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Brazil — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Brazil is 16,800,0001 2 to 17,600,0003 4

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Brazil is 8.61 2 to 8.995 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Brazil ranked at No. 86

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Brazil ranked at No. 752

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Brazil is reported to be 1,300,0007

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Brazil is 0.755

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Brazil is reported to be

2010: 5,900,0008 9 4
2009: 7,312,22710
2005: 5,370,50010 2 11

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Brazil is

2010: 3,028
2009: 3.775
2005: 2.89

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Brazil there are estimated to be 3,800,00012 11 to 9,499,84713

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Brazil there are estimated to be 4.855 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Brazil are reported to have 1,300,00014 15 11 16 17 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Brazil are reported to have 800,00014 18 19 20 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Brazil, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2009: 37,68721 22
2000: 32,52323 24

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 19.425
2000: 18.66

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, annual homicides by any means total

2014: 58,49725
2013: 53,64626
2012: 56,33727 28 29
2011: 52,19827 28 30
2010: 52,26027 28 30 31
2009: 51,434,27 28 30 31 32
2008: 50,113
2007: 47,707
2006: 49,14527 30 31 32
2005: 47,578
2004: 48,374
2003: 51,043
2002: 49,695
2001: 47,943
2000: 45,36027 30 31 32 23
1999: 52,26930
1998: 49,976
1997: 47,891
1996: 44,372
1995: 41,595

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 28.825
2013: 25.226
2012: 29.027 28 29
2011: 27.127 28 30
2010: 27.427 28 30 31
2009: 27.027 28 30 31 32
2008: 26.4
2007: 25.2
2006: 26.327 30 31 32
2005: 25.8
2004: 27.0
2003: 28.9
2002: 28.5
2001: 27.8
2000: 26.7
1999: 30.430
1998: 29.5
1997: 28.7
1996: 27.0
1995: 25.7
1993: 19.0433

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Brazil, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 36,79227 34 35
2009: 37,00334
2008: 34,67830 34
2007: 34,147
2006: 34,921
2005: 33,419
2004: 34,187
2003: 36,09034 35
2002: 34,12334 36
2001: 33,37134
2000: 31,50834 23

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 18.795 34
2009: 19.1
2008: 18.130 34 32
2007: 18.0
2006: 18.6
2005: 18.030 34
2004: 18.6
2003: 19.934
2002: 19.134 36
2001: 18.934
2000: 18.134 5
1993: 10.5837

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Brazil, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2010: 70%27
2009: 71%21 38
2008: 70.8%30
2007: 70.8%
2006: 70.3%
2005: 69.4%
2004: 69.9%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, annual suicides by any means total

2009: 11,23739
2008: 11,134
2007: 10,647
2006: 10,34939 40
2005: 10,048
2004: 10,113
2003: 9,803
2002: 9,494
2001: 9,363
2000: 8,186
1998: 6,98524

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 5.839
2008: 5.8
2007: 5.6
2006: 5.539 40
2005: 5.4
2004: 5.5
2003: 5.4
2002: 5.3
2001: 5.3
2000: 4.7
1998: 3.9124
1993: 3.4641

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Brazil, annual firearm suicides total

2009: 98221
2000: 1,32824

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.515
2000: 0.7424
1993: 0.7342

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Brazil, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2009: 35521
2000: 32924

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.185
2000: 0.1824
1993: 0.2843

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Brazil, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2009: 2,20421
2000: 1124

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 1.145
2000: 0.0124
1993: 2.5644

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Brazil, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Brazil was ranked 'medium'52 53

Home-made Guns

In Brazil, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate54

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Brazil, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law55 56 47 57 58 59 60 61

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Brazil is reported by Customs to be US$284,590,75462 (2011)63 64 65 66 67

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Brazil was categorized as 'major'68 69 70 71 67 72 35

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Brazil, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law73 45 47 50 57 59 60 61

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Brazil is reported by Customs to be US$14,291,31862 (2011)74 75 76 77

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Brazil is high78 79 80

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Brazil, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law81 82 83

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Brazil include56 58 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Brazil scored

2014: 7.0084
2013: 7.5085
2012: 7.5086
2011: 8.5087
2010: 9.0088
2009: 9.0089
2008: 9.0090
2007: 8.5091
2006: 8.0092
2005: 8.5093
2004: 9.0094

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Brazil is categorised as restrictive95

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Brazil includes the Firearms Act No. 10 826 of 2003,96 35 97 and its regulation No. 5 123,98 Ministerial Act No. 7 of 2006,48 Ministerial Act No. 16 of 2004,59 the Constitution and the Penal Code of Brazil46

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Brazil are regulated by the Ministry of Justice and the Federal Police,99, the National Arms System (SINARM)47 and the Command of the Brazilian Armed Forces100 45

Right to Possess Firearms

In Brazil, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law101 102 103

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Brazil, civilians are not allowed to possess weapons for the exclusive use of the Army,104 automatic firearms, certain handguns, smooth bore long guns or with a rifled barrel, disguised firearms105 and imitation firearms50 106

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Brazil, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited105 107 108 29

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Brazil, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence109 107

Regulation of Handguns

In Brazil, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited with only narrow exemptions105 109 110 107 108 29

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Brazil, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law105 109 29

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Brazil, only licensed gun owners111 112 113 114 115 29 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Brazil are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, security112 116 117 110 108 97

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Brazil is 25 years,118 116 117 119 97 with only narrow exemptions120 121 122

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Brazil must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and employment112 123 110 117 29 97 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Brazil, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required103

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Brazil does not stipulate103 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Brazil, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required123 112 117 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Brazil, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years112 97

Licensing Records

In Brazil, authorities maintain a record124 47 107 125 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Brazil are permitted to possess one firearm per authorisation126 127 97

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Brazil are permitted to possess a limited quantity of ammunition126 97

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Brazil, the law requires128 124 113 106 47 129 130 107 125 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Brazil, licensed firearm dealers are required131 112 47 125 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Brazil, licensed gun makers are required47 132 125 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Brazil, State agencies are required128 106 130 133 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Brazil, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted134 112

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Brazil, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful111 131 47 45 135 130

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Brazil is obliged112 123 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Brazil is obliged112 123 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Brazil, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to three firearms (one handgun, one rifle, one shotgun) every two years, for retired military officials and non-commissioned officers136

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Brazil, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 30 business days112

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Brazil, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated103 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Brazil include137 115 120 138 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Brazil do not include138 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Brazil include133 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Brazil include114 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Brazil, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law48 124 49 45 60 139 140

Firearm Tracing

In Brazil, state authorities carry out49 45 141 142 143 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Brazil, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not103 35 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Brazil, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law111 116 110 144 145 35 29

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Brazil, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited146 145

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Brazil, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit116

Gun Free Zones

In Brazil, private guns are prohibited in sports arenas, churches, banks, schools, government buildings and other gathering places146 147

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Brazil, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm148 is two to four years in prison and a fine111 46 149 120 150 151 152 153 140 138

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Brazil are known to have154 155 156 157 10 158 159 160 161 162 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn Brazil, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2008/09: 30,721163
2004/05: 187,803160
2000/10: 130.000

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

ChartIn Brazil, the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be

2012: 27,329164
2011: 40,000
2004/05: 459,855163
2003/09: 1,100,000165

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Brazil, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2014: 120,000166
2013: 13,048167
2012: 15,740168 167
2011: 15,560
2010: 14,441
2009: 11,664168
2008: 11,112
2004/05: 460,000169 26
2000/10: 200,000

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Brazil, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2004/05: 253,321160 170 163
2003: 450,00026
2001: 100,000170
1997/2013: 2,800,000171

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Brazil, it is state policy172 173 10 160 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Brazil adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified174 175 by Brazil

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists176 Brazil as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006177 by Brazil.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified178 by Brazil

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified179 by Brazil

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Brazil committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects180

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Brazil against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 62181 182 183 184 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Brazil has submitted one or more national reports185 83 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Brazil, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated186 83

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Brazil, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated83

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Brazil submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent186

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated83 by Brazil to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided83 to Brazil by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Brazil has not declared187 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Brazil has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945188

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list189 Brazil as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Brazil, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Brazil ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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