Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Switch Language

Belgium — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Belgium is 1,800,0001 to 2,000,0002 3 4

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Belgium is 17.21 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Belgium ranked at No. 395

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Belgium ranked at No. 341

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Belgium is reported to be 458,1626

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Belgium is 4.487

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Belgium is reported to be 641,7813 to 870,0005

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Belgium is 8.397

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Belgium are reported to have 1,355,0008 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Belgium are reported to have 23,8709 to 24,87410 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Belgium, annual deaths resulting from firearms total 2006: 25611

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Belgium, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is 2006: 2.4311

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 19812
2010: 186
2009: 186
2008: 202
2007: 211
2006: 221
2005: 221
2004: 268
2003: 230
2002: 319
2001: 282
2000: 212
1999: 17213
1998: 218
1997: 14513 12
1996: 118
1995: 142

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 1.812
2010: 1.7
2009: 1.7
2008: 1.9
2007: 2.0
2006: 2.1
2005: 2.1
2004: 2.6
2003: 2.2
2002: 3.1
2001: 2.8
2000: 2.1
1999: 1.687 12
1998: 2.13
1997: 1.42
1996: 1.16
1995: 1.412 14
1990: 1.4115

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual firearm homicides total

2009: 3316
2008: 28
2007: 35
2006: 31
2005: 46
2004: 5916 12
1999: 7016
1998: 73
1997: 78
1996: 75
1995: 5916 12
1994: 7616
1993: 95

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.3116
2008: 0.27
2007: 0.33
2006: 0.29
2005: 0.44
2004: 0.5716 12
1999: 0.6816
1998: 0.72
1997: 0.77
1996: 0.74
1995: 0.5816 12
1994: 0.7516
1993: 0.94
1990: 0.6017

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual handgun homicides total

2009: 216
2005: 2
2004: 2
1999: 6
1998: 11

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0216
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
1999: 0.06
1998: 0.11

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual long gun homicides total

2009: 116
2008: 1
2007: 1
2005: 3
2004: 4
1999: 6
1998: 6

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0116
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.04
1999: 0.06
1998: 0.06

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Belgium, annual gun homicides (other) total

2009: 3016
2008: 28
2007: 34
2006: 31
2005: 41
2004: 53
1999: 58
1998: 56

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.2816
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.32
2006: 0.29
2005: 0.39
2004: 0.51
1999: 0.57
1998: 0.55

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, annual suicides by any means total

2005: 2,02818
2004: 1,986
1999: 2,005
1998: 2,022
1995: 2,15519

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2005: 19.577
2004: 19.19
1999: 19.59
1998: 19.79
1995: 20.8919
1990: 19.0420

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual firearm suicides total

2009: 15321
2008: 189
2007: 165
2006: 207
2005: 240
2004: 234
1999: 245
1998: 280
1997: 310
1996: 288
1995: 289
1994: 307
1993: 293

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 1.4221
2008: 1.76
2007: 1.55
2006: 1.96
2005: 2.29
2004: 2.25
1999: 2.4
1998: 2.74
1997: 3.05
1996: 2.84
1995: 2.85
1994: 3.03
1993: 2.91
1990: 2.5622

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual handgun suicides total

2009: 1321
2008: 9
2007: 9
2006: 13
2005: 13
2004: 18
1999: 45
1998: 25

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.1221
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.08
2006: 0.12
2005: 0.12
2004: 0.17
1999: 0.44
1998: 0.25

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Belgium, the number of long gun suicides is

2009: 1521
2008: 21
2007: 27
2006: 26
2005: 35
2004: 31
1999: 35
1998: 49

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.1421
2008: 0.20
2007: 0.25
2006: 0.25
2005: 0.33
2004: 0.30
1999: 0.34
1998: 0.48

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Belgium, annual gun suicides (other) total

2009: 12521
2008: 159
2007: 129
2006: 168
2005: 192
2004: 185
1999: 165
1998: 206

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 1.1621
2008: 1.48
2007: 1.21
2006: 1.59
2005: 1.83
2004: 1.78
1999: 1.61
1998: 2.02

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Belgium, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2009: 123
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 7
1999: 5
1998: 2
1997: 2
1996: 7
1995: 2
1994: 4
1993: 4

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0123
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.07
1999: 0.05
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.07
1995: 0.02
1994: 0.04
1993: 0.04
1990: 0.0624

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

In Belgium, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total 1999: 223

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Belgium, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is 1999: 0.0223

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Belgium, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2009: 123
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 7
1999: 3
1998: 2

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0123
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.07
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2009: 225
2008: 12
2007: 9
2006: 17
2005: 22
2004: 16
1999: 17
1998: 16
1995: 2919

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.225
2008: 0.11
2007: 0.08
2006: 0.16
2005: 0.21
2004: 0.15
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.16
1995: 0.2819
1990: 0.2626

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2008: 125
2006: 1
2005: 1
1999: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.0125
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
1999: 0.01

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2008: 125
2006: 2
1999: 2

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.0925
2006: 0.02
1999: 0.02

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2009: 225
2008: 10
2007: 9
2006: 14
2005: 21
2004: 16
1999: 14
1998: 16

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2009: 0.0225
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.08
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.20
2004: 0.15
1999: 0.14
1998: 0.16

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Belgium, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence6 27

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Belgium is ranked 'medium'28

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Belgium, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Belgium is reported by Customs to be US$73,464,90637 (2011)38 39

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Belgium is categorized as 'mid-level'40 39

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Belgium, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law30 31 27 32 33 34 35

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Belgium is reported by Customs to be US$49,436,95837 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Belgium is low6 41 42 43

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Belgium, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law44 31 45 46

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Belgium include47 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, Belgium was ranked at No. 848

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Belgium is categorised as restrictive49

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Belgium includes the Act regulating economic and individual activities related to firearms (also referred to as the 'Firearms Act') of June 8, 2006,27 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,50 51 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200352 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms53

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Belgium are regulated by the Federal Service for Weapons,54 the National Police6 and the European Commission51

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Belgium, civilians are not allowed to possess military weapons, automatic firearms, and their ammunition, concealable firearms, silencers, laser sights, and high capacity cartridges55 56 57

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Belgium, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited55 56 57

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Belgium, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation58 59 57

Regulation of Handguns

In Belgium, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation56 58 59 57

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Belgium, only licensed gun owners60 61 62 63 64 56 58 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Belgium are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security65 61 66 67

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Belgium is 18 years68 61 67

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Belgium must pass a background check which considers criminal and various other61 66 67 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Belgium, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required6

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Belgium does not stipulate6 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Belgium, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required61 6 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Belgium gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years for permits to carry weapons. General licences for firearm possession are issued for an undetermined period.69 66

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Belgium are permitted to possess 1 firearm per authorisation61

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Belgium are permitted to possess a limited quantity of ammunition70 71

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Belgium, the law requires72 73 27 74 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Belgium, licensed firearm dealers are required75 27 76 74 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Belgium, licensed gun makers are required77 75 27 76 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Belgium, State agencies are required78 72 79 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Belgium, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited68

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Belgium, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful44 68 62 63 80 59

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Belgium, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated68 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Belgium include70 6 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Belgium include81 6 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Belgium, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law in some cases82 83 76 84 85

Firearm Tracing

In Belgium, state authorities carry out76 86 27 85 74 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Marking of Firearms and Ammunition

In Belgium, state authorities employ84 ballistic fingerprinting technology to trace guns and ammunition

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Belgium, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit6

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Belgium, the maximum penalty for illicit firearm possession is 5 years prison and/or a fine of 25,000 Euros87

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Belgium are known to have88 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In Belgium, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 70,00088

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Belgium, it is state policy89 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Belgium is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament90 91

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Belgium is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Belgium has submitted one or more national reports92 on its arms transfers

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

At the resumption of the most recent session of the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (UNCCPCJ), a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, Belgium was listed as an elected member for a three-year term of office93

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 201194 by Belgium.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified95 by Belgium

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified96 by Belgium

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Belgium committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects97

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Belgium has submitted one or more national reports98 99 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Belgium, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated100 99

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Belgium, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated100

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Belgium submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent99

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated99 by Belgium to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Belgium has not declared101 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Belgium has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945102

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists103 Belgium as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

To see where Belgium ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Poitevin, Cédric.2006.‘Note d'Information.’ New Arms Legislation in Belgium.Brussels:Groupe de recherche et d'information sur la paix et la sécurité (GRIP),21 June. (Q4982)Full Citation

3.

Expatica (Brussels). 2005. ‘Tough New Gun Law Promised.’ 3 February. (N230) Full Citation

4.

Buchanan, Cate, Mireille Widmer et al.2007.‘National Regulation of Small Arms.’ Missing Pieces: A Guide for Reducing Gun Violence Through Parliamentary Action.Geneva:Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Inter-Parliamentary Union,1 January. (Q4984)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org.2011.‘Calculated Rates – Belgium.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,17 March. (Q4208)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2005.‘The Count Continues: Stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q4983)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

11.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

12.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Belgium.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6215)Full Citation

13.

Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares and Arsalaan Siddique.2001.‘Crimes Recorded by Police: Homicide.’ International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999.London:UK Home Office,1 May. (Q2143)Full Citation

14.

Hemenway, David, Tomoko Shinoda-Tagawa and Matthew Miller.2002.‘Female Homicide and Suicide Rates.’ Firearm Availability and Female Homicide Victimization Rates Among 25 Populous High-Income Countries.Boston:Journal of the American Medical Women's Association (JAMWA), Spring 2002 / Harvard Injury Control Research Centre, Harvard School of Public Health,1 March. (Q4980)Full Citation

15.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

16.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Homicide in Belgium.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,21 April. (Q6088)Full Citation

17.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

18.

Belgium.2010.‘Evolution of the Major Initial Causes of Death 1998, 1999, 2004, 2005 (Evolution des Principales Causes Initiales de Décès 1998, 1999, 2004, 2005).’ Causes of Death 1998, 1999, 2004 and 2005 (Causes de décès 1998, 1999, 2004 et 2005).Brussels:Direction Générale Statistique et Information Economique,8 September. (Q4959)Full Citation

19.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

20.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

21.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Suicide in Belgium.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,21 April. (Q6135)Full Citation

22.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

23.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Unintentional Gun Deaths in Belgium.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,21 April. (Q6175)Full Citation

24.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

25.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death – Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Belgium.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,21 April. (Q6435)Full Citation

26.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

27.

Belgium.2010.‘Registration (Enregistrement).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4595)Full Citation

28.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

29.

Belgium.1991.‘Article 4.’ Law of 5 August 1991 on Import, Export, Transfer and the Fight against Trafficking of Weapons, Ammunition and Material Intended Specifically for Military Use or Law Enforcement and Corresponding Technology.Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,5 August. (Q4935)Full Citation

30.

Belgium.1991.‘Article 9.’ Law of 5 August 1991 on Import, Export, Transfer and the Fight against Trafficking of Weapons, Ammunition and Material Intended Specifically for Military Use or Law Enforcement and Corresponding Technology.Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,5 August. (Q4936)Full Citation

31.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

32.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

33.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

34.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

35.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

36.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

37.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

38.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

39.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

40.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

41.

Reuters. 1998. ‘Belgian Police Smash Arms Smuggling Ring.’ 17 March. (N217) Full Citation

42.

Gilbert Dupont. 2005. ‘Brussels Police Trafficking in Guns.’ La Derniere Heure (Brussels). 2 November. (N218) Full Citation

43.

Expatica (Brussels). 2004. ‘Report: 15,000 Guns Smuggled Annually.’ 22 July. (N183) Full Citation

44.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 5.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4854)Full Citation

45.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

46.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

47.

Belgium.2010.‘Authorisation for Export (Autorisation d'Exportation).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4937)Full Citation

48.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

49.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

50.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

51.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

52.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

53.

UNGA.1969.‘Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks.’ Convention for the Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks on Small Arms of July 1, 1969.Brussels:United Nations General Assembly,1 July. (Q5999)Full Citation

54.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 36.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4866)Full Citation

55.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 3.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4852)Full Citation

56.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

57.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

58.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

59.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

60.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 10.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4856)Full Citation

61.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 11.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4857)Full Citation

62.

Belgium.2013.‘Articles 1, 2, 3 and 4.’ Royal Decree Amending the Royal Decree of 20 September 1991 on Firearms of Historic, Folkloristic, or Decorative Interest and Firearms Rendered Unfit to Fire.Brussels:King of the Belgians,8 May. (Q6842)Full Citation

63.

Belgium.2013.‘The List of Firearms for Which No Licence Was Required (HFD List) Is Abolished (La Liste des Armes à Feu en Vente Libre (Liste HFD) Est Supprimée).’ Belgium Federal Public Service, Justice - News.Brussels:Belgium Federal Public Service, Justice,10 June. (Q6843)Full Citation

64.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

65.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 9.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4855)Full Citation

66.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 14.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4859)Full Citation

67.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

68.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 19.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4863)Full Citation

69.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 32.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4868)Full Citation

70.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 16.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4861)Full Citation

71.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

72.

Belgium.2011.‘Record Keeping – Registration – Situation in Belgium (Conservation des informations – Enregistrement – Situation en Belgique).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4944)Full Citation

73.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 4.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4853)Full Citation

74.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

75.

Belgium.2011.‘Record Keeping – Registration – Situation in Belgium (Conservation des informations – Enregistrement – Situation en Belgique).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4941)Full Citation

76.

Belgium.2011.‘Record Keeping – Registration – Situation in Belgium (Conservation des informations – Enregistrement – Situation en Belgique).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4942)Full Citation

77.

Belgium.2011.‘Individual Marking (Numbering) – (Marquage Individuelle (Numérotage)).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4940)Full Citation

78.

Belgium.2002.‘Article 3.’ Royal Decree on the Possession and Carrying of Weapons by the Services of the Authority or Law Enforcement 2002-06-26/32 (Arrêté Royal Relatif à la Détention et au Port d'armes par les Services de l'Autorité ou de la Force Publique 2002-06-26/32).Brussels:King of the Belgians,26 June. (Q4869)Full Citation

79.

Belgium.2010.‘The Police (La Police).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4596)Full Citation

80.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

81.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 21.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4864)Full Citation

82.

Belgium.1970.‘Article 1.’ Law Regulating the Situation of the Proof House of Firearms Based in Liège 1888-05-24/30 (Loi Portant Réglementation de la Situation du Banc d'Epreuves des Armes à Feu Etabli à Liège 1888-05-24/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,1 January. (Q4870)Full Citation

83.

Belgium.1970.‘Article 10.’ Law Regulating the Situation of the Proof House of Firearms Based in Liège 1888-05-24/30 (Loi Portant Réglementation de la Situation du Banc d'Epreuves des Armes à Feu Etabli à Liège 1888-05-24/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,1 January. (Q4871)Full Citation

84.

Belgium.2010.‘Marking (Marquage).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4594)Full Citation

85.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation

86.

Belgium.2011.‘Tracing performed by the services of the Integrated Police Structured at 2 Levels (Traçage Effectué par les Services de la Police Intégrée Structurée à 2 Niveaux).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4943)Full Citation

87.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 23.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4920)Full Citation

88.

Expatica (Brussels). 2007. ‘New Gun Law is a Flop.’ 10 May. (N219) Full Citation

89.

Belgium.2010.‘Collection and Disposal: Concerning Weapons of the Armed Forces (Collecte et Elimination: En ce qui Concerne les Armes des Forces Armées).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4939)Full Citation

90.

European Parliament.2007.‘Roll-call Vote: EU Firearms Directive.’ Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons.Brussels:VoteWatch.eu,29 November. (Q1346)Full Citation

91.

EU Parliament.2007.‘Draft Legislative Resolution on the EU Parliament Firearms Directive 2007.’ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.Brussels:European Parliament,12 July. (Q1970)Full Citation

92.

Saferworld.2010.‘EU Arms Transfer Reporting Database.’ Saferworld European Union Arms Transfer Reporting Database.London:Saferworld,9 December. (Q3364)Full Citation

93.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

94.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

95.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

96.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

97.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

98.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

99.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) – Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

100.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

101.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

102.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

103.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation