Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Barbados — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Barbados is 9,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Barbados is 3.51 2 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Barbados ranked at No. 1663

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Barbados ranked at No. 762

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Barbados is reported to be

1984: 3,0004

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Barbados is

1984: 1.175

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Barbados are reported to have 1,4006 7 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Barbados are reported to have 1,6006 8 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Barbados, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 199

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Barbados, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 6.69

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Barbados, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 2510
2012: 2210 11
2011: 30
2010: 2910 11 12 13
2009: 1910 11 12 13 14
2008: 28
2007: 28
2006: 36
2005: 29
2004: 23
2003: 31
2002: 27
2001: 25
2000: 20
1999: 2312
1998: 20
1995: 16

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Barbados, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 8.7810
2012: 7.7710 11
2011: 10.65
2010: 10.3410 11 12 13
2009: 6.8110 11 12 13 14
2008: 10.09
2007: 10.13
2006: 13.09
2005: 10.06
2004: 8.45
2003: 11.45
2002: 10.02
2001: 9.32
2000: 7.49
1999: 8.612
1998: 7.5
1995: 6.1

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Barbados, annual firearm homicides total

2013: 910
2012: 7
2011: 1410 9
2010: 1010
2008: 1315
2007: 6
2006: 14
2005: 7
2004: 9
2000: 812 15
1999: 912
1998: 7

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Barbados, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 3.125
2012: 2.43
2011: 4.885 9
2010: 3.505
2008: 5.115
2007: 2.4
2006: 5.5
2005: 2.7
2004: 3.6
2000: 3.012 15
1999: 3.412
1998: 2.6

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Barbados, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 36%10
2012: 32%
2011: 47%
2010: 34%
2000: 40.0%12
1999: 39.1%
1998: 35.0%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Barbados, annual suicides by any means total

2008: 116
2006: 9
2005: 1
2004: 3
2001: 216 17
2000: 1016

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Barbados, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.416
2006: 3.5
2005: 0.4
2004: 1.2
2001: 0.816 18 5
2000: 4.0

Gun Suicides

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Barbados, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.09

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Barbados, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2011: 19

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Barbados, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.355

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Barbados, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 149

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Barbados, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 4.885

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Barbados, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence19

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Barbados, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law20 19

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Barbados is reported by Customs to be US$112,61921 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Barbados, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law20 19 22

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Barbados is reported by Customs to be US$587,35521 (2011)

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Barbados, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law23

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Barbados do not include23 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Barbados is categorised as restrictive24

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Barbados includes the Firearms Act 199825

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Barbados are regulated by the Minister responsible for Police Administration26

Right to Possess Firearms

In Barbados, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law27 28 23

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Barbados, private possession of fully automatic weapons is permitted under licence23

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Barbados, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence23

Regulation of Handguns

In Barbados, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence23

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Barbados, only licensed gun owners19 29 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Barbados are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example collection29 30 31

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Barbados is 25 years32

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Barbados must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and addiction32 29 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Barbados, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required23

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Barbados does not stipulate23 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Barbados, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required23 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Barbados, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every one year33

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Barbados are permitted to possess any number of firearms23

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Barbados are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition23

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Barbados, the law does not require23 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Barbados, licensed firearm dealers are required34 35 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Barbados, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted23

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Barbados, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful36 34

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Barbados is not obliged23 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Barbados is not obliged23 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Barbados, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined23

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Barbados, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated23 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Barbados include37 38 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Barbados include34 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Barbados do not include23 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Barbados do not include23 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Barbados, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is not required by law23

Firearm Tracing

In Barbados, state authorities carry out39 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Barbados, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not23 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Barbados, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited40

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Barbados, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm41 is two years in prison and/or a $5,000 fine42

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Barbados are not known to have implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Barbados, it is not state policy23 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Barbados adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified43 44 by Barbados

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed45 by Barbados.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified46 by Barbados

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified47 by Barbados

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Barbados committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects48

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Barbados against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 15749 50 51 52 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Barbados has submitted one or more national reports53 22 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Barbados, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated54 22

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Barbados submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent22

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated22 by Barbados to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Barbados has not declared55 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Barbados has been a Member State of the United Nations since 199656

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list57 Barbados as a Participating State


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Country Analyses: Barbados.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q11608)Full Citation

5.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Barbados.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,23 May. (Q4338)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘State Firearms Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8973)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

9.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

10.

Igarapé Institute.2015.‘Homicides and Homicide Rates 2000 to 2014 - Barbados.’ Homicide Monitor 2015.Rio de Janeiro:Igarapé Institute,24 June. (Q11097)Full Citation

11.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides in Barbados.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10100)Full Citation

12.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Barbados.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6389)Full Citation

13.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

14.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

15.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide Committed by Firearms 2000-2010.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9210)Full Citation

16.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Suicide 2000-2009.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9206)Full Citation

17.

WHO.2010.‘Number of Suicides by Age Group and Gender, Barbados, 2001.’ World Health Organization Mental Health Data.Geneva:World Health Organization,12 September. (Q2467)Full Citation

18.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Suicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5680)Full Citation

19.

Barbados.1998.‘Conditions for the Holding of Firearm Licences.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2150)Full Citation

20.

Barbados.1998.‘Import and Export Licences.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2154)Full Citation

21.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

22.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

23.

Barbados.1998.‘Firearms Act.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q4069)Full Citation

24.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

25.

Barbados.1998.‘Firearms Act.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2149)Full Citation

26.

Barbados.1998.‘Regulations.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2158)Full Citation

27.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

28.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

29.

Barbados.1998.‘Firearm Licences.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2156)Full Citation

30.

Barbados.1998.‘Collector's Licence.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2162)Full Citation

31.

Barbados.1998.‘Antique Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2164)Full Citation

32.

Barbados.1998.‘Disqualification for Holding Firearm.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2153)Full Citation

33.

Barbados.1998.‘Conditions for the Holding of Firearm Licences.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2151)Full Citation

34.

Barbados.1998.‘Licences in Respect of Firearms Dealers and Gunsmiths.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2152)Full Citation

35.

Barbados.1998.‘Firearms Dealer's Licence.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2155)Full Citation

36.

Barbados.1998.‘Licences in Respect of Firearms Dealers and Gunsmiths.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2157)Full Citation

37.

Barbados.1998.‘Storage of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2160)Full Citation

38.

Barbados.1998.‘Power to Inspect.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2163)Full Citation

39.

Caribbean Net News. 2009. ‘US and Nine Caribbean Islands Sign Agreement to Help Trace Illegal Guns.’ 1 April. (N165) Full Citation

40.

Barbados.1998.‘Carrying Firearm in a Public Place.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2161)Full Citation

41.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

42.

Barbados.1998.‘Production of Licence or Permit.’ Firearms Act 1998, Chapter 179.Bridgetown:Government of Barbados,1 November. (Q2159)Full Citation

43.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

44.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington, DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

45.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

46.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

47.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

48.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

49.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

50.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

51.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

52.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

53.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

54.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

55.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

56.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

57.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation