Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Bolivia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Bolivia is 250,0001 2 3 4

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Bolivia is 2.51 3 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Bolivia ranked at No. 1105

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Bolivia ranked at No. 1194

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Bolivia are reported to have 68,0006 2 7 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Bolivia are reported to have 29,0006 2 7 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Bolivia, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 8458
2012: 1,0428 9
2011: 8448 9 10 11
2010: 8418 9 12 10
2009: 8358 9 12 13 10
2008: 850
2007: 787
2006: 598
2005: 654
2004: 3,74812 13
2003: 2,565
2002: 2,610
2001: 2,957
2000: 3,078

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Bolivia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 8.48
2012: 10.48 9
2011: 8.58 9 10 11
2010: 8.68 9 12 10
2009: 8.478 9 12 13 10
2008: 8.77
2007: 8.26
2006: 6.39
2005: 7.12
2004: 41.612 13
2003: 29.0
2002: 30.1
2001: 34.8
2000: 37.0
1998: 28.6314

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Bolivia, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 749
2006: 129 15
2005: 13
2002: 5216
2001: 50

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Bolivia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.7417
2006: 0.1317 15
2005: 0.14
2002: 0.5916
2001: 0.58

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Bolivia, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 9%11
2010: 7%9
2006: 2%
2005: 2%

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Bolivia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Bolivia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law19 22 23 24 34 35 36 37 38 25 39 40 26

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Bolivia is reported by Customs to be US$60141 (2009)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Bolivia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law19 22 23 24 34 35 42 36 37 38 25 39 40 43 26 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Bolivia is reported by Customs to be US$1,555,55041 (2011)

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Bolivia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law50

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Bolivia include51 43 52 35 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Bolivia is categorised as restrictive53

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Bolivia includes the Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law of 201354 33 and its regulation55 2

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Bolivia are regulated by the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Interior and the Police51 56 57 58

Right to Possess Firearms

In Bolivia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law59 60

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Bolivia, civilians are not allowed to possess military weapons61 62

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Bolivia, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited61 62 11

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Bolivia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence61 62

Regulation of Handguns

In Bolivia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence61 62 63 11

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Bolivia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law61 62 63 11

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Bolivia, only licensed gun owners64 65 66 67 44 68 69 70 71 72 26 73 11 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Bolivia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example self-defence,74 sports, hunting and collection61 64 65

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Bolivia is 21 years66

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Bolivia must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental66 26 75 11 records

Firearm Safety Training

In Bolivia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required76 75 73 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Bolivia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years77

Licensing Records

In Bolivia, authorities maintain a record78 79 57 80 73 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Bolivia are permitted to possess from two to five firearms81

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Bolivia, the law requires78 79 57 80 73 68 71 72 33 82 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Bolivia, licensed firearm dealers are required56 83 79 78 57 80 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Bolivia, licensed gun makers are required37 38 79 78 57 80 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Bolivia, State agencies are required84 78 57 80 79 85 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Bolivia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted86 67

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Bolivia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful86 19 26 29 30 31 32 87

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Bolivia include88 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Bolivia include88 25 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Bolivia include88 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Bolivia include40 43 89 34 35 36 90 91 92 93 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Bolivia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law94 48 95

Firearm Tracing

In Bolivia, state authorities carry out96 73 97 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Bolivia, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are66 98 73 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Bolivia, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law65 26 11

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Bolivia, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited99

Gun Free Zones

In Bolivia, private guns are prohibited in social gatherings and public or private events, meetings or conferences, national, departmental, regional, municipal legislative sessions and indigenous gatherings, educational institutions, universities, hospitals and religious settings, public demonstrations, social movements, marches, strikes and rallies, prisons, sporting events, financial institutions, and judicial hearings26

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Bolivia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm100 is 5 years in prison101 27 102 103 104 94 105 28 106 99 33

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Bolivia are known to have51 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Bolivia, it is state policy107 51 108 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Andean Community

As a member of the Andean Community, Bolivia

adopted Decision 552: The Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in June, 2003109

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Bolivia adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified110 111 by Bolivia

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed112 by Bolivia.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed113 by Bolivia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed114 by Bolivia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Bolivia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects115

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Bolivia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 128116 117 118 119 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Bolivia has submitted one or more national reports120 121 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Bolivia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated122 121

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Bolivia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated122 121

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Bolivia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent121

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated121 by Bolivia to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Bolivia has not declared123 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Bolivia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945124

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list125 Bolivia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Bolivia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Bolivia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Country Analyses: Bolivia.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q10526)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Country Summaries - Bolivia.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q5298)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘State Firearms Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8973)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Estimated Total Small Arms, Firearms, and Surpluses in Bolivia, Rounded.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q5297)Full Citation

8.

Igarapé Institute.2015.‘Homicides and Homicide Rates 2000 to 2014 - Bolivia.’ Homicide Monitor 2015.Rio de Janeiro:Igarapé Institute,24 June. (Q11099)Full Citation

9.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Bolivia.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10181)Full Citation

10.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Bolivia.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6335)Full Citation

11.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Bolivia.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9707)Full Citation

12.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

13.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

14.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3817)Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

16.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

17.

GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Bolivia.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,4 June. (Q10254)Full Citation

18.

Bolivia.2013.‘Industrial Manufacturing (Fabricación Industrial).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8434)Full Citation

19.

Bolivia.2013.‘Licence for Manufacturing, Transporting, Selling, Importing and Exporting (Licencia Para Fabricación, Transporte, Comercialización, Importación y Exportación).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8403)Full Citation

20.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorisation Licence for the Installation and Running of Factories (Licencia de Autorización para la Instalación y Funcionamiento de Fábricas).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10457)Full Citation

21.

Bolivia.2014.‘Minimum Requirements (Requisitos mínimos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10458)Full Citation

22.

Bolivia.2014.‘Registration Certificate (Certificado de Registro).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10447)Full Citation

23.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10448)Full Citation

24.

Bolivia.2014.‘Validity and Renewal (Vigencia y Renovacion).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10449)Full Citation

25.

Bolivia.2014.‘Security Measures (Normas de Seguridad).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10462)Full Citation

26.

Bolivia.2013.‘Prohibited Activities (Prohibiciones).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8417)Full Citation

27.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illicit Manufacturing (Fabricación Ilícita).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8418)Full Citation

28.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illicit Reparation (Reparación Ilícita).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8425)Full Citation

29.

Bolivia.2013.‘Armoury (Armería).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8433)Full Citation

30.

Bolivia.2014.‘Registration and Authorisation for the Functioning of Gun Shops (Registro y Autorización del Funcionamiento de Armerías).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10472)Full Citation

31.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10473)Full Citation

32.

Bolivia.2014.‘Obligation to Report Information (Obligación de Reportar Información).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10474)Full Citation

33.

Charles Parkinson. 2013. ‘Bolivia Enacts First Gun Control Law.’ InSight Crime (Bogota) / El Diario. 19 September. (N308) Full Citation

34.

Bolivia.2014.‘Import, Export, International Transport and International Transit Authorisation (Autorización de Importación, Exportación, Transporte Internacional y Transito Internacional).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10450)Full Citation

35.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10451)Full Citation

36.

Bolivia.2014.‘Validity and Extension of the Authorisation (Vigencia y Ampliación de la Autorización).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10453)Full Citation

37.

Bolivia.2014.‘Register and Inventories (Registro e Inventarios).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10460)Full Citation

38.

Bolivia.2014.‘Reports (Informes).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10461)Full Citation

39.

Bolivia.2013.‘Exhibitions and Demonstrations (Muestras de Exposición y Demostración).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8415)Full Citation

40.

Bolivia.2013.‘Security Measures for Transporting (Seguridad Para el Transporte).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8395)Full Citation

41.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

42.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorisation to Import to Other Individuals and Legal Persons (Autorización de Importación a Otras Personas Naturales y Jurídicas).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10452)Full Citation

43.

Bolivia.2013.‘International Transit (Tránsito Internacional).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8431)Full Citation

44.

Bolivia.2013.‘Foreign Nationals (Ciudadanos Extranjeros).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8409)Full Citation

45.

Bolivia.2013.‘Temporary Admission (Internación Temporal).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8396)Full Citation

46.

Bolivia.2013.‘Special Acquisitions (Adquisición Extraordinaria).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8398)Full Citation

47.

Bolivia.2013.‘Procedure for Acquisition (Procedimiento de Adquisición).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8399)Full Citation

48.

Bolivia.2013.‘Marking (Marcaje).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8429)Full Citation

49.

Bolivia.2010.‘Laws on Import (Leyes sobre la Importación).’ National Report of Bolivia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations,14 June. (Q10527)Full Citation

50.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

51.

Bolivia.2013.‘Attributions (Atribuciones).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8437)Full Citation

52.

Bolivia.2013.‘Definitions (Definiciones).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8440)Full Citation

53.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

54.

Bolivia.2013.‘Objective (Objeto).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8406)Full Citation

55.

Bolivia.2014.‘Object (Objeto).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10440)Full Citation

56.

Bolivia.2013.‘Registration and Inventories (Registro e Inventarios).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8400)Full Citation

57.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorities (Responsables).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10444)Full Citation

58.

Bolivia.2014.‘Dependence and Administration (Dependencia y Administración).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10464)Full Citation

59.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

60.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

61.

Bolivia.2013.‘Firearms For Your Use (Armas de Fuego Por Su Uso).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8408)Full Citation

62.

Bolivia.2014.‘Classification of Weapons (Clasificación de Armas).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10442)Full Citation

63.

Bolivia.2014.‘Classification of Ammunition (Clasificación de Municiones).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10443)Full Citation

64.

Bolivia.2013.‘Types of Licences (Clases de Licencias).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8428)Full Citation

65.

Bolivia.2014.‘Licence to Possess, Carry and Use Firearms for Civil Use (Licencia de Tenencia, Portación y Uso de Armas de Fuego de Uso Civil).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10468)Full Citation

66.

Bolivia.2013.‘License Requirements (Requisitos Para Licencia).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8416)Full Citation

67.

Bolivia.2014.‘Sales Authorisation (Autorización de Compra).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10469)Full Citation

68.

Bolivia.2013.‘Sports Organisations (Organizaciones Deportivas).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8410)Full Citation

69.

Bolivia.2013.‘Instructions for Shooting Sports (Instrucción de Tiro Deportivo).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8411)Full Citation

70.

Bolivia.2013.‘Firing Ranges and Zones (Campos y Polígonos de Tiro).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8412)Full Citation

71.

Bolivia.2013.‘Hunting (Caza).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8413)Full Citation

72.

Bolivia.2013.‘Antique, Historical and Collectable Firearms (Armas Antiguas, Históricas y de Colección).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8414)Full Citation

73.

Bolivia.2014.‘Attributions (Atribuciones).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10465)Full Citation

74.

Bolivia.2014.‘Definitions (Definiciones).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10441)Full Citation

75.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10467)Full Citation

76.

Bolivia.2014.‘Training and Evaluation (Capacitación y Evaluación).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10466)Full Citation

77.

Bolivia.2013.‘Renewal and Expiration (Renovación y Caducidad).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8402)Full Citation

78.

Bolivia.2013.‘General Registry of Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives (Registro General de Armas de Fuego, Municiones y Explosivos).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8436)Full Citation

79.

Bolivia.2013.‘Structure of the General Registry of Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives (Estructura del Registro General de Armas de Fuego, Municiones y Explosivos).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8435)Full Citation

80.

Bolivia.2014.‘Obligation to Submit and Update Information (Obligación de Remisión y Actualización de Información).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10445)Full Citation

81.

Bolivia.2014.‘Limitations (Limitaciones).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10470)Full Citation

82.

Bolivia.2006.‘Report on the Programme of Action (Informe sobre el Programa de Acción).’ National Report of Bolivia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations,20 June. (Q4638)Full Citation

83.

Bolivia.2014.‘Control Register of Gun Shops Dedicated to the Repair and/or Reloading of Firearms and Ammunition for Civil Use (Registro de Control a Armerías de Reparación de Armas de Fuego y/o Recarga de Municiones de Uso Civil).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10475)Full Citation

84.

Bolivia.2013.‘Control (Control).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8430)Full Citation

85.

Bolivia.2010.‘Report on the Programme of Action (Informe sobre el Programa de Acción).’ National Report of Bolivia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4636)Full Citation

86.

Bolivia.2013.‘Disposal (Enajenación).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8401)Full Citation

87.

Bolivia.2014.‘Exhibition for Trading Purposes (Exposición para Comercialización).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10476)Full Citation

88.

Bolivia.2013.‘Storage (Almacenaje).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8432)Full Citation

89.

Bolivia.2013.‘Transport Within Bolivian Territory (Transporte Dentro el Territorio Boliviano).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8438)Full Citation

90.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorisation (Autorización).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10454)Full Citation

91.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10455)Full Citation

92.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorisation for a Military Escort (Autorización de Escolta Militar).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10456)Full Citation

93.

Bolivia.2014.‘Security Measures for Transport or Transfer (Medidas de Seguridad para el Transporte o Traslado).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10471)Full Citation

94.

Bolivia.2013.‘Alteration or Elimination of Marks (Alteración O Supresión de Marca).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8422)Full Citation

95.

Bolivia.2007.‘National Marking Practices (Prácticas Nacionales de Marcación).’ National Report of Bolivia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4637)Full Citation

96.

Bolivia.2014.‘Interconnection of Registers (Interconexión de Registros).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10446)Full Citation

97.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q323)Full Citation

98.

Bolivia.2014.‘Test Laboratory (Laboratorio de Pruebas).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10463)Full Citation

99.

Bolivia.2013.‘Public Display (Ostentación Publica).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8427)Full Citation

100.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

101.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illicit Possession and Bearing or Carrying (Tenencia Y Porte O Portación Ilícita).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8405)Full Citation

102.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illicit Trafficking of Weapons (Tráfico Ilícito de Armas).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8419)Full Citation

103.

Bolivia.2013.‘Theft or Robbery of Weapons (Hurto o Robo de Armas).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8420)Full Citation

104.

Bolivia.2013.‘Theft or Robbery of Weapons and Ammunition for Military or Police Use (Hurto o Robo de Armamento y Munición de Uso Militar o Policial).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8421)Full Citation

105.

Bolivia.2013.‘Dangerous Storage (Almacenaje Peligroso).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8423)Full Citation

106.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illegal Shooting Training (Instrucción de Tiro Ilegal).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8426)Full Citation

107.

Bolivia.2013.‘Destruction (Destrucción).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8404)Full Citation

108.

Bolivia.2014.‘Destruction (Destrucción).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10459)Full Citation

109.

UNODA.2003.‘Decision 552: Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its Aspects.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Andean Community / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,11 April. (Q3220)Full Citation

110.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

111.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington, DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

112.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

113.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

114.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

115.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

116.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

117.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

118.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

119.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

120.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

121.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

122.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

123.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

124.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

125.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation