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Brazil — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Brazil is 16,800,0001 2 to 17,600,0003

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Brazil is 8.61 2 to 8.994 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Brazil ranked at No. 85

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Brazil ranked at No. 752

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Brazil is reported to be 1,300,0006

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Brazil is 0.754

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Brazil is reported to be

2010: 5,900,0007 8
2005: 5,240,0002 9

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Brazil is

2010: 3,027
2005: 2.824

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Brazil there are estimated to be 3,800,00010 9 to 9,499,84711

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Brazil there are estimated to be 4.854 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Brazil are reported to have 1,300,00012 13 9 14 15 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Brazil are reported to have 800,00012 16 17 18 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Brazil, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2009: 37,68719
2000: 32,52320 21

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 19.424
2000: 18.66

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 53,64622
2012: 56,33723 24 25 26
2011: 52,19823 24 27
2010: 52,26023 24 27 28
2009: 51,434,23 24 27 28 29
2008: 50,113
2007: 47,707
2006: 49,14523 27 28 29
2005: 47,578
2004: 48,374
2003: 51,043
2002: 49,695
2001: 47,943
2000: 45,36023 27 28 29 20
1999: 52,26927
1998: 49,976
1997: 47,891
1996: 44,372
1995: 41,595

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 25.222
2012: 29.023 24 25
2011: 27.123 24 27
2010: 27.423 24 27 28
2009: 27.023 24 27 28 29
2008: 26.4
2007: 25.2
2006: 26.323 27 28 29
2005: 25.8
2004: 27.0
2003: 28.9
2002: 28.5
2001: 27.8
2000: 26.7
1999: 30.427
1998: 29.5
1997: 28.7
1996: 27.0
1995: 25.7
1993: 19.0430

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Brazil, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 36,79223 31 32
2009: 37,00331
2008: 34,67827 31
2007: 34,147
2006: 34,921
2005: 33,419
2004: 34,187
2003: 36,09031 32
2002: 34,12331 33
2001: 33,37131
2000: 31,50831 20

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 18.794 31
2009: 19.1
2008: 18.127 31 29
2007: 18.0
2006: 18.6
2005: 18.027 31
2004: 18.6
2003: 19.931
2002: 19.131 33
2001: 18.931
2000: 18.131 4
1993: 10.5834

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Brazil, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2010: 70%23
2009: 71%19
2008: 70.8%27
2007: 70.8%
2006: 70.3%
2005: 69.4%
2004: 69.9%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, annual suicides by any means total

2009: 11,23735
2008: 11,134
2007: 10,647
2006: 10,34935 36
2005: 10,048
2004: 10,113
2003: 9,803
2002: 9,494
2001: 9,363
2000: 8,186
1998: 6,98521

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 5.835
2008: 5.8
2007: 5.6
2006: 5.535 36
2005: 5.4
2004: 5.5
2003: 5.4
2002: 5.3
2001: 5.3
2000: 4.7
1998: 3.9121
1993: 3.4637

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Brazil, annual firearm suicides total

2009: 98219
2000: 1,32821

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.514
2000: 0.7421
1993: 0.7338

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Brazil, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2009: 35519
2000: 32921

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.184
2000: 0.1821
1993: 0.2839

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Brazil, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2009: 2,20419
2000: 1121

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 1.144
2000: 0.0121
1993: 2.5640

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Brazil, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Brazil was ranked 'medium'49 50

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Brazil, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law51 41 42 52 53 54 55 56

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Brazil is reported by Customs to be US$284,590,75457 (2011)58 59 60 61 62

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Brazil was categorized as 'major'63 64 65 66 62 67 32

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Brazil, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law68 43 46 41 42 54 55 56

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Brazil is reported by Customs to be US$14,291,31857 (2011)69 70 71 72

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Brazil is high73 74

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Brazil, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law75 76 77

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Brazil include52 53 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Brazil scored

2014: 7.0078
2013: 7.5079
2012: 7.5080
2011: 8.5081
2010: 9.0082
2009: 9.0083
2008: 9.0084
2007: 8.5085
2006: 8.0086
2005: 8.5087
2004: 9.0088

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Brazil is categorised as restrictive89

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Brazil includes the Statute of Disarmament of 200390 91 54 32 and its regulation,92 the Penal Code93

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Brazil are regulated by the Ministry of Justice, through the National Firearm Registry and the Federal Police,41 42 94 and the Command of the Brazilian Armed Force95

Right to Possess Firearms

In Brazil, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law96 97 98

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Brazil, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms and imitation firearms99 46 100 101

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Brazil, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited99 102 103 25

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Brazil, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence104 98 102

Regulation of Handguns

In Brazil, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence99 105 103 25

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Brazil, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law99 105 25

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Brazil, only licensed gun owners106 107 108 109 110 111 25 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Brazil are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, personal protection, security112 113 105 114 115 116 117 118

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Brazil is 25 years, with a few exceptions112 113 115 119 120 121

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Brazil must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental and employment122 106 107 105 115 123 25 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Brazil, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required98

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Brazil does not stipulate98 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Brazil, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required122 106 107 115 123 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Brazil, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years106 107 111

Licensing Records

In Brazil, authorities maintain a record41 42 102 124 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Brazil are permitted to possess any number of firearms98

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Brazil are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition98

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Brazil, the law requires125 126 127 128 110 41 42 129 130 131 102 124 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Brazil, licensed firearm dealers are required106 107 41 42 48 124 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Brazil, licensed gun makers are required41 42 132 124 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Brazil, State agencies are required126 127 130 41 42 131 133 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Brazil, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted128 106 107 98

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Brazil, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful41 42 134 135 136 137 131

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Brazil is not obliged98 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Brazil is not obliged98 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Brazil, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to three firearms (one handgun, one rifle, one shotgun) every two years, for retired military officials and non-commissioned officers138

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Brazil, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 30 business days106 107 123

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Brazil, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated98 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Brazil include139 140 141 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Brazil include142 98 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Brazil include133 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Brazil include108 109 6 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Brazil, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law44 125 45 43 143 55 144 145

Firearm Tracing

In Brazil, state authorities carry out45 43 146 147 148 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Brazil, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not98 32 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Brazil, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law112113 149

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Brazil, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit112 113 118 150 32 25

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Brazil, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit118 150 32 25

Gun Free Zones

In Brazil, private guns are prohibited in sports arenas, churches, banks, schools, government buildings and other gathering places114 151

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Brazil, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm152 is 2 to 4 years prison and a fine93 153 154 155 134 156 157

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Brazil are known to have158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn Brazil, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2008/09: 30,721167
2004/05: 187,803164
2000/10: 130.000168

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

ChartIn Brazil, the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be

2012: 27,329169
2011: 40,000
2004/05: 459,855167
2003/09: 1,100,000170

Firearms Collected and Seized

ChartIn Brazil, firearms voluntarily surrendered for destruction, collected or seized in routine policing are reported to number

2013: 13,048171
2012: 15,740172 171
2011: 15,560
2010: 14,441
2009: 11,664172
2008: 11,112
2004/05: 460,000173
2000/10: 200,000168

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Brazil, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2004/05: 253,321164 167
2003: 450,00022
1997/2013: 2,800,000174

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Brazil, it is state policy175 176 164 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Brazil adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified177 178 by Brazil

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists179 Brazil as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006180 by Brazil.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified181 by Brazil

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified182 by Brazil

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Brazil committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects183

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Brazil against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 62184 185 186 187 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Brazil has submitted one or more national reports188 77 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Brazil, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated189 77

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Brazil, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated77

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Brazil submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent189

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated77 by Brazil to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided77 to Brazil by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Brazil has not declared190 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Brazil has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945191

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list192 Brazil as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Brazil, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Brazil ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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Brazil.2004.‘Acquisition and Registration of Restricted Firearms (Da aquisição e registro da arma de fogo de uso restrito).’ Decree No. 5.123, of July 1, 2004 (Decreto Nº 5.123, de 1º de julho de 2004).Brasilia:National Congress of Brazil,1 July. (Q11541)Full Citation

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Brazil.2003.‘Unregistered Firearms - Registration (Armas de fogo não registradas - Inscrição).’ Act No. 10.826, of December 22, 2003, on the Registration, Possession, and Commerce of Firearms and Ammunition, on the National System of Weapons (SINARM), and Defining Crimes and other Provisions.Brasilia:National Congress of Brazil,22 December. (Q11550)Full Citation

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Brazil.2004.‘Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales (Regulamentação das vendas por vendedores de armas de fogo).’ Decree No. 5.123, of July 1, 2004 (Decreto Nº 5.123, de 1º de julho de 2004).Brasilia:National Congress of Brazil,1 July. (Q11540)Full Citation

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Brazil.2003.‘Referendum on Firearms and Ammunition Trade (Referendo sobre o comércio de armas de fogo e Munições).’ Act No. 10.826, of December 22, 2003, on the Registration, Possession, and Commerce of Firearms and Ammunition, on the National System of Weapons (SINARM), and Defining Crimes and other Provisions.Brasilia:National Congress of Brazil,22 December. (Q11557)Full Citation

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Brazil.2004.‘Firearm Safety - Household and Workplace (Segurança de arma de fogo - no domicílio e trabalho).’ Decree No. 5.123, of July 1, 2004 (Decreto Nº 5.123, de 1º de julho de 2004).Brasilia:National Congress of Brazil,1 July. (Q11542)Full Citation

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Brazil.2003.‘Storage Regulations - Sports Entities (Regulamento para armazenamento - as organizações desportivas).’ Act No. 10.826, of December 22, 2003, on the Registration, Possession, and Commerce of Firearms and Ammunition, on the National System of Weapons (SINARM), and Defining Crimes and other Provisions.Brasilia:National Congress of Brazil,22 December. (Q11555)Full Citation

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Brazil.2003.‘Firearm Storage and Transportation - Private Security Companies (Armazenamento e transporte de armas de fogo - empresas de segurança privada).’ Act No. 10.826, of December 22, 2003, on the Registration, Possession, and Commerce of Firearms and Ammunition, on the National System of Weapons (SINARM), and Defining Crimes and other Provisions.Brasilia:National Congress of Brazil,22 December. (Q11556)Full Citation

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