10.5822

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, annual suicides by any means total

2006: 49,64123
2005: 48,107
2004: 48,884
2003: 51,510
2002: 49,763
2001: 47,980
2000: 45,401
1998: 6,98517

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2006: 4.6023
2005: 4.60
2004: 4.40
2003: 4.40
2002: 4.40
2001: 4.50
2000: 4.00
1998: 3.9117
1993: 3.4624

Gun Suicides

In Brazil, annual firearm suicides total 2000: 1,32817

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2000: 0.7417
1993: 0.7325

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Brazil, annual unintentional shooting deaths total 2000: 32917

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2000: 0.1817
1993: 0.2826

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Brazil, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total 2000: 1117

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2000: 0.0117
1993: 2.5627

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Brazil, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence28

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Brazil is ranked 'medium'29 30

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Brazil, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law31 32 33

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Brazil is reported by Customs to be US$284,590,75434 (2011)35 36 37

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Brazil is categorized as 'major'38 36

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Brazil, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law32 33

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Brazil is reported by Customs to be US$14,291,31834 (2011)39

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Brazil is high40 41

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Brazil, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law42 43

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Brazil include31 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, Brazil was ranked at No. 4244

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Brazil is categorised as restrictive45

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Brazil includes the Statute of Disarmament46 32

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Brazil are regulated by the National Arms Registry47

Right to Possess Firearms

In Brazil, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law48 49

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Brazil, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms and imitation firearms50

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Brazil, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited51 52

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Brazil, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence49 51

Regulation of Handguns

In Brazil, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence52

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Brazil, only licensed gun owners53 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Brazil are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, hunting, target shooting, personal protection, security54 55 56

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Brazil is 25 years, with a few exceptions57 58

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Brazil must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental and employment59 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Brazil, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required49

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Brazil does not stipulate49 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Brazil, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required59 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Brazil gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years53

Licensing Records

In Brazil, authorities maintain a record51 60 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Brazil are permitted to possess any number of firearms49

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Brazil are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition49

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Brazil, the law requires61 62 51 60 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Brazil, licensed firearm dealers are required28 60 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Brazil, licensed gun makers are required60 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Brazil, State agencies are required61 62 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Brazil is not obliged49 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks on Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Brazil is not obliged49 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Brazil, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted49

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Brazil, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful63 62

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Brazil, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to 3 firearms (1 handgun, 1 rifle, 1 shotgun) every two years, for retired military officials and non-commissioned officers64

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Brazil, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 30 business days59

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Brazil, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated49 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Brazil include65 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Brazil do not include49 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Brazil do not include49 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Brazil include4 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Brazil, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law66 33 67 68

Firearm Tracing

In Brazil, state authorities carry out69 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Marking of Firearms and Ammunition

In Brazil, state authorities do not employ49 ballistic fingerprinting technology to trace guns and ammunition

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Brazil, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit56 70

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Brazil, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit56 70

Gun Free Zones

In Brazil, private guns are prohibited in sports arenas, churches, government buildings and schools71

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Brazil, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm72 is 1 to 3 years prison and a fine73

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Brazil are known to have74 75 76 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Brazil, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 187,80374 (2004/05)

Small Arms Destroyed

In Brazil, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 187,80374 (2004/05)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Brazil, it is state policy74 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Brazil adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified77 78 by Brazil

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

At the resumption of the most recent session of the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (UNCCPCJ), a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, Brazil was listed as an elected member for a three-year term of office79

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200680 by Brazil.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified81 by Brazil

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified82 by Brazil

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Brazil committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects83

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Brazil against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 6284 85 86 87 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Brazil has submitted one or more national reports88 43 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Brazil, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated89 43

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Brazil, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated89 43

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Brazil submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent89

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated43 by Brazil to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided43 to Brazil by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Brazil has not declared90 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Brazil has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194591

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list92 Brazil as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Brazil, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Brazil ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Dreyfus, Pablo, Benjamin Lessing, Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento and Júlio Cesar Purcena.2010.‘Executive Summary.’ Small Arms in Brazil: Production, Trade, and Holdings.Geneva:Viva Rio, ISER, and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 September. (Q3365)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

5.

GunPolicy.org.2014.‘Calculated Rates – Brazil.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,4 July. (Q4211)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Estimated Total Small Arms, Firearms, and Surpluses in Brazil, Rounded.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5300)Full Citation

7.

Dreyfus, Pablo, and Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento.2010.‘Distribution of Small Arms Holdings per Group.’ Small Arms in Brazil: Production, Trade, and Holdings.Geneva:Viva Rio, ISER, and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 September. (Q3382)Full Citation

8.

Dreyfus, Pablo, Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento and Luis Eduardo Guedes.2008.‘Small Arms-Related Violence in Brazil: Victims and Weapons.’ Small Arms in Rio de Janeiro: The Guns, the Buyback, and the Victims.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q2091)Full Citation

9.

Dreyfus, Pablo, and Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento.2010.‘Informal and Criminal Holdings.’ Small Arms in Brazil: Production, Trade, and Holdings.Geneva:Viva Rio, ISER, and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 September. (Q3376)Full Citation

10.

Dreyfus, Pablo, and Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento.2010.‘Holdings: Estimated Current Armed Forces' Small Arms and Light Weapons Requirements.’ Small Arms in Brazil: Production, Trade, and Holdings.Geneva:Viva Rio, ISER, and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 September. (Q3378)Full Citation

11.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Table 4: Twenty Largest Military Small Arms Inventories.’ Armed Actors - Data Sources and the Estimation of Military-Owned Small Arms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 September. (Q8186)Full Citation

12.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

13.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 1 - Estimated Law Enforcement Firearms in 20 Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q6544)Full Citation

14.

Dreyfus, Pablo, and Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento.2010.‘Public Security Agencies (Law Enforcement) and Criminal Justice: Strength and Holdings.’ Small Arms in Brazil: Production, Trade, and Holdings.Geneva:Viva Rio, ISER, and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 September. (Q3379)Full Citation

15.

Dreyfus, Pablo, and Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento.2010.‘Public Security Agencies and Criminal Justice.’ Small Arms in Brazil: Production, Trade, and Holdings.Geneva:Viva Rio, ISER, and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 September. (Q3380)Full Citation

16.

Jackson, Thomas, Nicholas Marsh, Taylor Owen and Ann Thurin.2005.‘Who Takes the Bullet? The impact of small arms violence.’ Norwegian Church Aid: Understanding the Issues.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers / NISAT / PRIO,1 March. (Q2084)Full Citation

17.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Brazil.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6339)Full Citation

19.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

20.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

21.

Cukier, Wendy and Victor W Sidel.2006.‘The Firearm Epidemic: Regional variations: North America and the Caribbean.’ The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials to AK-47s.Westport, CT:Praeger Security International,1 January. (Q2085)Full Citation

22.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

23.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Suicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5680)Full Citation

24.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

25.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

26.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

27.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

28.

Brazil.2003.‘The National Weapon System.’ The Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1892)Full Citation

29.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

30.

Dreyfus, Pablo, Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento and Luis Eduardo Guedes.2008.‘Small Arms-Related Violence in Brazil: Victims and Weapons.’ Small Arms in Rio de Janeiro: The Guns, the Buyback, and the Victims.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q2087)Full Citation

31.

Brazil.2008.‘Legislation - Export Controls.’ National Report of Brazil on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument.New York:Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations,14 July. (Q1660)Full Citation

32.

Brazil.2008.‘Legislation.’ National Report of Brazil on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument.New York:Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations,14 July. (Q1659)Full Citation

33.

Brazil.2008.‘Weapons - Marking.’ National Report of Brazil on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument.New York:Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations,14 July. (Q1657)Full Citation

34.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

35.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

36.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

37.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

38.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

39.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

40.

Brazil.2005.‘Combating Groups and Individuals Engaged in Illicit Activities.’ National Report of Brazil on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations,11 July. (Q1720)Full Citation

41.

Bandeira, Antonio Rangel.2006.‘Parliamentary Commission of Investigation (CPI) Denounces the Deviation of Arms in Brazil.’ Viva Rio media release.Brasilia:Viva Rio,29 November. (Q2090)Full Citation

42.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

43.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) – Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

44.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

45.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

46.

Brazil.2003.‘Provisions.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1478)Full Citation

47.

Brazil.2003.‘The National Weapon System.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1490)Full Citation

48.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

49.

Brazil.2003.‘Statute of Disarmament.’ The Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q4071)Full Citation

50.

Brazil.2003.‘General Provisions – Imitation Firearms.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1488)Full Citation

51.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5362)Full Citation

52.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5360)Full Citation

53.

Brazil.2003.‘Registration – Licensing.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1481)Full Citation

54.

Brazil.2003.‘Right to Carry – Hunting.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1482)Full Citation

55.

Brazil.2003.‘Right to Carry – Sports Shooting.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1483)Full Citation

56.

Brazil.2003.‘Right to Carry – Self-Defence.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1484)Full Citation

57.

Brazil.2003.‘General Provisions – Minimum Age.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1489)Full Citation

58.

Brazil.2003.‘Right to Carry.’ The Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q2086)Full Citation

59.

Brazil.2003.‘Registration – Background.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1480)Full Citation

60.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5380)Full Citation

61.

Brazil.2003.‘Registration.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1486)Full Citation

62.

Brazil.2008.‘Registration Systems.’ National Report of Brazil on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument.New York:Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations,14 July. (Q1661)Full Citation

63.

Brazil.2003.‘The National Weapon System – Dealer Manufacturer Licensing.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1485)Full Citation

64.

Dreyfus, Pablo, and Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento.2010.‘Estimates of Small Arms Held by Active and Retired Military Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers.’ Small Arms in Brazil: Production, Trade, and Holdings.Geneva:Viva Rio, ISER, and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 September. (Q3374)Full Citation

65.

Brazil.2003.‘Careless Handling or Storage of a Firearm.’ The Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1891)Full Citation

66.

Brazil.2003.‘General Provisions – Marking.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1487)Full Citation

67.

Brazil.2008.‘Ammunition - Marking.’ National Report of Brazil on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument.New York:Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations,14 July. (Q1658)Full Citation

68.

Brazil.2005.‘Enforcing Controls.’ National Report of Brazil on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations,11 July. (Q1663)Full Citation

69.

Dreyfus, Pablo, Marcelo de Sousa Nascimento and Luis Eduardo Guedes.2008.‘The Disarmament Statute: Domesticating the Small Arms Industry and Curbing Crime Through Gun Control.’ Small Arms in Rio de Janeiro: The Guns, the Buyback, and the Victims.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q2088)Full Citation

70.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5409)Full Citation

71.

Associated Press. 2004. ‘Brazil Puts in Place Stricter Gun Laws to Reduce Killings.’ 4 July. (N191) Full Citation

72.
73.

Brazil.2003.‘Irregular Ownership of Authorized Fire Weapons.’ Statute of Disarmament Law No. 10,826/03, Final Wording of the Alternative Bill of the House of Representatives for Bill of Law No. 292 of 1999 of the Senate.Brasilia:House of Representatives,1 December. (Q1479)Full Citation

74.

Brazil.2005.‘Destruction of Illicit Weapons.’ National Report of Brazil on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations,11 July. (Q1662)Full Citation

75.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Country Summaries – Brazil.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q5299)Full Citation

76.

Godnick, William and Helena Vasquez.2003.‘Weapons Destruction Events facilitated – UN-LiREC.’ Small Arms Control in Latin America: Monitoring the Implementation of Small Arms Control Projects (MISAC).London:International Alert, Security and Peacebuilding Programme,1 March. (Q5565)Full Citation

77.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

78.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

79.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

80.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

81.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

82.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

83.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

84.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

85.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

86.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

87.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

88.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

89.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

90.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

91.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

92.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation