Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Bolivia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Bolivia is 250,0001 2 3 4

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Bolivia is 2.51 3 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Bolivia ranked at No. 1105

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Bolivia ranked at No. 1194

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Bolivia is reported to be 7,3006

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Bolivia is 0.077

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Bolivia are reported to have 68,0008 2 9 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Bolivia are reported to have 29,0008 2 9 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Bolivia, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 84510
2012: 1,04210 11
2011: 84410 11 12 13
2010: 84110 11 14 12
2009: 83510 11 14 15 12
2008: 850
2007: 787
2006: 598
2005: 654
2004: 3,74814 15
2003: 2,565
2002: 2,610
2001: 2,957
2000: 3,078

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Bolivia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 8.410
2012: 10.410 11
2011: 8.510 11 12 13
2010: 8.610 11 14 12 16
2009: 8.4710 11 14 15 12
2008: 8.77
2007: 8.26
2006: 6.39
2005: 7.12
2004: 41.614 15
2003: 29.0
2002: 30.1
2001: 34.8
2000: 37.0
1998: 28.6317

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Bolivia, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 7411
2006: 1211 18
2005: 13
2002: 5219
2001: 50

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Bolivia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.747
2006: 0.137 18
2005: 0.14
2002: 0.5919
2001: 0.58

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Bolivia, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 9%13
2010: 7%11
2006: 2%
2005: 2%

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Bolivia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Bolivia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law21 24 25 26 36 37 38 39 40 27 41 42 28

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Bolivia is reported by Customs to be US$60143 (2009)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Bolivia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law21 24 25 26 36 37 44 38 39 40 27 41 42 45 28 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Bolivia is reported by Customs to be US$1,555,55043 (2011)

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Bolivia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law52

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Bolivia include53 45 54 37 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Bolivia is categorised as restrictive55

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Bolivia includes the Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law of 201356 35 and its regulation57 2

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Bolivia are regulated by the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Interior and the Police53 58 59 60

Right to Possess Firearms

In Bolivia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law61 62

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Bolivia, civilians are not allowed to possess military weapons63 64

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Bolivia, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited63 64 13

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Bolivia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence63 64

Regulation of Handguns

In Bolivia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence63 64 65 13

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Bolivia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law63 64 65 13

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Bolivia, only licensed gun owners66 67 68 69 46 70 71 72 73 74 28 75 13 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Bolivia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example self-defence,76 sports, hunting and collection63 66 67

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Bolivia is 21 years68

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Bolivia must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental health68 28 77 13 records

Firearm Safety Training

In Bolivia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required78 77 75 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Bolivia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years79

Licensing Records

In Bolivia, authorities maintain a record80 81 59 82 75 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Bolivia are permitted to possess from two to five firearms83

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Bolivia, the law requires80 81 59 82 75 70 73 74 35 84 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Bolivia, licensed firearm dealers are required58 85 81 80 59 82 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Bolivia, licensed gun makers are required39 40 81 80 59 82 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Bolivia, State agencies are required86 80 59 82 81 87 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Bolivia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted88 69

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Bolivia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful88 21 28 31 32 33 34 89

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Bolivia include90 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Bolivia include90 27 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Bolivia include90 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Bolivia include42 45 91 36 37 38 92 93 94 95 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Bolivia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law96 50 97

Firearm Tracing

In Bolivia, state authorities carry out98 75 99 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Bolivia, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are68 100 75 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Bolivia, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law67 28 13

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Bolivia, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited101

Gun Free Zones

In Bolivia, private guns are prohibited in social gatherings and public or private events, meetings or conferences, national, departmental, regional, municipal legislative sessions and indigenous gatherings, educational institutions, universities, hospitals and religious settings, public demonstrations, social movements, marches, strikes and rallies, prisons, sporting events, financial institutions, and judicial hearings28

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Bolivia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm102 is five years in prison103 29 104 105 106 96 107 30 108 101 35

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Bolivia are known to have53 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Bolivia, it is state policy109 53 110 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Andean Community

As a member of the Andean Community, Bolivia

adopted Decision 552: The Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects in June, 2003111

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Bolivia adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified112 113 by Bolivia

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed114 by Bolivia.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed115 by Bolivia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed116 by Bolivia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Bolivia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects117

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Bolivia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 128118 119 120 121 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Bolivia has submitted one or more national reports122 123 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Bolivia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated124 123

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Bolivia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated124 123

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Bolivia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent123

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated123 by Bolivia to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Bolivia has not declared125 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Bolivia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945126

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list127 Bolivia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Bolivia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Bolivia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Country Analyses: Bolivia.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q10526)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Country Summaries - Bolivia.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q5298)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

La Razón (Bolivia), Agencia Boliviana de Información. 2016. ‘Government Expands for 180 Days the Voluntary Registration of Firearms.’ 11 April. (N512) Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Bolivia.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,14 April. (Q10254)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘State Firearms Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8973)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Estimated Total Small Arms, Firearms, and Surpluses in Bolivia, Rounded.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q5297)Full Citation

10.

Igarapé Institute.2015.‘Homicides and Homicide Rates 2000 to 2014 - Bolivia.’ Homicide Monitor 2015.Rio de Janeiro:Igarapé Institute,24 June. (Q11099)Full Citation

11.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Bolivia.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10181)Full Citation

12.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Bolivia.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6335)Full Citation

13.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Bolivia.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9707)Full Citation

14.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

15.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

16.

Lima Magne, Juan José.2010.‘Bolivia Basic Diagnostic (Diagnóstico Básico de Bolivia).’ Bolivia Basic Diagnostic (Diagnóstico Básico de Bolivia).Sucre:Coalición Latinoamericana para la Prevención de la Violencia Armada (CLAVE),4 July. (Q11898)Full Citation

17.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3817)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

19.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

20.

Bolivia.2013.‘Industrial Manufacturing (Fabricación Industrial).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8434)Full Citation

21.

Bolivia.2013.‘Licence for Manufacturing, Transporting, Selling, Importing and Exporting (Licencia Para Fabricación, Transporte, Comercialización, Importación y Exportación).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8403)Full Citation

22.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorisation Licence for the Installation and Running of Factories (Licencia de Autorización para la Instalación y Funcionamiento de Fábricas).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10457)Full Citation

23.

Bolivia.2014.‘Minimum Requirements (Requisitos mínimos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10458)Full Citation

24.

Bolivia.2014.‘Registration Certificate (Certificado de Registro).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10447)Full Citation

25.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10448)Full Citation

26.

Bolivia.2014.‘Validity and Renewal (Vigencia y Renovacion).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10449)Full Citation

27.

Bolivia.2014.‘Security Measures (Normas de Seguridad).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10462)Full Citation

28.

Bolivia.2013.‘Prohibited Activities (Prohibiciones).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8417)Full Citation

29.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illicit Manufacturing (Fabricación Ilícita).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8418)Full Citation

30.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illicit Reparation (Reparación Ilícita).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8425)Full Citation

31.

Bolivia.2013.‘Armoury (Armería).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8433)Full Citation

32.

Bolivia.2014.‘Registration and Authorisation for the Functioning of Gun Shops (Registro y Autorización del Funcionamiento de Armerías).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10472)Full Citation

33.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10473)Full Citation

34.

Bolivia.2014.‘Obligation to Report Information (Obligación de Reportar Información).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10474)Full Citation

35.

Charles Parkinson. 2013. ‘Bolivia Enacts First Gun Control Law.’ InSight Crime (Bogota) / El Diario. 19 September. (N308) Full Citation

36.

Bolivia.2014.‘Import, Export, International Transport and International Transit Authorisation (Autorización de Importación, Exportación, Transporte Internacional y Transito Internacional).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10450)Full Citation

37.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10451)Full Citation

38.

Bolivia.2014.‘Validity and Extension of the Authorisation (Vigencia y Ampliación de la Autorización).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10453)Full Citation

39.

Bolivia.2014.‘Register and Inventories (Registro e Inventarios).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10460)Full Citation

40.

Bolivia.2014.‘Reports (Informes).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10461)Full Citation

41.

Bolivia.2013.‘Exhibitions and Demonstrations (Muestras de Exposición y Demostración).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8415)Full Citation

42.

Bolivia.2013.‘Security Measures for Transporting (Seguridad Para el Transporte).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8395)Full Citation

43.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

44.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorisation to Import to Other Individuals and Legal Persons (Autorización de Importación a Otras Personas Naturales y Jurídicas).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10452)Full Citation

45.

Bolivia.2013.‘International Transit (Tránsito Internacional).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8431)Full Citation

46.

Bolivia.2013.‘Foreign Nationals (Ciudadanos Extranjeros).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8409)Full Citation

47.

Bolivia.2013.‘Temporary Admission (Internación Temporal).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8396)Full Citation

48.

Bolivia.2013.‘Special Acquisitions (Adquisición Extraordinaria).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8398)Full Citation

49.

Bolivia.2013.‘Procedure for Acquisition (Procedimiento de Adquisición).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8399)Full Citation

50.

Bolivia.2013.‘Marking (Marcaje).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8429)Full Citation

51.

Bolivia.2010.‘Laws on Import (Leyes sobre la Importación).’ National Report of Bolivia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations,14 June. (Q10527)Full Citation

52.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

53.

Bolivia.2013.‘Attributions (Atribuciones).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8437)Full Citation

54.

Bolivia.2013.‘Definitions (Definiciones).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8440)Full Citation

55.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

56.

Bolivia.2013.‘Objective (Objeto).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8406)Full Citation

57.

Bolivia.2014.‘Object (Objeto).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10440)Full Citation

58.

Bolivia.2013.‘Registration and Inventories (Registro e Inventarios).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8400)Full Citation

59.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorities (Responsables).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10444)Full Citation

60.

Bolivia.2014.‘Dependence and Administration (Dependencia y Administración).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10464)Full Citation

61.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

62.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

63.

Bolivia.2013.‘Firearms For Your Use (Armas de Fuego Por Su Uso).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8408)Full Citation

64.

Bolivia.2014.‘Classification of Weapons (Clasificación de Armas).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10442)Full Citation

65.

Bolivia.2014.‘Classification of Ammunition (Clasificación de Municiones).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10443)Full Citation

66.

Bolivia.2013.‘Types of Licences (Clases de Licencias).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8428)Full Citation

67.

Bolivia.2014.‘Licence to Possess, Carry and Use Firearms for Civil Use (Licencia de Tenencia, Portación y Uso de Armas de Fuego de Uso Civil).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10468)Full Citation

68.

Bolivia.2013.‘License Requirements (Requisitos Para Licencia).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8416)Full Citation

69.

Bolivia.2014.‘Sales Authorisation (Autorización de Compra).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10469)Full Citation

70.

Bolivia.2013.‘Sports Organisations (Organizaciones Deportivas).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8410)Full Citation

71.

Bolivia.2013.‘Instructions for Shooting Sports (Instrucción de Tiro Deportivo).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8411)Full Citation

72.

Bolivia.2013.‘Firing Ranges and Zones (Campos y Polígonos de Tiro).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8412)Full Citation

73.

Bolivia.2013.‘Hunting (Caza).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8413)Full Citation

74.

Bolivia.2013.‘Antique, Historical and Collectable Firearms (Armas Antiguas, Históricas y de Colección).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8414)Full Citation

75.

Bolivia.2014.‘Attributions (Atribuciones).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10465)Full Citation

76.

Bolivia.2014.‘Definitions (Definiciones).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10441)Full Citation

77.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10467)Full Citation

78.

Bolivia.2014.‘Training and Evaluation (Capacitación y Evaluación).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10466)Full Citation

79.

Bolivia.2013.‘Renewal and Expiration (Renovación y Caducidad).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8402)Full Citation

80.

Bolivia.2013.‘General Registry of Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives (Registro General de Armas de Fuego, Municiones y Explosivos).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8436)Full Citation

81.

Bolivia.2013.‘Structure of the General Registry of Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives (Estructura del Registro General de Armas de Fuego, Municiones y Explosivos).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8435)Full Citation

82.

Bolivia.2014.‘Obligation to Submit and Update Information (Obligación de Remisión y Actualización de Información).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10445)Full Citation

83.

Bolivia.2014.‘Limitations (Limitaciones).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10470)Full Citation

84.

Bolivia.2006.‘Report on the Programme of Action (Informe sobre el Programa de Acción).’ National Report of Bolivia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations,20 June. (Q4638)Full Citation

85.

Bolivia.2014.‘Control Register of Gun Shops Dedicated to the Repair and/or Reloading of Firearms and Ammunition for Civil Use (Registro de Control a Armerías de Reparación de Armas de Fuego y/o Recarga de Municiones de Uso Civil).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10475)Full Citation

86.

Bolivia.2013.‘Control (Control).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8430)Full Citation

87.

Bolivia.2010.‘Report on the Programme of Action (Informe sobre el Programa de Acción).’ National Report of Bolivia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4636)Full Citation

88.

Bolivia.2013.‘Disposal (Enajenación).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8401)Full Citation

89.

Bolivia.2014.‘Exhibition for Trading Purposes (Exposición para Comercialización).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10476)Full Citation

90.

Bolivia.2013.‘Storage (Almacenaje).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8432)Full Citation

91.

Bolivia.2013.‘Transport Within Bolivian Territory (Transporte Dentro el Territorio Boliviano).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8438)Full Citation

92.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorisation (Autorización).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10454)Full Citation

93.

Bolivia.2014.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10455)Full Citation

94.

Bolivia.2014.‘Authorisation for a Military Escort (Autorización de Escolta Militar).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10456)Full Citation

95.

Bolivia.2014.‘Security Measures for Transport or Transfer (Medidas de Seguridad para el Transporte o Traslado).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10471)Full Citation

96.

Bolivia.2013.‘Alteration or Elimination of Marks (Alteración O Supresión de Marca).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8422)Full Citation

97.

Bolivia.2007.‘National Marking Practices (Prácticas Nacionales de Marcación).’ National Report of Bolivia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Bolivia to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4637)Full Citation

98.

Bolivia.2014.‘Interconnection of Registers (Interconexión de Registros).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10446)Full Citation

99.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q323)Full Citation

100.

Bolivia.2014.‘Test Laboratory (Laboratorio de Pruebas).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10463)Full Citation

101.

Bolivia.2013.‘Public Display (Ostentación Publica).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8427)Full Citation

102.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

103.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illicit Possession and Bearing or Carrying (Tenencia Y Porte O Portación Ilícita).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8405)Full Citation

104.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illicit Trafficking of Weapons (Tráfico Ilícito de Armas).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8419)Full Citation

105.

Bolivia.2013.‘Theft or Robbery of Weapons (Hurto o Robo de Armas).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8420)Full Citation

106.

Bolivia.2013.‘Theft or Robbery of Weapons and Ammunition for Military or Police Use (Hurto o Robo de Armamento y Munición de Uso Militar o Policial).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8421)Full Citation

107.

Bolivia.2013.‘Dangerous Storage (Almacenaje Peligroso).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8423)Full Citation

108.

Bolivia.2013.‘Illegal Shooting Training (Instrucción de Tiro Ilegal).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8426)Full Citation

109.

Bolivia.2013.‘Destruction (Destrucción).’ Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials Control Law - Act 400.Sucre:Plurinational Legislative Assembly of Bolivia,18 September. (Q8404)Full Citation

110.

Bolivia.2014.‘Destruction (Destrucción).’ Supreme Decree No. 2175, Regulation of the Act No. 400 on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and other Related Materials.La Paz:Official Gazette of Bolivia,5 November. (Q10459)Full Citation

111.

UNODA.2003.‘Decision 552: Andean Plan to Prevent, Fight and Eradicate Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its Aspects.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Andean Community / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,11 April. (Q3220)Full Citation

112.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

113.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington, DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

114.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

115.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

116.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

117.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

118.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

119.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

120.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

121.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

122.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

123.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

124.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

125.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

126.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

127.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation