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Brazil — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Brazil is 16,800,0001 2 to 17,600,0003

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Brazil is 8.61 2 to 8.994 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Brazil ranked at No. 85

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Brazil ranked at No. 752

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Brazil is reported to be 1,300,0006

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Brazil is 0.754

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Brazil is reported to be

2010: 5,900,0007 8
2005: 5,240,0002 9

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Brazil is

2010: 3,027
2005: 2.824

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Brazil there are estimated to be 3,800,00010 9 to 9,499,84711

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Brazil there are estimated to be 4.854 illicit firearms per 100 people

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Brazil are reported to have 1,300,00012 13 9 14 15 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Brazil are reported to have 800,00012 16 17 18 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Brazil, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2009: 37,68719
2000: 32,52320 21

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 19.424
2000: 18.66

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 56,33722 23 24
2011: 52,19822 23 25
2010: 52,26022 23 25 26
2009: 51,434,22 23 25 26 27
2008: 50,113
2007: 47,707
2006: 49,14522 25 26 27
2005: 47,578
2004: 48,374
2003: 51,043
2002: 49,695
2001: 47,943
2000: 45,36022 25 26 27 20
1999: 52,26925
1998: 49,976
1997: 47,891
1996: 44,372
1995: 41,595

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 29.022 23 24
2011: 27.122 23 25
2010: 27.422 23 25 26
2009: 27.022 23 25 26 27
2008: 26.4
2007: 25.2
2006: 26.322 25 26 27
2005: 25.8
2004: 27.0
2003: 28.9
2002: 28.5
2001: 27.8
2000: 26.7
1999: 30.425
1998: 29.5
1997: 28.7
1996: 27.0
1995: 25.7
1993: 19.0428

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Brazil, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 36,79222 29 30
2009: 37,00329
2008: 34,67825 29
2007: 34,147
2006: 34,921
2005: 33,419
2004: 34,187
2003: 36,09029 30
2002: 34,12329 31
2001: 33,37129
2000: 31,50829 20

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 18.794 29
2009: 19.1
2008: 18.125 29 27
2007: 18.0
2006: 18.6
2005: 18.025 29
2004: 18.6
2003: 19.929
2002: 19.129 31
2001: 18.929
2000: 18.129 4
1993: 10.5832

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Brazil, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2010: 70%22
2009: 71%19
2008: 70.8%25
2007: 70.8%
2006: 70.3%
2005: 69.4%
2004: 69.9%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, annual suicides by any means total

2009: 11,23733
2008: 11,134
2007: 10,647
2006: 10,34933 34
2005: 10,048
2004: 10,113
2003: 9,803
2002: 9,494
2001: 9,363
2000: 8,186
1998: 6,98521

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 5.833
2008: 5.8
2007: 5.6
2006: 5.533 34
2005: 5.4
2004: 5.5
2003: 5.4
2002: 5.3
2001: 5.3
2000: 4.7
1998: 3.9121
1993: 3.4635

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Brazil, annual firearm suicides total

2009: 98219
2000: 1,32821

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.514
2000: 0.7421
1993: 0.7336

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Brazil, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2009: 35519
2000: 32921

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.184
2000: 0.1821
1993: 0.2837

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Brazil, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2009: 2,20419
2000: 1121

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Brazil, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 1.144
2000: 0.0121
1993: 2.5638

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Brazil, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Brazil was ranked 'medium'47 48

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Brazil, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law49 50 40 41 51 52 53 54 55

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Brazil is reported by Customs to be US$284,590,75456 (2011)57 58 59 60 61

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Brazil was categorized as 'major'62 63 64 65 61 66 30

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Brazil, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law67 44 42 40 41 51 53 54 55

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Brazil is reported by Customs to be US$14,291,31856 (2011)68 69 70 71

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Brazil is high72 73

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Brazil, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law74 75 76

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Brazil include49 52 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Brazil scored

2014: 7.0077
2013: 7.5078
2012: 7.5079
2011: 8.5080
2010: 9.0081
2009: 9.0082
2008: 9.0083
2007: 8.5084
2006: 8.0085
2005: 8.5086
2004: 9.0087

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Brazil is categorised as restrictive88

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Brazil includes the Statute of Disarmament of 200389 90 53 30 and its regulation,91 the Penal Code92

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Brazil are regulated by the Ministry of Justice, through the National Firearm Registry,40 41 93, the Ministry of Defence,50 the Command of the Armed Force94 and the Brazilian Federal Police95 96 97

Right to Possess Firearms

In Brazil, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law98 99 100

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Brazil, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms and imitation firearms101 102 44 103

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Brazil, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited101 104 105 24

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Brazil, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence106 100 104

Regulation of Handguns

In Brazil, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence101 97 105 24

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Brazil, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law101 24

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Brazil, only licensed gun owners107 108 95 96 109 110 24 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Brazil are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, personal protection, security97 111 112 113 114

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Brazil is 25 years, with a few exceptions115 116 117 118

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Brazil must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental and employment119 107 108 97 120 24 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Brazil, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required119 100

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Brazil does not stipulate100 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Brazil, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required119 107 108 120 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Brazil, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years107 108 110

Licensing Records

In Brazil, authorities maintain a record104 121 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Brazil are permitted to possess any number of firearms100

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Brazil are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition100

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Brazil, the law requires122 123 124 125 109 40 41 126 127 104 121 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Brazil, licensed firearm dealers are required107 108 40 41 46 121 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Brazil, licensed gun makers are required40 41 128 121 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Brazil, State agencies are required123 124 126 40 41 127 129 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Brazil, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted125 100

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Brazil, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful130 131 127

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Brazil is not obliged100 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Brazil is not obliged100 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Brazil, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to three firearms (one handgun, one rifle, one shotgun) every two years, for retired military officials and non-commissioned officers132

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Brazil, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 30 business days107 108 120

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Brazil, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated100 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Brazil include133 134 135 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Brazil include136 100 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Brazil include129 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Brazil include95 96 6 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Brazil, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law43 122 42 137 138 54 139 140

Firearm Tracing

In Brazil, state authorities carry out42 137 141 142 143 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Brazil, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not100 30 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Brazil, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law115116 144

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Brazil, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit115 116 114 145 30 24

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Brazil, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit114 145 30 24

Gun Free Zones

In Brazil, private guns are prohibited in sports arenas, churches, banks, schools, government buildings and other gathering places111 146

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Brazil, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm147 is 2 to 4 years prison and a fine92 39 148 149 130 150 151 152

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Brazil are known to have153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Brazil, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 187,803159 (2004/05) and 30,721162 (2008/09)

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

In Brazil, the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be 1,100,000163 (2003/09), 459,855(2004/05),162 40,000 (2011), and 27,329164 (2012)

Firearms Collected and Seized

ChartIn Brazil, firearms voluntarily surrendered for destruction, collected or seized in routine policing are reported to number

2013: 13,048165
2012: 15,740166 165
2011: 15,560
2010: 14,441
2009: 11,664166
2008: 11,112
2004-05: 460,000167

Small Arms Destroyed

In Brazil, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 2,800,000168 (1997-2013)159 162

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Brazil, it is state policy169 170 159 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Brazil adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified171 172 by Brazil

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists173 Brazil as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006174 by Brazil.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified175 by Brazil

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified176 by Brazil

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Brazil committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects177

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Brazil against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 62178 179 180 181 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Brazil has submitted one or more national reports182 76 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Brazil, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated183 76

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Brazil, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated76

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Brazil submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent183

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated76 by Brazil to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided76 to Brazil by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Brazil has not declared184 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Brazil has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945185

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list186 Brazil as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Brazil, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Brazil ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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